Basic grammar points

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Basic grammar points Teacher : TrươngChí Nhân 1 REVIEW OF STRUCTURE A/ ADVERBIAL CLAUSES : I/ Clause Of Concession: Though, Although, Even Though, Even If……… + But , Despite , In Spite Of ( Adj + Noun , V-Ing , Possessive + Noun, The + Noun) + Whatever ( Adj/ Object, Subject), However, Adj + As + S + V. a/ S 1 + V …………But + S 2 + V…………… -> S 1 + V +……… , S 2 + V …………… Ex: They live in poverty but they don’t feel unhappy. ( although) -> They live in poverty, they don’t feel unhappy. b/ Although +S 1 + V ………… + S 2 + V…………… ( S 1 = S 2 ) -> In spite of + Ving +……… , S 2 + V …………… Ex: Although Bill took a taxi, he still came late for the meeting. ( although) -> In spite of taking a taxi, Bill still came late for the meeting. c/ Although +NOUN + BE+ ADJ ………… + S 2 + V…………… ( “Noun” chỉ vật) -> In spite of + ADJ + NOUN +……… , S 2 + V …………… Ex: Although the weather was bad, the flight wasn’t cancelled. ( although) -> In spite of the bad weather, the flight wasn’t cancelled. c/ Although +S + BE+ ADJ ………… + S 2 + V…………… ( “S” chỉ người) -> In spite of + Possessive adj / possessive case + NOUN +……… , S 2 + V ………… Ex: Although he was ill, he still went to work. ( although) -> In spite of his illness, he still went to work. d/ Although +IT + BE+ ADJ ………… + S 2 + V…………… -> In spite of + THE + NOUN +……… , S 2 + V …………( “Noun”chị thời tiết ) * Noun + Y = Adj ( fog, rain, storm, sun, cloud, snow, wind, ) Ex: Although it was foggy, the flight was not delayed. ( although) -> In spite of the fog, the flight was not delayed. e/ Although + S + V + NOUN … = Whatever + NOUN + S + V, Ex: We must study well though we have any kinds of difficulties. ( whatever) -> Whatever ( kinds of ) difficulties we have, we must study well . f/ Whatever + NOUN + S + V = No Matter What + NOUN + S + V, Ex: No matter what experience he has , he can’t repair that machine. -> Whatever experience he has , he can’t repair that machine. II/ Clause Of Reason (Cause): Because , As , Since… + Because Of + Noun Phrase = Because + Clause( giống như “Although & in spite of”) + So, So ………That, If, To Inf… + S + Stop / Prevent + O + From + V-ing = Because of Ex: The teacher is sick, so we have no class tomorrow. (because) -> Because the teacher is sick. We have no class tomorrow. Ex: That restaurant is so dirty that nobody wants to eat there. (because) -> Because that restaurant is dirty, nobody wants to eat there. Ex: She went to the post office to send a letter. -> Because she wanted to send a letter, she went to the post office. Ex: The fog prevented us from going out. -> Because of the fog, we didn’t / couldn’t go out. III/ Adverb Of Result : So / Such …………That…… + Because, Too, Enough…… 1/ S + V + So + Adj / Adv + That ……………… + Uses of Adj & Adv ( Verb followed by adj ) + The ending letters of adjective.(-ful/ tive/ ous ) 2 + Use of “ So many & so much” Ex: He has so much work to do that he can’t go to the cinema with us. 2/ S + V + Such + (a/ an) + Adj + Noun + That ……………… + Use of “a / an”. Ex: It is such a difficult lesson that we can’t understand it. Ex: Mary is too young to get married.-> Mary isn’t old enough to get married. IV/ Clauses Of Condition: If, As/So Long As, Provided That, On Condition That, In Case, Suppose/ Supposing, Even If + Unless, Or, Or Else, Otherwise, And. + Because, As, Since, So, Therefore, That’s Why. 1/ If ………not = Unless Ex: If he doesn’t phone her immediately, he won’t get any information. -> Unless he phones her immediately, he won’t get any information. * Notes: Nếu trong câu có “nothing, no one, nobody” -> “ something, someone, somebody” “No -> Many, Seldom, Rarely -> Always” Ex: He will die if nobody sends him for a doctor. -> He will die unless somebody sends him for a doctor. 2/ V1 ………………………….Or / or else / Otherwise + S + Will + V1 -> Unless + S + Verb in the present tense, S + Will + V1 Ex: Do those exercises carefully or you‘ll fail the exams. (You) -> You‘ll fail the exams unless you do( if you don’t do) those exercises carefully. Ex: Hurry up …………………you will be late for school. a. unless b. or c. because d. if 3/ a/ Because / As / Since + S1 + Verb…………………., S2 + Verb…………………… - If + S1 + Verb ……………………… , S2 + Verb …………………………. b/ S1 + Verb …………………………… , So / Therefore/ That’s why + S2 + Verb …………………. - If + S1 + Verb ……………………… , S2 + Verb …………………………. + Tense in present – Type II + Tense in past - Type III + Use the Verb in opposite form ( Negative -> Affirmative ) Ex: Mai can’t get the job because she doesn’t speak English well. -> Mai spoke English well, she could get the job. Ex: I was very busy so I couldn’t go to the meeting. -> If I hadn’t been busy, I could have gone to the meeting. 4/ Without + V-Ing / Noun = Unless + S + Verb / There + Be + Noun Ex: Without taking the taxi, we will be late. -> Unless we take a taxi, we will be late. Ex: Without rain, we couldn’t stop the forest fire completely. -> If there were no rain, we couldn’t stop the forest fire completely. 5/ But for + Noun = If it were not for/ hadn’t been for + Noun Ex: But for the storm, we would have had a good crop. -> If it hadn’t been for the storm, we would have had a good crop. * Notes: Ex: He gave me a lift to the station, otherwise I might have missed the train. -> If he hadn’t given me a lift to the station, I might have missed the train. Ex: But for your help, I couldn’t have finished the work. -> If you hadn’t helped me, I couldn’t have finished the work. V/ Clause Of Comparison: As….As, Not So/As……As, More/ less ……Than, The Most…… 3 1/ Positive degree: a/ Equality: S + V + ……… + As + Adj / Adv + As + S + Va. Ex: She works as hard as her friend does. ( Câu cho sẳn có “Too”) Ex: This table is one meters long. That one is two meters long. -> That table is twice as long as this one. b/ Unequality: S + Verb + Not + As / So + Adj / Adv + As + S + Va. -> S + Verb + Less + Adj / Adv + Than + S + Va. Ex: The market is less crowded than usual today. -> The market is not so / as crowded as usual today. 2/ Comparative degree: a/ S + Verb + More + Long-Adj / Adv + Than + S + Va. + Short-Adj/ Adv+ ER + Than + S + Va. Ex: Mr.Phan doesn’t drive as carefully as he used to. -> Mr. Phan drives more carelessly than he used to. Ex: Hung is not good at Chemistry as Minh. -> Minh is better at Chemistry than Hung. b/ S + Verb + The most + Long-Adj / Adv + ( Noun) + Place + Short-Adj/ Adv+ EST Ex: No restaurant in this city is as good as that one. -> That is the best restaurant in this city. c/ The + Adj / Adv ( SSH) + S + V, The + Adj / Adv ( SSH) + S + V. Ex: The older she gets, the more beautiful she is. d/ More and More + Long Adj / Adv ( Short Adj / Adv + ER) Ex: The lesson is more and more difficult. Ex: It is hotter and hotter. * Notes : - Short Adjective: young, hot cold, cheap, late… + Two syllables ending in “y, le, et, ow, er” : happy, easy, early, pretty, busy, simple, gentle, quiet, narrow, mellow, clever, bitter. - Long Adjective : More than two syllables and “Adj + ly” - How to add “Er / Est” + nice – nicer, big – bigger ( ending in “y, w, x”-> without double), happy – happier + Irregular Adjective “good, far, many, bad, little” * Adjective order: - articles (a, an, the) , P.adj ( my, his, her), determiners (this, that , these , those) - ordinal numbers ( first, second….) - cardinal numbers ( one, two, some, several ) - adverb degree ( too, very, extremely) - quality ( lovely, beautiful, difficult, interesting, good…) - size ( small, big, huge, little) - age ( new, old, young) - length ( long, short, tall) - shape ( round, square) - colors ( black, white, blue ) - nationality ( Vietnamese, Italian, Chinese ) - purposes /metal ( reading, walking, steel, nylon, cotton…) - head noun( book, car…) * Question with “HOW” - how old: ( số + tuổi / at the age of + số) - how tall / high : ( số + tall / high , the height of) 4 - how far : ( số + mile / kilometer ) - how fast : (số + mile / kilometer + per hour) - how deep ( số + deep, the depth of ) - how long ( số + meter/ mile long , the length of, for + số + tgian) - how wide ( số + wide, in width) - how often ( once/ twice + a + time) - how many / much + noun : ( số + noun) - how much : ( số + money, số + pound ) VI/ Clause Of Time: When, As, ( On + Ving), While, As Soon As, Before, After, Since, Until, By The Time. 1/ Time in the sentence is in the past ( yesterday, last , ago, in pat time) or verb in past tenses a/ After / as soon as + S + Had + V 3 , S + V 2 -> After + V-Ing = After + S + Had + V 3 Ex: After finishing our work ,we went home. -> After we had finished our work ,we went home. b/ Before / by the time + S + V 2 , S + Had + V 3 -> Before + V-Ing = Before + S + V 2 Ex: I made sure I had the car keys before locking the door. -> Before I locked the door, I made sure I had had the car keys. c/ While + S + Verbs in past continuous , S + Verb in simple past or past continuous - On + V-Ing = while + S + Verbs in past continuous Ex: On walking to school, I saw my teacher. -> While I was walking to school, I saw my teacher. * Các động từ diễn đạt các hành động ngắn luôn ở thì quá khứ đơn : “ see, hear, meet, go, come, get, arrive, start, begin, enter” d/ When / As + S + V, S + V ……………… + QKĐ : hành đông ngắn hay sự việc xảy ra sau + QKTD : hành động dài hay sự việc vẫn còn tiếp diễn khi hành động thứ nhất xảy ra. d1/ On + V-Ing = when + S + Verbs in past continuous or simple past. Ex: On driving home from office , I saw an accident. -> When I was driving home from office , I saw an accident. d2/ When / While + S + be……., S + V …………… ( hai động từ đều dùng ờ thì QKĐ) Ex: When he was at school, he studied very well. d3/ When + S + V in simple past ……… , S + V in past perfect ( “Already / So + S + V”) Ex: When I got to the station, the train had already left. Ex : When we arrived at his house , he had gone to work, so we didn’t meet him. d4/ S + Had + No Sooner + V 3 …………… Than + S + Verb in simple past S + Had + Hardly / Scarely + V 3 …………… When + S + Verb in simple past Ex: We had no sooner left home than it started to rain. Ex: No sooner had we left home than it started to rain. e/ S + verb in present perfect ………… + Since + S + verb in simple past. e1/ S + Verb in simple past …………………………….+ Time + Ago. -> It is / was + Time + since + S + Verb in simple past ……………………………. Ex: He lost his job three months ago. -> It is three months since he lost his job. e2/ S + Have / has Not + V3 ……………………+ For + Time. -> It is + Time + Since + S +( Last) + Verb in simple past. -> The last time ( when)+ S + Verbs in simple past ……… + Was + Time + Ago. Ex: We haven’t seen Minh for two years. 5 -> It is / has been two years since I last saw Minh. -> The last time we saw Minh was two years ago. e3/ Uses of “For” and “Since”. f/ S + Verb in simple past + Not …………………….Until + Clause in simple past / Phrase of time -> It was not until + Clause / Phrase + That+ S + Verb in simple past.( mãi cho đến khi) Ex: Tom didn’t begin to read until he was ten. -> It was not until Tom was ten that he began to read. Ex: The noise next door did not stop until midnight. -> It was not until midnight that the noise next door stopped. 2/ Time in the sentence is in the future ( tomorrow, next ) or verb in the future S + Verb in the future ………………+ Conj + S + Verb in the present. Ex : When I meet him tomorrow, I will give him your letter. Ex: You will fell better after you have something to eat. Ex: You will have something to eat. You will feel better. -> After you have something to eat, you will feel better. 3/ Notes on tenses a/ The simple past tense: + Formula: S + V2 – Did not + V1 – Did + S + V1? + Usage: “yesterday , last , ago, in + time in the past” : From …………to …………. ( from 1990 to 1995) Ex: Jane ……………………just a few minutes ago. a. leaves b. has left c. had left d. left Ex: My uncle lived in Hanoi since 1990 to 1998, but he is now living in Hue. A B C D Ex: Nobody was hurt in the accident , ………………… ? a. was he b. did he c. were they d. did they. * Tag- question: S + Verb in affirmative …………………, Va + Not + S? S + Verb in negative ………………………, Va + S? + Va ( Auxiliary verbs : be, have, do, can, may, must, shall , will) + Subject in the tag question must be pronouns “I, we, you , they , he, she, it” - Some/ Any/ No/ Every + One / Body = They - Some/ Any/ No/ Every + Thing = It - “No” : Không dùng “Not” trong phần câu hỏi đuôi. b/ The simple present: + Formula: S + V1 / Vs - Do / Does + Not + V1 – Do / Does + S + V1? + Usage : “Sometimes, often, usually, always, seldom, rarely, never” “ Every + Time ( day, week, month …… ) ” “ Once / Twice / Three times + A + Time (day, week, month …… )” Ex: My father seldom ………… tea after meal. a. drink b. drank c. drink d. is drinking Ex: They go to this club …………………… a. a once week b. once a week c. a week once d. once week c/ The simple future: + Formula: S + will / Shall + V1 + Usage : tomorrow, next + Time , In + Hour / day …… ( trong … nữa) If / When + S + verb in the simple present , S + verb in the simple future Ex: They say the train …………………… in ten minutes. a. arrive b. will arrive c. arrived d. is arriving Ex: If we go to London, we …………………….Hyde Park. 6 a. will visit b. visit c. visited d. would visit Ex: We ………………… him at the station tomorrow. a. are meeting b. will meet c. are going to meet d. all are correct. * To express the near future, we can use the present continuous, “Be going to” d/ The present continuous: + Formula: S + Am / Is / Are + V-Ing: + Usage: now, at present, at the moment, right now ,but today, but tonight : Look, Listen, Don’t ………… Ex: They ………… on the field now. a. worked b. are working c. have worked d. will work Ex: Don’t talk while the teacher …………….the lesson. a. is explaining b. was explaining c. explained d. explains Ex: She often goes to school by bicycle but today she …………….to school. a. walks b. walked c. is walking d. will walk Ex : We ………… her sing on the radio now. a. hear b. are hearing c. heard d. will hear * Verbs are not used the continuous tenses: - Giác quan: see, hear, smell, taste, sound, be. - Tình cảm : like, love , hate, dislike, want, envy, need - Sở hữu : have = own = possess, belong, cost, exist - Tinh thần : know, realize, recognize, think, remember, forget * Verbs are often used in the simple present although there is “Now” in the sentence: “Live, teach, work, learn , study ” e/ The past continuous: - Formula: S + Was / Were + V-Ing - Usage: At + Hour / At this time + Time ( Yesterday, last…) - When / while / as …… Ex: Tom ……………. the news on TV at this time (at 7 o’clock) last night. a. was watching b. watched c. watch d. had watched Ex: Tom …………….the news on TV last night. a. was watching b. watched c. watch d. had watched f/ The future continuous: - Formula : S + Will be + V-Ing - Usage: At this time + Next ( Month / year) When / While ……………………. Ex : At this time next year, my brother will be studying in America. Ex: Tomorrow when you come. I will be having dinner. g/ The present perfect: - Formula: S + Have / Has + Past Participle. - Usage : just , already, recently, lately, never, ever, not… yet, : So far = up to now = up to the present = as yet : For / Since + time : Many times , several times Ex: She ………… English for ten years. a. studied b. is studying c. has studied d. had studied Ex: She ………… English for ten years, but she stopped last month. a. studied b. is studying c. has studied d. had studied h/ The past perfect: - Formula : S + Had + Past participle 7 - Usage : By / Before + Time in the past , After / Before/ When- clause Ex: They had finished their work before the lunchtime. i/ The future perfect: - Formula: S + Will have + Past participle. - Usage: By / Before + Time in the future , After / Before/ When- clause Ex: By this time next year I will have finished my English course. j/ The present perfect continuous: - Formula : S + Have / Has + Been + V-Ing - Usage: S + Verb in present perfect continuous, But + S + Verb in the present perfect + Yet. Ex: She has been reading that book for two weeks but she hasn’t finished it yet. VII/ Clause Of Purpose: So That , In Order That, In Case……… + To – Inf, In Order To- Inf, So As Not To – Inf. Ex: David signed the paper. He wanted to work at the construction company. -> David signed the paper so that he wanted to work at the construction company. -> David signed the paper ( in order to ) to work at the construction company. 1/ S 1 + V ………………………. S 2 + want / hope + To-V 1 -> S 1 + V ……………………….So That + S 2 + can / could + V 1 -> S 1 + V ………………………. + To/ In order to-V 1 -> S 1 + V ……………………….So As Not + To-V 1 ( Khi mđề sau ở phủ định) * Nếu mđề sau ở phủ định ta có thể viết lại bằng: -> S 1 + V ……………………….LEST + S 2 + Should + V 1 Ex: I hurry home so as not to miss my favorite TV program. -> I hurry home so that I won’t miss my favorite TV program. -> I hurry home lest I should miss my favorite TV program. 2/ S 1 + V ………………………. S 2 + want / hope + O + To-V 1 -> S 1 + V ……………………….So That + S 2 + can / could + V 1 ( lấy O xuống làm S 2 ) -> S 1 + V ………………………. + In order for + O + to-V 1 Ex: I spoke loudly. I wanted the man to understand what I said. -> I spoke loudly so that the man could understand what I said. -> I spoke loudly for the man to understand what I said. VIII/ Clause Of Place : Where Ex: I don’t know where I should go now. IX/ Clause Of Manner: As, As If , As Though,…… Ex: You didn’t see a ghost. -> You look as if you had seen a ghost. Ex: He isn’t my brother. -> He talks as if he was / were my brother. B/ NOUN CLAUSES : 1/ Passive Voice: Basic Structures, Noun Clauses. • Noun clause: S 1 + V + THAT + S 2 + V …………… -> S 2 + TO BE + V 3 + TO INFINITIVE Ex : Many years ago people believed the earth was flat. -> Many years ago the earth was believed to be flat. -> Many years ago it was believed that the earth was flat. 8 * Basic structures: Ex: They are going to build a new hospital near our school. -> A new hospital is going to be built near our school. Ex: People have to keep dangerous chemicals in a safe place. -> Dangerous chemicals have to be kept in a safe place. Ex: Paul Mc. Cartney wrote the famous song called “Yesterday”. -> The famous song called “Yesterday” was written by Paul Mc. Cartney 2/ Wish Clauses: Three Types: + Want, Be Afraid, Be Sorry, What A Pity, It Is A Pity. + Like, Regret, Hope. + ‘d rather/ sooner, It’s time. Ex: I’m sorry that I didn’t finish my homework last night. -> I wish I had finished my homework last night. Ex: Tom regretted buying the second-hand car. -> Tom wishes he hadn’t bought the second- hand car. Ex: What a pity he can’t go with us. -> We wish he could go with us. Ex: I really want you to return the book next week. -> I ‘d rather you returned the book next week. Ex: I’m afraid that our team will lose the game. -> I wish our team wouldn’t lose the game. Ex: She must go to bed now. -> It’s ( high) time she went to bed now. 3/ Reported Speech: Statement, Imperative, Questions Ex: “ Don’t talk in class”, the teacher told us. -> The teacher told us not to talk in class. Ex: Sue said, “ Do you like music, Lan ?” -> Sue asked Lan if she liked music. Ex: “ Why didn’t you come to class yesterday, Tom?” His mother asked. -> His mother wanted to know why Tom hadn’t come to class the day before. Ex: Mary said “ I get up earlier than you do, Tom”. -> Mary told Tom that she got up earlier than he did. Ex: “ Could I see your driving license?” said the traffic policeman. ( asked) -> The traffic policeman asked me to give him my driving license. 4/ INFINITIVE OR GERUND 1/ Bare Infinitive( V 1 ): + Modal Verbs ( Can, May, Must, Shall, Will)+ Bare Inf * Be Able To, Be Likely To, Have To, Ought To, Be Going To, Be About To) + Bare inf + Perception Verbs + 0 ( See, Notice, Observe, Watch, Hear, Listen To, Bid)+ Bare Inf + Other Verbs + 0 ( Let, Help, Make) + Bare inf + Can’t But, Than, Except, Why Not, Would Rather, Let’s + Bare inf + Causative Forms.( S + Have + Someone + Bare inf) 2/ Full Infinitive / To Infinitive ( V 5 ): + It + Be + Adj + To Inf + V-Ing / To Inf……….+ Be + Adj + Wh / There Is Nobody/ Anybody Somebody( Thing/ One) + To- Inf…… + Too / Enough + For – O + To Inf + It Cost / Take + O + Time / Money + To Inf …… 9 + Verbs +(O+) To - inf ( Afford, Agree, Appear, Ask, Arrange, Attempt, Beg, Decide, Demand, Enable, Expect, Fail, Hope, Intend, Manage, Invite, Offer, Promise, Prepare, Pretend, Plan, Persuade, Require, Refuse, Want, Wish, Tell, Seem). 3/ Gerund( V 4 ): + Preposition: At, After, About, Before, By, For, From, In, Of, Off, On, With, Without, Up. + Be / Get Used ( Accustomed ) To, + Look Forward To, Be Opposed To, Object To, Take To + Adj ( Near, Busy, Worth, Worthwhile) +V-ing + Adj + Gerund / Inf ( Nice , Lovely, Great, Happy, Wonderful, Horrible, Foolish) +V-ing + It Is No Use / Good + There Is No / Much/ Little +V-ing . + Go /No / The / Do The +V-ing + Have Fun / Difficulty / Time/ Trouble +V-ing + Sit / Lie/ Stand + Place +V-ing. + Spend / Waste + Time /Money +V-ing + Find / Catch/ Leave / Prevent / Stop + Objective +V-ing + Verbs +V-ing ( Admit , Avoid, Consider, Can’t Help, Enjoy, Feel Like, Deny, Detest, Discuss, Finish, Keep, Like , Love , Hate, Dislike, Mind , Miss, Mention, Postpone, Quit, Suggest) + Verbs + P.Adj / Objective +V-ing ( Excuse, Forgive, Pardon, Prevent, Stop, Dread, Understand, Appreciate). GERUND OR INFINITIVE + Verbs + 0 + To Inf ( Advise, Allow, Permit, Encourage, Consider, Forbid, Recommend) + Ving( Nt…………………………… ) + Verbs + To Inf / Gerund (Like, Love, Hate, Dislike, Prefer, Continue, Begin, Start, Intend, Can’t Bear) (But” Would like / prefer/ love +ToInf”) + Verbs + To Inf / Gerund ( Difference In Meaning) * Try, Stop , Remember, Forget, Regret, Mean. + Want /Need / Require/ Merit + V-Ing ( Passive Meaning) + Need / Dare + Bare Inf ( Used As Modal Verbs) + To Inf ( Used As Ordinary Verbs) STYLES: To have knowledge of = to know about To think about = to give a thought to S + to tend + to inf = There + to be tendency + to inf To visit = to pay a visit to To wish/ desire/ sleep/ look at = to have a wish / a desire/ a sleep/ a look at To agree = to have agreement / there + be + agreement To intend + to inf = to have intention of + Ving / to be going to + to inf. To interest = to be interested in / to show interest in. To welcome = to give a welcome. To need + to inf = to have a need of + V-ing To decide = to make a decision To explain = there + be explanation of To be determined = There + be determination C/ SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT 1/ Singular noun takes singular verb ( is, has, Vs) - V-ing / to. Inf - Clause ( that / what) Ex: What he said to us is not true. 2/ Plural noun takes plural verb ( are / have / V 1 ) - Books, pupils… - Children, women, feet ( irregular nouns) - The + Adj ( old, rich. English ) : Chỉ đồng 10 . Basic grammar points Teacher : TrươngChí Nhân 1 REVIEW OF STRUCTURE A/ ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. He talks as if he was / were my brother. B/ NOUN CLAUSES : 1/ Passive Voice: Basic Structures, Noun Clauses. • Noun clause: S 1 + V + THAT + S 2 + V ……………
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