Oracle Database Administrator''''s Guide

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Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10739-01 December 2003 Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide, 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10739-01 Copyright © 2001, 2003 Oracle. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Ruth Baylis Contributing Authors: Paul Lane, Diana Lorentz Contributors: David Austin, Mark Bauer, Eric Belden, Allen Brumm, Mark Dilman, Harvey Eneman, Amit Ganesh, Carolyn Gray, Joan Gregoire, Daniela Hansell, Wei Huang, Robert Jenkins, Sushil Kumar, Bill Lee, Yunrui Li, Rich Long, Catherine Luu, Mughees Minhas, Valarie Moore, Sujatha Muthulingam, Gary Ngai, Waleed Ojeil, Rod Payne, Ananth Raghavan, Ann Rhee, Jags Srinivasan, Anh-Tuan Tran, Vikarm Shukla, Deborah Steiner, Janet Stern, Michael Stewart, Alex Tsukerman, Kothanda Umamageswaran, Daniel Wong, Wanli Yang The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent, and other intellectual and industrial property laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of the Programs, except to the extent required to obtain interoperability with other independently created software or as specified by law, is prohibited. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. This document is not warranted to be error-free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose. 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Oracle Corporation, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065 The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently dangerous applications. It shall be the licensee's responsibility to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications if the Programs are used for such purposes, and we disclaim liability for any damages caused by such use of the Programs. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. The Programs may provide links to Web sites and access to content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle is not responsible for the availability of, or any content provided on, third-party Web sites. You bear all risks associated with the use of such content. If you choose to purchase any products or services from a third party, the relationship is directly between you and the third party. Oracle is not responsible for: (a) the quality of third-party products or services; or (b) fulfilling any of the terms of the agreement with the third party, including delivery of products or services and warranty obligations related to purchased products or services. Oracle is not responsible for any loss or damage of any sort that you may incur from dealing with any third party. iii Contents Send Us Your Comments xxxi Preface xxxiii Audience . xxxiv Organization . xxxiv Related Documentation xxxviii Conventions xxxix Documentation Accessibility xliv What's New in the Oracle Database 10g Administrator's Guide? . xlvii Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) New Features . xlvii Volume 1 Part I Basic Database Administration 1 Overview of Administering an Oracle Database Types of Oracle Database Users . 1-1 Database Administrators . 1-2 Security Officers 1-3 Network Administrators . 1-3 Application Developers . 1-3 Application Administrators 1-4 Database Users 1-4 iv Tasks of a Database Administrator 1-4 Task 1: Evaluate the Database Server Hardware . 1-5 Task 2: Install the Oracle Database Software 1-5 Task 3: Plan the Database 1-5 Task 4: Create and Open the Database 1-6 Task 5: Back Up the Database . 1-7 Task 6: Enroll System Users 1-7 Task 7: Implement the Database Design . 1-7 Task 8: Back Up the Fully Functional Database . 1-7 Task 9: Tune Database Performance 1-7 Identifying Your Oracle Database Software Release . 1-8 Release Number Format 1-8 Checking Your Current Release Number . 1-9 Database Administrator Security and Privileges . 1-10 The Database Administrator's Operating System Account 1-10 Database Administrator Usernames 1-10 Database Administrator Authentication 1-12 Administrative Privileges 1-12 Selecting an Authentication Method . 1-15 Using Operating System Authentication 1-17 Using Password File Authentication . 1-18 Creating and Maintaining a Password File 1-20 Using ORAPWD . 1-20 Setting REMOTE_LOGIN_ PASSWORDFILE 1-22 Adding Users to a Password File . 1-22 Maintaining a Password File . 1-24 Server Manageability . 1-26 Automatic Manageability Features 1-26 Data Utilities 1-28 2 Creating an Oracle Database Deciding How to Create an Oracle Database 2-2 Manually Creating an Oracle Database 2-2 Considerations Before Creating the Database 2-3 Creating the Database 2-5 Understanding the CREATE DATABASE Statement . 2-14 v Protecting Your Database: Specifying Passwords for Users SYS and SYSTEM 2-15 Creating a Locally Managed SYSTEM Tablespace 2-15 Creating the SYSAUX Tablespace 2-17 Using Automatic Undo Management: Creating an Undo Tablespace . 2-19 Creating a Default Permanent Tablespace 2-20 Creating a Default Temporary Tablespace . 2-20 Specifying Oracle-Managed Files at Database Creation . 2-21 Supporting Bigfile Tablespaces During Database Creation . 2-23 Specifying the Database Time Zone and Time Zone File . 2-25 Specifying FORCE LOGGING Mode 2-26 Initialization Parameters and Database Creation . 2-27 Determining the Global Database Name 2-28 Specifying a Flash Recovery Area 2-29 Specifying Control Files 2-30 Specifying Database Block Sizes . 2-31 Managing the System Global Area (SGA) . 2-32 Specifying the Maximum Number of Processes 2-42 Specifying the Method of Undo Space Management 2-42 The COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter and Irreversible Compatibility . 2-43 Setting the License Parameter . 2-44 Troubleshooting Database Creation . 2-44 Dropping a Database . 2-45 Managing Initialization Parameters Using a Server Parameter File 2-45 What Is a Server Parameter File? 2-46 Migrating to a Server Parameter File . 2-46 Creating a Server Parameter File 2-47 The SPFILE Initialization Parameter 2-49 Using ALTER SYSTEM to Change Initialization Parameter Values . 2-49 Exporting the Server Parameter File 2-51 Backing Up the Server Parameter File . 2-52 Errors and Recovery for the Server Parameter File . 2-52 Viewing Parameter Settings 2-53 Defining Application Services for Oracle Database 10g 2-53 Deploying Services 2-54 Configuring Services . 2-55 vi Using Services 2-56 Considerations After Creating a Database . 2-57 Some Security Considerations 2-57 Installing the Oracle Database Sample Schemas 2-60 Viewing Information About the Database . 2-60 3 Starting Up and Shutting Down Starting Up a Database 3-1 Options for Starting Up a Database . 3-2 Preparing to Start an Instance . 3-3 Using SQL*Plus to Start Up a Database 3-3 Starting an Instance: Scenarios 3-5 Altering Database Availability . 3-9 Mounting a Database to an Instance 3-9 Opening a Closed Database 3-9 Opening a Database in Read-Only Mode 3-10 Restricting Access to an Open Database . 3-10 Shutting Down a Database . 3-11 Shutting Down with the NORMAL Clause 3-11 Shutting Down with the IMMEDIATE Clause . 3-12 Shutting Down with the TRANSACTIONAL Clause . 3-12 Shutting Down with the ABORT Clause . 3-13 Quiescing a Database . 3-14 Placing a Database into a Quiesced State 3-15 Restoring the System to Normal Operation 3-16 Viewing the Quiesce State of an Instance 3-16 Suspending and Resuming a Database 3-16 4 Managing Oracle Database Processes About Dedicated and Shared Server Processes 4-1 Dedicated Server Processes . 4-2 Shared Server Processes . 4-3 Configuring Oracle Database for Shared Server 4-5 Initialization Parameters for Shared Server 4-6 Enabling Shared Server 4-6 Configuring Dispatchers 4-9 vii Monitoring Shared Server . 4-16 About Oracle Database Background Processes 4-17 Managing Processes for Parallel SQL Execution 4-19 About Parallel Execution Servers . 4-20 Altering Parallel Execution for a Session 4-21 Managing Processes for External Procedures 4-22 Terminating Sessions . 4-23 Identifying Which Session to Terminate . 4-23 Terminating an Active Session . 4-24 Terminating an Inactive Session . 4-24 Monitoring the Operation of Your Database 4-25 Server-Generated Alerts 4-25 Monitoring the Database Using Trace Files and the Alert File 4-29 Monitoring Locks 4-32 Monitoring Wait Events 4-33 Process and Session Views . 4-33 Part II Oracle Database Structure and Storage 5 Managing Control Files What Is a Control File? . 5-1 Guidelines for Control Files . 5-2 Provide Filenames for the Control Files 5-2 Multiplex Control Files on Different Disks . 5-3 Back Up Control Files 5-3 Manage the Size of Control Files 5-4 Creating Control Files 5-4 Creating Initial Control Files . 5-4 Creating Additional Copies, Renaming, and Relocating Control Files . 5-5 Creating New Control Files 5-5 Troubleshooting After Creating Control Files 5-9 Checking for Missing or Extra Files . 5-9 Handling Errors During CREATE CONTROLFILE 5-10 Backing Up Control Files 5-10 Recovering a Control File Using a Current Copy . 5-10 viii Recovering from Control File Corruption Using a Control File Copy . 5-10 Recovering from Permanent Media Failure Using a Control File Copy 5-11 Dropping Control Files 5-11 Displaying Control File Information 5-12 6 Managing the Redo Log What Is the Redo Log? . 6-1 Redo Threads . 6-2 Redo Log Contents . 6-2 How Oracle Database Writes to the Redo Log . 6-3 Planning the Redo Log . 6-5 Multiplexing Redo Log Files . 6-5 Placing Redo Log Members on Different Disks . 6-9 Setting the Size of Redo Log Members 6-9 Choosing the Number of Redo Log Files 6-9 Controlling Archive Lag . 6-10 Creating Redo Log Groups and Members . 6-12 Creating Redo Log Groups 6-12 Creating Redo Log Members 6-13 Relocating and Renaming Redo Log Members . 6-14 Dropping Redo Log Groups and Members . 6-15 Dropping Log Groups 6-16 Dropping Redo Log Members 6-17 Forcing Log Switches . 6-18 Verifying Blocks in Redo Log Files . 6-18 Clearing a Redo Log File . 6-19 Viewing Redo Log Information 6-20 7 Managing Archived Redo Logs What Is the Archived Redo Log? 7-1 Choosing Between NOARCHIVELOG and ARCHIVELOG Mode . 7-2 Running a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode . 7-3 Running a Database in ARCHIVELOG Mode 7-3 Controlling Archiving 7-5 Setting the Initial Database Archiving Mode . 7-5 Changing the Database Archiving Mode . 7-5 ix Performing Manual Archiving . 7-6 Adjusting the Number of Archiver Processes 7-7 Specifying the Archive Destination 7-7 Specifying Archive Destinations 7-8 Understanding Archive Destination Status 7-11 Specifying the Mode of Log Transmission 7-12 Normal Transmission Mode . 7-12 Standby Transmission Mode . 7-13 Managing Archive Destination Failure 7-14 Specifying the Minimum Number of Successful Destinations 7-14 Rearchiving to a Failed Destination . 7-17 Controlling Trace Output Generated by the Archivelog Process 7-18 Viewing Information About the Archived Redo Log 7-19 Dynamic Performance Views . 7-19 The ARCHIVE LOG LIST Command 7-20 8 Managing Tablespaces Guidelines for Managing Tablespaces . 8-2 Using Multiple Tablespaces 8-2 Assigning Tablespace Quotas to Users . 8-3 Creating Tablespaces 8-3 Locally Managed Tablespaces 8-4 Bigfile Tablespaces . 8-9 Dictionary-Managed Tablespaces 8-11 Temporary Tablespaces . 8-17 Multiple Temporary Tablespaces: Using Tablespace Groups . 8-21 Specifying Nonstandard Block Sizes for Tablespaces 8-23 Controlling the Writing of Redo Records 8-24 Altering Tablespace Availability 8-25 Taking Tablespaces Offline . 8-25 Bringing Tablespaces Online 8-27 Using Read-Only Tablespaces 8-27 Making a Tablespace Read-Only 8-28 Making a Read-Only Tablespace Writable 8-30 Creating a Read-Only Tablespace on a WORM Device 8-31 Delaying the Opening of Datafiles in Read-Only Tablespaces 8-31 x Renaming Tablespaces . 8-32 Dropping Tablespaces . 8-33 Managing the SYSAUX Tablespace . 8-34 Monitoring Occupants of the SYSAUX Tablespace . 8-35 Moving Occupants Out Of or Into the SYSAUX Tablespace . 8-35 Controlling the Size of the SYSAUX Tablespace 8-36 Diagnosing and Repairing Locally Managed Tablespace Problems 8-36 Scenario 1: Fixing Bitmap When Allocated Blocks are Marked Free (No Overlap) . 8-38 Scenario 2: Dropping a Corrupted Segment . 8-38 Scenario 3: Fixing Bitmap Where Overlap is Reported . 8-38 Scenario 4: Correcting Media Corruption of Bitmap Blocks 8-39 Scenario 5: Migrating from a Dictionary-Managed to a Locally Managed Tablespace . 8-39 Migrating the SYSTEM Tablespace to a Locally Managed Tablespace 8-40 Transporting Tablespaces Between Databases 8-40 Introduction to Transportable Tablespaces 8-41 About Transporting Tablespaces Across Platforms 8-42 Limitations on Transportable Tablespace Use . 8-43 Compatibility Considerations for Transportable Tablespaces . 8-44 Transporting Tablespaces Between Databases: A Procedure and Example 8-45 Using Transportable Tablespaces: Scenarios 8-54 Moving Databases Across Platforms Using Transportable Tablespaces 8-58 Viewing Tablespace Information . 8-59 Example 1: Listing Tablespaces and Default Storage Parameters . 8-60 Example 2: Listing the Datafiles and Associated Tablespaces of a Database 8-60 Example 3: Displaying Statistics for Free Space (Extents) of Each Tablespace 8-61 9 Managing Datafiles and Tempfiles Guidelines for Managing Datafiles . 9-1 Determine the Number of Datafiles . 9-2 Determine the Size of Datafiles . 9-4 Place Datafiles Appropriately . 9-5 Store Datafiles Separate from Redo Log Files 9-5 Creating Datafiles and Adding Datafiles to a Tablespace 9-5 Changing Datafile Size 9-6 Enabling and Disabling Automatic Extension for a Datafile . 9-7 Manually Resizing a Datafile 9-8 [...]... Oracle Database Administrator's Guide contains information that describes the features and functionality of the Oracle Database Standard Edition, Oracle Database Enterprise Edition, and Oracle Database Personal Edition products These products have the same basic features However, several advanced features are available only with the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition or Oracle Database Personal Edition,... operating system environment under which they are running Oracle Database Readers Interested in Installation and Upgrade Information Administrators frequently participate in installing the Oracle Database server software and upgrading an existing Oracle Database to newer formats (for example, Oracle9 i database to Oracle Database 10g format) This guide is not an installation or upgrade manual If your primary... operating system specific Oracle installation guide If your primary interest is upgrading a database or application, see the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide Readers Interested in Application Design Information In addition to administrators, experienced users of Oracle Database and advanced database application designers might also find information in this guide useful However, database application developers... 29-10 Why Use Database Links? 29-11 Global Database Names in Database Links 29-12 Names for Database Links 29-14 Types of Database Links 29-15 Users of Database Links 29-16 Creation of Database Links: Examples 29-20 Schema Objects and Database Links 29-21 Database Link Restrictions 29-23 Distributed Database Administration... and indexes, you must have the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition or Oracle Database Personal Edition For information about the differences between the various editions of Oracle Database and the features and options that are available to you, please refer to Oracle Database New Features xxxiii Audience Readers of this guide are assumed to be familiar with relational database concepts They are also... 28-27 28-28 Distributed Database Management Distributed Database Concepts Distributed Database Architecture 29-1 Homogenous Distributed Database Systems 29-2 Heterogeneous Distributed Database Systems 29-5 Client/Server Database Architecture 29-6 Database Links 29-8 What Are Database Links? 29-8 What Are Shared Database Links? ... also see the Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals and the documentation for the tool or language product they are using to develop Oracle Database applications Organization This document contains: Part I, "Basic Database Administration" Chapter 1, "Overview of Administering an Oracle Database" This chapter serves as a general introduction to typical tasks performed by database administrators,... Preface This guide is for people who administer the operation of an Oracle Database system Referred to as database administrators (DBAs), they are responsible for creating Oracle Database, ensuring its smooth operation, and monitoring its use This preface contains these topics: s Audience s Organization s Related Documentation s Conventions s Documentation Accessibility Note: The Oracle Database Administrator's... Creating Oracle- Managed Files 11-7 How Oracle- Managed Files Are Named 11-8 Creating Oracle- Managed Files at Database Creation 11-9 Creating Datafiles for Tablespaces Using Oracle- Managed Files 11-15 Creating Tempfiles for Temporary Tablespaces Using Oracle- Managed Files 11-18 Creating Control Files Using Oracle- Managed Files 11-19 Creating Redo Log Files Using Oracle- Managed... the Database Server Copying a File on a Local File System Third-Party File Transfer File Transfer and the DBMS_SCHEDULER Package Advanced File Transfer Mechanisms Mapping Files to Physical Devices Overview of Oracle Database File Mapping Interface How the Oracle Database File Mapping Interface Works Using the Oracle Database . Oracle Database Administrator's Guide 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10739-01 December 2003 Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide, 10g. xliv What's New in the Oracle Database 10g Administrator's Guide? . xlvii Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) New
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