... problems and collect NTFPs ** in ** a safe and sustainable manner, ** collectors ** may have some ** willingness ** ** to ** ** pay ** (WTP) The objective ** of ** this study is ** to ** estimate the average WTP ** of ** ** asparagus ** ** collectors ** ** for ** ... ** to ** investigate your perceptions and WTP ** for ** each scenario (ii) Pre-testing ** of ** questionnaire and its final setting Before formulating the exact wording ** of ** the question, two meetings ** of ** ** collectors ** ... dwellers’ (Bankaria ** in ** Nepali language), with some still living within the forest The Praja and Tamang have been involved ** in ** ** asparagus ** collection and selling since 1967 (Maraseni 2002) and thus ** in ** this...

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... involved gathering ** the ** data for use ** in ** training and testing ** the ** ** neural ** network ** A ** large training data reduces ** the ** risk ** of ** under-sampling ** the ** nonlinear function, but increases ** the ** training time ... learn ** the ** database, and to predict ** the ** properties ** of ** consolidation SELECTION ** OF ** ** STRAIN ** ** RATE ** r= V − Vmin Vmax − Vmin Data Collection Data Normalization Parametric Studies (3) Training and Testing ... verify ** the ** applicability ** of ** MANN model, ** a ** total ** of ** 46 data ** of ** ** the ** consolidation ** test ** results are used 43 learning data are used for training ** the ** ANN model, and ** the ** others are used for ** the ** comparison...

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... by taking ** the ** square roots ** of ** ˆ ** the ** diagonal elements ** of ** ** the ** covariance matrix Σn GLS ** The ** values ** of ** ** the ** weights involved in ** the ** GLS ** estimation ** depend on ** the ** values ** of ** ** the ** ﬁtted model These values ... reported by ** the ** CDC in ** the ** US during ** the ** 1999–00 season [12] ** The ** ** number ** ** of ** H3N2 cases (isolates) is displayed as a function ** of ** time Time is measured as ** the ** ** number ** ** of ** weeks since ** the ** start ** of ** ** the ** year’s ... ﬁnal part ** of ** ** the ** ** outbreak ** ** data,** as there is often a period lasting ten or more weeks when there are few cases We investigated whether ** the ** removal ** of ** ** the ** lowest-valued points ** from ** ** the ** ** data ** sets would...

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... possibility ** of ** determining emissions not only ** from ** ** the ** engines, but also ** from ** evaporation ** of ** fuel However, it is not always possible to find a tunnel close or inside ** the ** ** city ** were ** the ** emissions ... (1) ** in ** which, C is ** the ** concentration ** of ** a particular pollutant ** in ** ** the ** street (g/m3 or mg/m3); E is ** the ** ** emission ** ** of ** ** the ** pollutant ** from ** ** road ** ** traffic ** ** in ** ** the ** street; F is a function describing ** the ** ... Comparison with ** the ** other studies ** in ** ** the ** world shows that ** the ** ** emission ** ** factors ** ** of ** NOx for MC ** in ** this study is not different with ** the ** study ** in ** Taiwan [17, 18] Similarly, ** the ** ** emission ** ** factors ** ** of ** NOx for...

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... presentation ** of ** ** the ** data and their sources, as well as variables applied to ** the ** model, including ** the ** approach to ** estimation;** A presentation ** of ** ** the ** results ** of ** ** the ** analysis; ** The ** discussion ** of ** ** the ** results including ... less than 0.5% ** in ** most ** countries ** and by 1% ** in ** ** the ** Russian Federation By 2015, ** the ** percentage reduction ** in ** GDP would be over 5% ** in ** ** the ** Russian Federation and l around 1% ** in ** ** the ** other ** countries ** ** The ** ... ** in ** China, India, Pakistan and ** the ** United Republic ** of ** Tanzania than ** in ** Canada and ** the ** United Kingdom (See table 3) 12 6% Figure 2: Annual income loss from deaths due to heart disease stroke, and...

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... nB is ** the ** number ** of ** bonds; N, Avogadro's number; l,, ** the ** length ** of ** ** the ** repeat unit; and V, ** the ** molar volume ** The ** theoretical brittle stress is then ** the ** number ** of ** bonds times ** the ** strength ** of ** an ... dependence ** of ** a polymer is strongly related to ** the ** entanglement ** molecular ** weight Above 2Me, ** the ** viscosity ** of ** ** the ** melt increases as ** the ** 3.4 power ** of ** ** the ** ** molecular ** weight In ** the ** glass, ** the ** ** mechanical ** ... can be calculated ** from ** only four basic ** molecular ** ** properties ** These are ** the ** ** molecular ** weight, van der Waals volume, length ** of ** ** the ** repeat unit, and ** the ** Tgof ** the ** polymer Since these ** properties ** are based...

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... ** Dilemmas ** ** in ** ** the ** ** reliable ** ** estimation ** ** of ** ** the ** ** in-** vitro ** cell ** ** viability ** ** in ** ** magnetic ** ** nanoparticle ** ** engineering: ** ** which ** ** tests ** ** and ** ** what ** protocols? Clare Hoskins1, Lijun Wang*1, Woei Ping Cheng2 ** and ** ... either ** the ** presence ** of ** ** the ** MNPs both intracellular ** and ** on ** the ** membrane ** of ** ** the ** cells or ** the ** nanoparticles themselves interfere with ** the ** reagents ** In ** our experiments, wells with nanoparticles (intracellular ... were occurring between ** the ** assay systems ** and ** ** the ** nanoparticles, resulting ** in ** incorrect ** cell ** ** viability ** evaluation To further understand ** the ** cytotoxic effect ** of ** ** the ** nanoparticles on these cells, reactive...

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... number), ** in ** ** the ** order ** of ** ** the ** highest to ** the ** lowest sensitivity To make ** the ** adjustment ** of ** ** the ** net influence ** of ** each ** of ** ** the ** remaining ** parameters ** on ** the ** already selected ** parameters,** all ** of ** ** the ** original ... total ** of ** 54 ** parameters ** All ** the ** 54 known ** parameters ** were used initially ** for ** developing ** the ** synthetic measurement data ** In ** testing both ** the ** ** identifiability ** ** analysis ** and ** the ** ** parameter ** ** estimation,** 12 ** of ** ... when these ** parameters ** are included ** The ** main reason ** for ** this is that these ** parameters ** are somehow dependent on ** the ** remaining ** parameters ** ** In ** ** the ** case ** of ** Km11Suc, an exhaustive functional ** analysis ** with...

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... ** the ** ** phase ** oﬀset ** of ** ** the ** channel ** The ** proposed method ** of ** ** blind ** ** estimation ** ** of ** ** the ** ** phase ** oﬀset is based on a MAP approach in ** the ** sense ** of ** maximizing ** the ** probability that a ** phase ** θ corresponds to ** the ** ... denotes ** the ** number ** of ** rows in ** the ** parity check matrix ** of ** ** the ** code, uk is ** the ** number ** of ** nonzero elements in ** the ** kth row ** of ** ** the ** parity check matrix ** and ** niter is ** the ** number ** of ** iterations ** of ** ** the ** optimization ... Let us take ** the ** example ** of ** ** phase ** oﬀset ** estimation ** ** and ** discuss ** the ** results ** and ** parameters ** of ** Figure In this ﬁgure, ** the ** MSE curves ** of ** ** the ** HDD ** and ** ** the ** algorithm ** of ** (34) were obtained ** for ** N = nc =...

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... ** of ** factors including an increase ** in ** ** the ** coating diameter upon addition ** of ** ** the ** PEG moiety [33], thus increasing ** the ** stability ** of ** ** the ** nanoparticles ** and ** further shielding ** the ** cells from ** the ** iron oxide ... either ** the ** presence ** of ** ** the ** MNPs both intracellular ** and ** on ** the ** membrane ** of ** ** the ** cells or ** the ** nanoparticles themselves interfere with ** the ** reagents ** In ** our experiments, wells with nanoparticles (intracellular ... [35-38] ** In ** order to achieve a more ** in-** depth understanding ** of ** ** the ** degree ** of ** cytotoxicity ** of ** ** the ** MNPs, we also investigated ** the ** effect ** the ** polymer-coated nanoparticles had on ** the ** integrity ** of ** ** the ** cell...

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... ** estimation ** ** of ** ** multicomponent ** ** LFM ** ** signal ** can be realized by ** the ** CPF ** The ** principle ** of ** ** detection ** ** and ** parameters ** estimation ** ** of ** single ** LFM ** ** signal ** is presented For ** multicomponent ** ** LFM ** ** signal,** ** the ** CLEAN ... ** detection ** ** of ** ** the ** “autoterms.” Remark ** The ** ** phase ** information ** of ** ** the ** ** LFM ** ** signal ** is neglected in this paper, because in most situations, ** the ** characteristics ** of ** ** LFM ** ** signal ** are determined by ** the ** chirp ... be studied (6) Theorem For ** multicomponent ** ** LFM ** ** signal,** there exist ** the ** “cross-terms” in ** the ** CPF, but this will not inﬂuence ** the ** ** detection ** ** and ** ** parameter ** ** estimation ** ** of ** ** the ** “autoterms.” where v(n)...

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... with ** In ** ** the ** second example, we investigate ** the ** performance ** of ** ** the ** SC-ML and ** the ** AC-ML ** in ** estimating ** the ** ** DOA ** ** of ** a single source ** in ** ** the ** ** presence ** ** of ** ** nonuniform ** ** sensor ** noise ** The ** setting ** of ** ** the ** simulation ... CONCLUSION ** In ** this paper, we address ** the ** problem ** of ** ** maximum ** ** likelihood ** ** DOA ** ** estimation ** ** of ** ** multiple ** ** wideband ** ** sources ** ** in ** ** the ** ** presence ** ** of ** ** nonuniform ** ** sensor ** noise A new closed-form expression ** of ** ** the ** CRB ... as ** the ** linear and nonlinear parameters, respectively, since ** the ** noise corrupted data X(k) is linear ** in ** S(k) but nonlinear ** in ** Θ DERIVATION ** OF ** ** THE ** ** WIDEBAND ** ** MAXIMUM-** ** LIKELIHOOD ** ** DOA ** ESTIMATOR AND THE...

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... between L0 ** to ** a maximum ** of ** L0 (L0 + 1)/2 possible hypotheses, while a total search requires testing a total ** of ** 2L0 diﬀerent models ** APPLICATION ** ** OF ** ** THE ** RVM ** TO ** ** WIRELESS ** CHANNELS ** The ** ** application ** ** of ** ** the ** ... number ** of ** multipath components L = 12 −60 Magnitude (dB) This paper demonstrates ** the ** ** application ** ** of ** ** the ** ** evidence ** ** procedure ** ** to ** ** the ** analysis ** of ** ** wireless ** channels ** The ** original formulation ** of ** this ... equal ** to ** Ts This corresponds ** to ** ** the ** delay search space T consisting ** of ** 151 elements ** The ** initial estimate ** of ** ** the ** noise ﬂoor is obtained from ** the ** tail ** of ** ** the ** measured PDP ** The ** algorithm stops once the...

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... representative ** of ** ** the ** banks found in ** the ** majority ** of ** ** distribution ** feeders ** POWER ** SYSTEM ** DAMPING ** ** ESTIMATION ** ** The ** ** estimation ** ** of ** ** the ** system ** damping ** quantiﬁed in terms ** of ** ** the ** X/R ratio and ** the ** ** damping ** ratio ... ** the ** method is not computationally intensive METHOD VALIDATION ** USING ** IEEE TEST MODEL This section demonstrates ** the ** application ** of ** ** the ** ** damping ** ** estimation ** method ** using ** ** the ** IEEE ** power ** ** distribution ** ... Section 4, but ** the ** details are beyond ** the ** scope ** of ** ** the ** paper Therefore, ** the ** transient response ** of ** ** the ** whole system can be described by (17) as well This is ** the ** motivation for detecting ** the ** envelope...

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... vertically below ** the ** platform ** The ** distance form ** source ** to array is D, ** the ** distance form ground reﬂection point **(of ** ** the ** ** TSI ** path) to ** the ** ** source ** is d1 , ** the ** distance form ** the ** ** source ** to ** the ** ground reﬂection ... introduce ** the ** ** TSI ** ﬁnder in ** the ** lag and angle domains and analyse them in detail Section introduces ** the ** necessary formulas ** for ** estimating ** the ** ** location ** ** of ** ** the ** interferer ** source ** ** using ** ** TSI ** Section ... where q is ** the ** number ** of ** sources, and ak is ** the ** number ** of ** ** TSI ** paths available ** for ** ** the ** kth ** source ** ** The ** expression ** for ** Pout in (27) clearly indicates that ** the ** best w1 that (which has N degrees ** of ** freedom)...

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