Marcro micro econmiy david begg chapter 027

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 1) pdf

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 1) pdf
... sensory and motor areas constitute 10% of the cerebral cortex The rest is subsumed by unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic, and limbic areas, collectively known as the association cortex (Fig 27 -1) The ... cognition; an occipitotemporal network for face and object recognition; a limbic network for retentive memory; and a prefrontal network for attention and behavior ... and behavioral functions (domains) are coordinated by intersecting large-scale neural networks that contain interconnected cortical and subcortical components The network approach to higher cerebral...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 2) pptx

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 2) pptx
... right handers and 60% of left handers, aphasia occurs only after lesions of the left hemisphere In some individuals no hemispheric dominance for language can be discerned, and in some others ... meaning-appropriate syntax (grammar) Wernicke's and Broca's areas are interconnected with each other and with additional perisylvian, temporal, prefrontal, and posterior parietal regions, making up ... relative paucity of substantive nouns and action verbs versus function words (prepositions, conjunctions); and if word order, tenses, suffixes, prefixes, plurals, and possessives are appropriate Comprehension...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 3) pot

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 3) pot
... reading Wernicke's Aphasia Comprehension is impaired for spoken and written language Language output is fluent but is highly paraphasic and circumlocutious The tendency for paraphasic errors may be ... his dentures: "We don't need it anymore, she says And with it when that was downstairs was my teeth-tick a den dentith my dentist And they happened to be in that bag see? How could ... Table 27-1 Clinical Features of Aphasias and Related Conditions Comprehe nsion Repeti tion Nami of ng Fluen cy Spoken Language Wernicke's...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 4) doc

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 4) doc
... middle cerebral artery, and to the posterior temporal or angular branches in particular, is the most common etiology (Chap 3 64) Intracerebral hemorrhage, severe head trauma, or neoplasm are other ... Fig 27-1) and surrounding anterior perisylvian and insular cortex, due to occlusion of the superior division of the middle cerebral artery (Chap 3 64) Mass lesions including tumor, intracerebral ... mania, but the other components characteristic of acquired aphasia and the absence of prior psychiatric disease usually settle the issue Some patients with Wernicke's aphasia due to intracerebral hemorrhage...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 5) pot

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 5) pot
... the brain and usually involves the anterior watershed zone between anterior and middle cerebral artery territories or the supplementary motor cortex in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery ... isolated from other regions of the brain Broca's and Wernicke's areas tend to be spared, but there is damage to the surrounding frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex Lesions are patchy and can be ... understanding written language and can express themselves well in spoken or written language They have no difficulty interpreting and reacting to environmental sounds since primary auditory cortex and...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 6) doc

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 6) doc
... dysfunction and that does not arise from the patient's failure to understand the nature of the task The form that is most frequently encountered in clinical practice is known as ideomotor apraxia Commands ... movements of the face and mouth Limb apraxia encompasses apraxic deficits in movements of the arms and legs Ideomotor apraxia is almost always caused by lesions in the left hemisphere and is commonly ... aphasia and conduction aphasia Its presence cannot be ascertained in patients with language comprehension deficits The ability to follow commands aimed at axial musculature ("close the eyes," "stand...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 7) doc

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 7) doc
... melodic stress and intonation influence the meaning and impact of spoken language For example, the two statements "He is clever." and "He is clever?" contain an identical word choice and syntax but ... earliest and most profound neuronal loss in memory- related parts of the brain such as the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus This is why progressive forgetfulness for recent events and experiences ... recent onset PPA is diagnosed when other mental faculties such as memory for daily events, visuospatial skills (assessed by tests of drawing and face recognition), and comportment (assessed by history...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 8) potx

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 8) potx
... of frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD) and displays various combinations of focal neuronal loss, gliosis, tau-positive inclusions, Pick bodies, and tau-negative ubiquitin inclusions (Chap ... GornoTempini and colleagues, three variants of PPA can be recognized: an agrammatical variant characterized by poor fluency and impaired syntax, a semantic variant characterized by preserved fluency and ... aphasia and displays similarities to Broca's aphasia However, dysarthria is usually absent The semantic variant of PPA is also known as semantic dementia and displays similarities to Wernicke's aphasia,...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 9) ppt

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 9) ppt
... lesser impact on overall awareness; there is a paucity of exploratory and orienting acts directed toward the neglected hemispace; and the patient behaves as if the neglected hemispace was motivationally ... more common, severe, and lasting after damage to the right hemisphere than after damage to the left hemisphere Severe neglect for the right hemispace is rare, even in left handers with left hemisphere ... placed on the left side of the tray; and may fail to read the left half of sentences When the examiner draws a large circle [12–15 cm (5–6 in.) in diameter] and asks the patient to place the numbers...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 10) potx

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 10) potx
... (oculomotor apraxia) and in accurate manual reaching toward visual targets (optic ataxia) The third and most dramatic component of Bálint's syndrome is known as simultanagnosia and reflects an inability ... the visual identification of objects and scenes For example, a patient who is shown a table lamp and asked to name the object may look at its circular base and call it an ash tray Some patients ... manifestation of hemispatial neglect; in others, there is a more universal deficit in reproducing contours and three-dimensional perspective Dressing apraxia and construction apraxia represent special...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 11) pps

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 11) pps
... hemisphere and object agnosia with lesions in the left The Limbic Network for Memory: Amnesias Limbic and paralimbic areas (such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex), the anterior and ... tone, and endocrine function An additional area of specialization for the limbic network, and the one which is of most relevance to clinical practice, is that of declarative (conscious) memory ... experiences that led to the acquisition of these skills The memory disturbance in the amnestic state is multimodal and includes retrograde and anterograde components The retrograde amnesia involves...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 12) doc

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 12) doc
... encephalopathies and some types of frontal lobe damage interfere with attentional capacity and lead to secondary memory impairments, even in the absence of any limbic lesions This sort of memory impairment ... hypothalamus, and the limbic thalamus Occasionally, unilateral left-sided lesions can give rise to an amnestic state, but the memory disorder tends to be transient Depending on the nature and distribution ... medial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal components The terms frontal lobe syndrome and prefrontal cortex refer only to the last three of these four components These are the parts of the cerebral cortex...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 13) doc

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 13) doc
... initiative, creativity, and curiosity and displays a pervasive emotional blandness and apathy In the frontal disinhibition syndrome, the patient becomes socially disinhibited and shows severe impairments ... disrupt the orderly registration and retrieval of new information and lead to secondary memory deficits Such memory deficits can be differentiated from the primary memory impairments of the amnestic ... and the ascending reticular activating system Retentive memory, on the other hand, depends on the stable (offline) storage of information and is associated with the integrity of the limbic network...
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Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 14) ppt

Chapter 027. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders (Part 14) ppt
... medial temporal areas belonging to the memory network and is clinically characterized by a correspondingly severe amnesia There are other dementias where memory is intact Frontal lobe dementia ... diagnosis and treatment of these patients requires an understanding of the principles that link neural networks to higher cerebral functions FURTHER READINGS Catani M, Ffychte H: The rises and falls ... Maryland, 1995 Heilman KM et al: Neglect and related disorders, in Clinical Neuropsychology, KM Heilman, E Valenstein (eds) New York, Oxford University Press, 1985, pp 279–336 Markowitsch HJ: Memory...
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