Toeic Grammar

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In this booklet the grammar points which are frequently tested in TOEIC are presented in a manner so that the examinees can avoid the mistakes. 15/09/2006 v 1.00 1 TOEIC GrammarTOEIC GrammarTOEIC GrammarTOEIC Grammar Grammaire conçue par le Groupe ESC Chambéry / La Cité des Langues 15/09/2006 v 1.00 2Nouns Tip Check whether the noun is countable or uncountable! Countable or uncountable nouns: definitions Countable nouns (people, animals, objects, plants, units of measurement) can be counted, used with the indefinite article and be plural. • two men; a dog; cars Uncountable nouns (substances, materials, abstract ideas, languages) cannot be counted, used with the indefinite article and are singular. • water; money Uncountable nouns The following nouns are always uncountable : advice leisure baggage, luggage money damage news equipment progress fun traffic furniture weather information work knowledge • The information you gave me is incomplete. • She is making good progress with her German. A piece of Uncountable nouns can be made countable by combining them with: • expressions like a piece of …, a can of …, a slice of… a piece of information, a can of soda, a slice of bread • other nouns leisure activities, homework assignments Both countable and uncountable Many nouns can be used as countable and uncountable nouns, usually with a difference in meaning : Uncountable Countable paper (material) a (news)paper business (all business transactions) a business (a company) space (the universe) a space (a blank) work (employment) a work (of art) time (hours, days…) a time (an occasion) • They have some work to do on the acoustics. • If the global economy continues to flourish, people will continue buying works of art. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 3Nouns, Suite Tip Check whether it is the right plural! Singular and plural Note the singular and plural forms of the following nouns. Singular Plural irregular -f(e) : half, life, self . child foot, tooth mouse alumnus, syllabus … analysis, crisis … criterion, phenomenon man, woman -ves : halves, lives, selves . children feet, teeth mice alumni, syllabi … analyses, crises … criteria, phenomena men, women always singular news the United States of America, nouns in -ics : athletics, mathematics, economics… always plural belongings, clothes, contents, earnings, goods, people, customs, media one thing, two parts : pants, shorts, jeans, glasses, binoculars, scissors . same as singular means, series, species, crossroads, headquarters, fish, sheep, data, aircraft Example : • The news is disturbing. • Tracking bank transactions as a means of pursuing potential terrorists has been central to US intelligence. Hundred, thousand… When dozen, hundred, thousand, million, billion are used to convey the idea of: • a definite number, the pattern is: number/several + hundred, thousand, million…+ plural noun twenty thousand dollars Economists were alarmed by the deficit, which was several billion worse than they had expected. • an indefinite number, the pattern is : ∅∅∅∅ + hundreds, thousands, millions…+ of + plural noun I've told you hundreds of times. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 4Nouns, Suite Forms of address Mr Smith a man Mrs Smith a married woman Miss Smith an unmarried woman Ms Smith a married or unmarried woman These forms of address have to be followed by a family name. Abbreviations Abbreviation Expression/word in full Abbreviation Expression/word in full ASAP RSVP attn p.p. i.e. p.a. e.g. PTO AM PM # or No POB @ misc lb or lbs oz GMT id mph NB as soon as possible Répondez SVP to the attention of per proxy; per pro.(on behalf of) id est (that is) per annum exempli gratia (for example) Please Turn Over ante meridiem post meridiem number post office box at miscellaneous pound(s) ounce(s) Greenwich Mean Time the same miles per hour nota bene (take note) VAT Bros Co Corp Inc Ltd PLC ATM CEO IT MBA R&D PR HR PC Value Added Tax Brothers /s/ Company Corporation Incorporated Limited Public Limited Company Automatic Teller Machine Chief Executive Officer Information Technology Master of Business Administration Research and Development Public Relations Human Resources Personal Computer 15/09/2006 v 1.00 5Determiners Definition A determiner is a word that is normally used at the beginning of a noun-phrase. Determiners include : • articles. There are two types of articles: − the definite article: the − the indefinite article: a/an • possessive adjectives • demonstrative adjectives Tip Never leave a singular countable noun standing alone. You must use a determiner. Articles + nouns The rules for the use of articles with countable and uncountable nouns are the following : Nouns a / an the no article singular countable a car the car plural countable the cars cars uncountable the money money • When we want to talk about things in general we usually use a plural or uncountable noun with no article. It has the same meaning as all. Jobs are scarce. (All jobs are scarce) Our everyday life has changed thanks to technical progress. (thanks to all technical progress) • The can be used before an uncountable noun when the latter is used with a qualifying phrase or has been qualified previously. The music you can hear is country music I asked to see the manager. The + place-names The definite article is used with place-names as follows: The Ø • seas, oceans, rivers: The Mediterranean, The Atlantic, The Rhine • plural countries: The Netherlands • countries with common nouns: The United Kingdom • mountain chains, island groups: The Rockies, The West Indies • areas: The Far East • singular countries, states: France, Texas • continents: Asia • lakes: Lake Geneva • islands: Greenland • towns: Sidney Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 6Determiners, Suite Idiomatic uses of articles Some nouns can be used either with an definite article or not as follows: ∅∅∅∅ article go to prison/jail; be in prison/jail go to school; be in/at school go to/be in class go to, be in/at college on campus, off campus be at/go to university be in/go to hospital (GB) be in/go to the hospital (US) go to/be at church be in bed, go to bed, stay in bed make the bed be/stay (at) home, go home, come/get/arrive home, leave home in the home at sea, go to sea on the sea, by the sea in town, to go into town, to leave town be at work, go to work, start/finish/leave work eat breakfast/have lunch/after dinner eat a big breakfast/have a quick lunch/after a delicious dinner The indefinite article: pronunciation The indefinite article is • a + words beginning with a consonant sound • an + words beginning with a vowel sound but: a unanimous decision a European country a uniform a UFO is an Unidentified Flying Object half an hour an honest man An MBA is a Master in Business Administration. The indefinite article: some uses The indefinite article a/an is used • before the names of professions: Mr Bates is a lawyer. Ms Atkinson, a renowned novelist, will attend the presentation. • in expressions of measurement / price / speed / ratio ( = per in writing): How much is it a kilo? The rent is $500 per week. Four times a day. 60 miles an hour. This, that . … are used as follows: Number Near (in time or space): here Further away (in time or space): there singular This man That day plural These men Those days Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 7Determiners, Suite Some, any Some and any are followed by plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns and are used as follows: some cars any cars some money any money Some Some is used: • in affirmative sentences: He's got some books from the library. • in offers and requests: Could I have some books, please? Why don't you take some books home with you? • in questions where the answer yes is expected : Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.) Any Any: • in negatives (not any = no; hardly any; never any): There isn't any reason to complain. • in questions: Have they got any children? • in if-sentences: If there are any problems with his work, tell me. • in affirmative sentences where any = 'no matter which', 'no matter who', 'no matter what': You can borrow any of my books. Some, any: their compounds Their compounds, which are always singular, are: • someone/somebody, something, somewhere. I have something to say. • anyone/anybody, anything, anywhere. Does anybody have the time? You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind. • no one/nobody, nothing, nowhere. Homeless people have nowhere to go at night. • (everyone/everybody, everything, everywhere). They can be followed by else. There’s nothing else to do. Expressions of quantity The chart below shows which expressions of quantity are used with: Uncountable nouns (singular) Plural countable nouns much many an amount of a number of little few a little a few less fewer several both a couple of • How much money do you have? • Both students have passed their exams. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 8Determiners, Suite Little/ a little Little/few : − mean “not a lot, hardly any”: Few tourists visited the area because of the oil spill. − have a negative meaning: The project failed because too little money was spent on it. A little/a few − mean “some”: I need only a little help to finish this work. − are more positive: For a few dollars more, you can walk up to the top. − can be used with only: Only a little progress has been made. Most Most can be followed by: • a noun : Most trainees haven't done much work. • of + determiner + noun : Most of my friends will come to the party. + object pronoun : Most of them have work to do. Each/every Each and every are similar in meaning and are both followed by a singular noun. Each Every • separates (one by one) Each child received a present. • is used for a small number (two or more) • can be a pronoun Each of the children received a present. • generalizes (all) Every child in the world deserves affection. • is used for a large number (three or more) • also means how often something happens and is therefore followed by a plural noun He had a break every two hours. All/whole All and whole are similar in meaning: All Whole • + uncountable noun means complete, entire all my life, all the money, all cheese • + plural countable noun generalises All families suffered during the war. • comes after determiner + singular countable noun and means complete, entire my whole life • + plural countable noun = complete, entire Whole families were deported. All day/evening . = the whole day/evening . = the complete day/evening . from beginning to end Every day/evening/three weeks . says how often something happens All the time = always Every time = each time, on every occasion The whole time = from beginning to end 15/09/2006 v 1.00 9Pronouns Definition A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a more precise noun or noun-phrase. Tip Check who or what it refers to! Personal pronouns Personal pronouns can be classified as follows: Subject Object Reflexive Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns I me myself my mine you you yourself/yourselves your yours he him himself his his she her herself her hers it it itself its its we us ourselves our ours they them themselves their theirs • A subject pronoun must be used in complement position after the verb to be: It was he who told us. • Only subject pronouns can be used in a subject position: My brother and I are going to join the same fraternity. Relative pronouns Relative pronouns are both : − subjects or objects of verbs − like conjunctions, joining clauses together Function Person Thing subject who I'm sure I know the person who served us. which New York, which attracts many tourists, is often crowded. object (who/whom) The woman (who/whom) you met at the party is an engineer. which, (that) Have you seen his film, which was excellent by the way? Have you seen the film (that) he was telling us about? possessive whose My friend, whose flat is being redecorated, is staying at home. whose The computer, whose keyboard is broken, has been sent to the after-sales service. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 10Pronouns, Suite What / which When a relative clause : • refers to the whole sentence before it, we use which Luke pushed his colleague into the swimming pool at the staff party, which seemed to amuse everyone. • has no antecedent and means ‘ the thing(s) that’, we use what What I want to do is make a fresh start. That-clause A that-clause can be the subject of a sentence: (The fact) That + subject + verb + verb . subject That she wanted to resign didn't surprise me. . 15/09/2006 v 1.00 1 TOEIC GrammarTOEIC GrammarTOEIC GrammarTOEIC Grammar Grammaire conçue par
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