Marcro micro econmiy david begg chapter 030

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 1) doc

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 1) doc
... glossopharyngeal, and vagal afferents in the nose, oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, and larynx Flavor is the complex interaction of taste, smell, and somatic sensation Terms relating to disorders of smell ... trigger innate and stereotyped reproductive and social behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine changes The sensation of smell begins with introduction of an odorant to the cilia of the bipolar neuron ... nucleus and the amygdala Cognitive awareness of smell requires stimulation of the prepiriform cortex or amygdaloid nuclei A secondary site of olfactory chemosensation is located in the epithelium of...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 2) ppt

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 2) ppt
... subjective distortion of taste and smell, which may become more severe as the disease progresses The loss of taste and smell may play an important role in the development and progression of HIV-associated ... with gliomas of the frontal lobe Occasionally, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, suprasellar meningiomas, and aneurysms of the anterior part of the circle of Willis extend forward and damage ... hypoplastic, lack cilia, and not project above the surrounding supporting cells Meningiomas of the inferior frontal region are the most frequent neoplastic cause of anosmia; loss of smell may be the...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 3) pdf

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 3) pdf
... sensation and find it necessary to hyperflavor food, usually by increasing the amount of salt in their diet Taste Compared with disorders of smell, gustatory disorders are uncommon Loss of olfactory ... spontaneous recovery often occurs Zinc and vitamin therapy (especially with vitamin A) are advocated by some Profound zinc deficiency can produce loss and distortion of the sense of smell but is not ... basis of chance because of the inclusion of some odorants that act by trigeminal stimulation Olfactory threshold testing is another method of assessing olfactory function Following assessment of...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 4) pdf

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 4) pdf
... lateral margin and dorsum of the tongue; at the junction of the dorsum and the base of the tongue; and in the palate, epiglottis, larynx, and esophagus Figure 30-2 Taste A The taste buds of the anterior ... and vagal nerves The chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve subserves taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue The posterior third of the tongue is supplied by the lingual branch of ... lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) [Adapted from ER Kandel et al (eds): Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed, New York, McGraw-Hill, 2000; with permission.] B The main types of taste...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 5) pptx

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 5) pptx
... Gustatory Losses Renal disease Aging Stroke and other CNS respiratory tract disorders Candidiasis Trauma Drugs (antithyroid and antineoplastic) Upper Endocrine disorders infections Oral neoplasms Pemphigus ... to the oral cavity and pharynx; viral infections; endocrine disorders; neoplasms; and aging Neural gustatory losses occur with neoplasms, trauma, and surgical procedures in which ... complaints Xerostomia, the use of antibiotics or glucocorticoids, or immunodeficiency can lead to overgrowth of Candida; overgrowth alone, without thrush or overt signs of infection, can be associated...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 6) pot

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 6) pot
... medication Hearing Hearing loss is one of the most common sensory disorders in humans and can present at any age Nearly 10% of the adult population has some hearing loss, and one-third of individuals ... nerve in the mastoid Disorders of the Sense of Taste: Treatment Treatment of gustatory disorders is limited No effective therapies exist for the sensorineural disorders of taste Altered taste ... one-third of individuals >65 years have a hearing loss of sufficient magnitude to require a hearing aid Physiology of Hearing (Fig 30-3) The function of the external and middle ear is to amplify sound...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 7) pps

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 7) pps
... response to particular phases of the cycle of the sound wave Intensity is encoded by the amount of neural activity in individual neurons, the number of neurons that are active, and the specific neurons ... specific neurons that are activated Genetic Causes of Hearing Loss More than half of childhood hearing impairment is thought to be hereditary; hereditary hearing impairment (HHI) can also manifest later ... mapped, with equal numbers of dominant and recessive modes of inheritance; numerous genes have now been cloned (Table 30-3) The hearing genes fall into the categories of structural proteins (MYH9,...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 8) ppsx

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 8) ppsx
... mitochondrial disorders [mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS); myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF); progressive ... Hereditary Hearing Impairment Genes Syndrome Gene Function Alport syndrome COL4A3- Cytoskeletal protein EYA1 Developmental gene SIX1 Developmental gene KVLQT1 Delayed BOR syndrome Jervell and LangeNielsen ... Cell-cell interactions Pendred syndrome SLC26A4 Chloride/iodide transporter Treacher Collins TCOF1 Nucleolar-cytoplasmic transport Usher syndrome MYO7A Cytoskeletal protein USH1C Unknown CDH23...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 9) pdf

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 9) pdf
... Conductive Hearing Loss This results from obstruction of the external auditory canal by cerumen, debris, and foreign bodies; swelling of the lining of the canal; atresia or neoplasms of the canal; ... bone and normal ear tissue Theories of pathogenesis include traumatic implantation and invasion, immigration and invasion through a perforation, and metaplasia following chronic infection and ... suggests ossicular pathology Fixation of the stapes from otosclerosis is a common cause of low-frequency conductive hearing loss It occurs equally in men and women and is inherited as an autosomal...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 10) docx

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 10) docx
... peripheral and central auditory system pathology and is associated with sensorineural hearing impairment A finding of conductive and sensory hearing loss in combination is termed mixed hearing loss ... simply be conductive hearing loss due to rupture of the tympanic membrane or disruption of the ossicular chain These abnormalities can be surgically corrected Profound hearing loss and severe vertigo ... sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness Tinnitus and/ or deafness may be absent during the initial attacks of vertigo, but invariably appear as the disease progresses and increase...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 11) ppsx

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 11) ppsx
... complain of reduced hearing, poor sound localization, and difficulty hearing clearly with background noise Gradual progression of a hearing deficit is common with otosclerosis, noise-induced hearing ... canal of the elderly is often dry and fragile; it is preferable to clean cerumen with wall-mounted suction and cerumen loops and to avoid irrigation In examining the eardrum, the topography of the ... conduction Normally, and in the presence of sensorineural hearing loss, a tone is heard louder by air conduction than by bone conduction; however, with conductive hearing loss of ≥30 dB (see "Audiologic...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 12) ppsx

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 12) ppsx
... establishes the presence and severity of hearing impairment, unilateral vs bilateral involvement, and the type of hearing loss Conductive hearing losses with a large mass component, as is often seen in ... stimulation The presence of OAEs indicates that the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti are intact and can be used to assess auditory thresholds and to distinguish sensory from neural hearing losses ... elevations in the lower frequencies Often, the conductive hearing loss involves all frequencies, suggesting involvement of both stiffness and mass In general, sensorineural hearing losses such as presbycusis...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 13) docx

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 13) docx
... nerve and brain Axial and coronal CT of the temporal bone with fine 1- mm cuts is ideal for determining the caliber of the external auditory canal, integrity of the ossicular chain, and presence of ... rehabilitated with hearing aids of varying configuration and strength Hearing aids have been improved to provide greater fidelity and have been miniaturized The current generation of hearing aids can ... for cochlear implantation Disorders of the Sense of Hearing: Treatment In general, conductive hearing losses are amenable to surgical correction, while sensorineural hearing losses are more difficult...
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Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 14) doc

Chapter 030. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing (Part 14) doc
... use of a tinnitus masker is often followed by several hours of inhibition of the tinnitus Antidepressants have been shown to be beneficial in helping patients cope with tinnitus Hard -of- hearing ... face of the speaker is well-illuminated and easily seen Although speech should be in a loud, clear voice, one should be aware that in sensorineural hearing losses in general and in hard -of- hearing ... antibiotic therapy of adequate duration for AOM and by ventilation of the middle ear with tympanostomy tubes in middle-ear effusions lasting ≥12 weeks Loss of vestibular function and deafness due...
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