Giáo dục kĩ năng so sánh cho trẻ 5 – 6 tuổi qua hoạt động hình thành biểu tượng hình dạng tt tiếng anh

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION -o0o - PHAM THI OANH EDUCATION COMPARATIVE SKILLS FOR - YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGHACTIVITY OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS Major: Preschool education Code: 14 01 01 THESIS SUMMARY FOR PHD IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE HANOI – 2019 The research is conducted at HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION The scientific guidelines: Asociate Prof Doctor Do Thi Minh Lien Doctor Tran Thi Ngoc Tram Objection1: Prof Doctor Nguyen Thi Hoang Yen National Institute of Education Management Objection 2: Asociate Prof Doctor Nguyen Thi Ha Lan Hong Duc University Objection 3: Asociate Prof Doctor Pho Duc Hoa Ha Noi National University of Education The thesis will be presented at the Dissertation Marking Board: School, Meeting at: Hanoi National University of Education At …… o’clock…… , date ………………… The thesis can be found at: - The National Library, Hanoi - The Library of Hanoi National University of Education INTRODUCTION Rationale Comparison is a very important thinking manipulation for human education in general and for 5-6 year old children in particular Comparative skills help people to recognize the similarities and differences between things and phenomenas in the world around them, so that people recognize the world fully and deeply The activity of forming shape symbols is the process by which children perform actions that affect things in order to receive images of the shape of objects and generalize, store, recreate in their consciousness That is a favorable condition to educate the comparative skills for children, because in this activity children are practiced to experience recognition skills, differentiate similarities and differences in the number, size, shape and placement of objects or target groups Since then, help children have a positive attitude to comparison activities, know how to manipulate comparative skills in diverse activities Therefore, the education of children’s comparative skills from early childhood is an important task of preschool education The reality of preschool education has paid attention to the thinking education for children in general and the comparative skills in particular, but it is conducted mainly through learning activities and in other activities of children in preschool such as fun activities, outdoor activities, afternoon activities the education comparative skills for children is very little cared by teachers In recent years, in Vietnam, there have been projects to study the formation and development of comparative skills for children However, educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in forming shape symbols is a problem that has not been specifically studied For the reasons mentioned above, we choose the topic: "Education comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols." Aims of the study Proposing measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols to improve the effectiveness of educating the comparative skills and contributing to develop children's thinking Objects and subjects of the study 3.1 Subject of the study The process of educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools 3.2 Object of the study Measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools Scientific hypothesis 5-6 year old children’s comparative skills are influenced by teachers' educational measures If we use measures synchronously and flexibly to stimulate the children's excitement, comparative needs; create opportunities for children to actively experience and help children master the comparative process, the comparative skills of - year old children in activity of forming shape symbols will develop better Research tasks 5.1 Studying the theoretical basis of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools 5.2 Assessing the status of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools 5.3 Proposing measures to educate comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools 5.4 Experiment on pedagogy of some measures of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools proposed Scope of the study 6.1 Content of the study: A number of measures to educate comparative skills through activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years in school activities, outdoor activities, fun activities and afternoon activities 6.2 Object and area of the study: The current situation survey is performed on 150 preschool teachers and 120 children aged 5-6 years in some preschools in Hanoi, Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Ninh Binh and Hung Yen Pedagogical experiment with over 200 children at preschools in Hai Duong province Measureology and research methods 7.1 Methodology to implement the topic: In order to ensure the objectivity, in the process of studying the problem of educating comparative skills for children through activities of forming shape symbols, it is necessary to combine the views of Structure system approach perspective, Development approach perspective, Integrated approach perspective, Practical approach perspective, Operational approach perspective 7.2 Research methods 7.2.1 Method of theoretical research includes:Methods of theoretical analysis and synthesis, Methods of theoretical classification and systems 7.2.2 Practical research methods include:Method of observation,Method of investigation by questionnaire,Method of in-depth interview,Method of active products research,Method of pedagogical experiment 7.2.3 Other methods include:Method of profession,Method of data processing and evaluation by mathematical statistics Scientific points that need protection 8.1 The comparative skill is an essential skill to develop thinking for preschool children This skill is not natural to exist but it must be guided and implemented regularly in activities such as learning activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities with comparative subjects which are diversified about size, shape, quantity, color 8.2 The comparative skill includes composition and logic manipulations aranged and organized as follows: 1/ Identifying objects; 2/ Analyzing signs of objects; 3/ Classifying different and identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and identities discovered 8.3 The activity of forming shape symbols is a favorable condition to educate comparative skills for children Through this activity, children are allowed to practice how to compare with other means of comparison such as real objects, models, pictures, words and diversified comparative signs such as: shape, size, quantity, color Since, help children have a positive attitude to comparative activities, know how to apply comparative skills in other activities in preschools 8.4 Education of coparative skills in activities of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children at preschools is a necessary task in preschooleducation In particular, teachers' educational measures towards stimulating children's interest, coparative needs; creating opportunities for children to actively experience and helping children master the comparative process, which has a great influence on the education of comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols at preschools New contributions of the thesis 9.1 Supplementing the theory of comparative skills education for children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols help researchers and preschool teachers have more in-depth materials on comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children 9.2 Provide materials on the status of comparative skill education for - year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols to help preschools have a more accurate view of the effectiveness of child education in practice and serve as a basis to adjust education process timely 9.3 Introduce documents on the measure of comparative skill education for - year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols so that help preschools consult and apply creatively to educational conditions in their schools, contributing to improve the effectiveness of children educational results, meeting today's social requirements 10 Structure of the thesis In addition to the introduction, conclusion, list of published works, list of references, appendices, the thesis consists of chapters:Chapter 1: Theoretical basis of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols; Chapter 2: The current situation of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols; Chapter 3: Measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols; Chapter 4: Pedagogical experiment Chapter 1: THEORETICAL BASIS OF COMPARATIVE SKILLS EDUCATION FOR 56 YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGH THE ACTIVITY OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS 1.1 Overview of research on comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols 1.1.1 The research works on comparisons and comparative skills of preschool children There are many domestic and foreign studies that have been interested in children's comparative skills early These studies have shown the relationship between comparison with other thinking manipulations as well as research on the characteristics of developing this skill in children 1.1.2 The research works on the activity of forming shape symbols of preschool children The researches on activities of forming shape symbols have shown the cognitive characteristics of preschool children in shape symbols, based on which the content and method of guiding the activity of forming shape symbols are established 1.1.3 The research works on comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols In research as well as in practice, the issue of comparative skills education for children aged 5-6 years old has not been studied much There have been authors who proposed a number of measures to educate comparative skills for children such as: using games, playing situations, sudden appearance of objects and especially using teaching materials These measures have stimulated children's comparative interest, that is, impacted on the internal components of the comparative skill However, the problem of finding specific measures to optimize the education process of comparative skills for children has not been mentioned This is the gap that the thesis aims to 1.2 Comparative skills of preschool children 1.2.1 The concept of comparative skills of preschool children * Concept of comparison: Comparison is the process of using the mind to determine the similarity or difference, uniformity or heterogeneity, equality or inequality between cognitive objects (things, phenomenas) * Concept of skill: Skill is conscious, technical and resulted actions that are made based on the knowledge and experience inherent in certain conditions * The concept of comparative skill: Comparative skill is an action that is conscious, technical, and resulted made to determine the similarity or difference, uniformity or heterogeneity, equality or inequality between objects, phenomenas based on the knowledge and experience inherent in certain conditions 1.2.2 Comparative skill structure of preschool children Consists of manipulations: 1/ Identifying objects; 2/ Analyzing signs of objects; 3/ Classifying different and identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and identities discovered 1.2.3 Mechanism of forming comparative skills of children aged 5-6 years The development of comparative skills of 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols is determined on the psychological basis is stages of intellectual action forming of P Ia Ganperin Based on the specific components and parameters of the action, he studied, established and described the steps of an intellectual action from outside to inside Step 1: Establishing the orientation basis of the action Step 2: Action with objects or materializing Step 3: Action to speak loudly without using objects Step 4: Action with a whisper Step 5: Taking short action with inner words The development of children’s comparative skills is divided into two main stages: primitive form and formal form 1.3 Activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years old at preschools 1.3.1 Concept of shape symbol * Concept of symbol: Symbol is a picture of things and phenomena that arise in our minds when there is no direct impact on our senses Moreover, the symbol is also the result of processing and generalizing the images of previous perceptions, is the product of previous sensory perception so there is no perception there is no symbol * Concept of shape: Shape is an image of an object, distinguishing it from another * Concept of shape symbol: shape symbol is the product of processing and generalizing the image of the shape of the object that the people previously perceived is stored and recreated in human consciousness 1.3.2 Characteristics of developing shape symbols of 5-6 year old children 1.3.3 Content of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children 1.3.4 The process of organizing and guiding the activity of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children at preschools Stage 1: Accumulating shape symbols for children anytime, anywhere Stage 2: Teaching children knowledge, skills to recognize and distinguish geometric figures Stage 3: Practice, strengthening knowledge, skills to recognize and distinguish geometric figures Stage 4: Applying knowledge, skills to recognize, distinguish geometric figures and skills to determine shapes of objects into new conditions and circumstances 1.4 Comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years at preschools 1.4.1 The concept:Comparative skill through the activity of forming shape symbols of preschool children is a conscious, technical and resulted action taken to determine the similarity or differentness, the equal or unequal of the math signs among geometric figures based on knowledge capital and experience had already hadin certain conditions 1.4.2 Expressions of comparative skills of 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols Performing fully operations Comparative manipulations are performed flexibly Time to perform the comparative task Accurate exactly and fully the similar and different characteristics of comparative objects Present clearly, coherently, explain the comparative results in words 1.4.3 The development of comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years Children aged 3-4 years begin to recognize and distinguish some flat geometric figures such as: circle, square, triangle, rectangle but the children can’t compare to find similarities and differences between these geometric figures Children aged 4-5 years have the ability to compare flat geometric figures together to see their similarities and differences through the characteristics of the line around the shapes, through the number of edges, angles as well as the length of the edges Children aged 5-6 years have the ability to compare cubes together such as compare spherical blocks and cylindrical blocks, square blocks and rectangular blocks to see their featured characteristics as well as to see similar and different signs between blocks When compare geometric figures, children learn to base on basic signs such as the number of angles, edges of the images or shapes and the number of faces of each block through which the children recognize the geometric figures as standard images to compare shape of objects 1.5 Education of comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols at preschools 1.5.1 Concept: Education of comparative skill through the activity of forming shape symbols of preschool children is a process of pedagogical impact purposefully, planned of pedagogies to children to effectively implement comparative actions and manipulations to determine the similarity or differentness, the equal or unequal of the math signs among geometric figures based on knowledge capital and experience had already had in certain conditions 1.5.2 Meaning of educating comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols - Educating comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols aims at promoting the cognitive process and develop children's thinking - Educating comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols helps children's language develop - Educating comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols creates opportunities to train other skills for children 1.5.3 The content of comparative skills education for for children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols - Developing children's awareness of comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols - Forming and developing in children comparative actions and manipulations through the activity of forming shape symbols - Educating children's attitudes to comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols 1.5.4 Forms, methods and means of educating comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols - Forms: In order to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in through the activity of forming shape symbols, we need coordinate comparative forms: personal, in small groups (5-6 year old children) and the whole class - Methods: Method of practice and experience; Method of visual - illustrations; Method of using words; Method of example - evaluation - Means: Educating comparative skills for children through the real objects, simulators, pictures, symbols 1.5.5 Education process of comparative skill for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols Just like organizing the implementation of pedagogical process, the education of comparative skills for children takes place in stages: * Stage 1: Preparation * Stage 2: Implementation of the set plan: (apply the selected measures to implement the set purpose) - Educating comparative skills for children on learning activities - Educating comparative skills for children outside school hours * Stage 3: Evaluation the children’s comparative results, this is the basis for developing the next plan 1.5.6 Factors affecting the education of comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols * Subjective factors - The development of mentality, physiology of children - The activeness and initiative of children themselves * Objective factors - Children's operating environment - Educational measures of teachers in organizing activities of forming shape symbols Conclusion of chapter The comparative skill is an essential skill to develop thinking for preschool children This skill is not natural to exist but it must be guided and implemented regularly in activities such as learning activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities The comparative skill includes composition and logic manipulations aranged and organized as follows: 1/ Identifying objects; 2/ Analyzing signs of objects; 3/ Classifying different and identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and identities discovered The activity of forming shape symbols is a favorable condition to educate comparative skills for children Through this activity, children are allowed to practice how to compare with other means of comparison such as real objects, models, pictures, words and diversified comparative signs such as: shape, size, quantity, color Since, help children have a positive attitude to comparative activities, know how to apply comparative skills in other activities in preschools Comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of 5-6 year old children are shown on the following aspects: Performing fully operations; Performing comparative manipulations logically; Time to perform the comparative task; Properly describing the comparative results in words Education of comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years old through the activities of forming shape symbols is influenced by objective and subjective factors such as teachers, children and the environment These three factors have a reciprocal relationship with each other during the process of forming shape symbols and have a great impact on the comparative skill education for children Determining the meaning, contents, forms, methods and means of educating comparative skills for children is the basis for surveying the reality as well as developing measures for educating comparative skills for children 10 Chapter 2: THE CURRENT SITUATION OF COMPARATIVE SKILLS EDUCATION FOR 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGH THE ACTIVITY OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS 2.1 Organizing a survey of the situation 2.1.1 Survey aims Assessing the real situation of preschool teachers' awareness about comparative skills, assessing the comparative skills of children through activities of forming shape symbols and the reality of educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through activities of forming shape symbols in preschools today On that basis, propose some measures to educate comparative skills for children 2.1.2 Survey contents - The reality of the content of the program of comparative skills education through the activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years - The reality of teachers' awareness about the comparative skills education through the activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years at preschools - The reality of using the measures of the comparative skills education through the activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years at preschools - The reality of the comparative skills of children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols at preschools 2.1.3 Survey objects * The survey sample is teachers: The survey is conducted on 150 preschool teachers teaching 5-6 year old grades in Hanoi, Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Ninh Binh and Hung Yen * The survey sample is 5-6 year old children: The thesis selects 120 children aged 5-6 years at preschools in the provinces mentioned above 2.1.4 Survey tools: * The thesis examines the current situation of the comparative skills education through the activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years at preschools in quantitative and qualitative aspects - A tool for quantitative research is a sample of preschool teacher survey forms - A tool for qualitative research is interview cards * Assessing the the current situation of the comparative skills of children aged 5-6 years through the activity of forming shape symbols, the survey tool is types of exercises with levels increasing in number of comparative objects with various comparative signs and each type of exercises are performed with comparative facilities that are real objects, simulated objects, pictures and words (total of 20 exercises); 2.1.5 Survey methods: - Investigation by questionnaire - Interview - Attend lectures - Research products 13 The survey results show that teachers often pay attention to the common impact measures when organizing activities of forming shape symbols such as: Planning to organize activities of forming shape symbols; Flexibly grouping when organizing activities of forming shape symbols Teachers also pay attention to the impact measures to educate children's comparative skills through activities of forming shape symbols such as: Using sample actions combining with instructions to teach children how to compare; Using suggestive questions to guide children on the comparative tasks However, these measures not go into the purpose of educating children's comparative skills through activities of forming shape symbols but only at the level of providing comparative knowledge and experience, while the children's skills are only acquired when children be able to apply that knowledge and experience into various practices There are many specific measures of teaching comparative skills through activities of forming shape symbols for children that are rarely used by teachers such as: Creating problematic situations to stimulate children’s comparative interest; Diversifying comparative objects and comparative medias; Applying comparative skills in other activities * Teachers' awareness about the means of educating comparative skills for children through the activities of forming shape symbols Level Regularly Occationally Never Comparative Amount Ratio Amount Ratio Amount Ratio means (%) (%) (%) Real objects 125 83,3 25 16,7 0 Models 138 92 12 0 Pictures 30 20 105 70 15 10 Speeches 1,3 56 37,3 92 61,3 The survey results show that the majority of teachers often use comparative means as models and real objects In the type of comparative mean that is pictures there is a relatively large difference in the level of use (only 20% of teachers use this mean regularly) Speeches is the type of comparative mean that is least used by teachers Only 1.3% of teachers use this mean at the regular level, most teachers never use this type of comparative mean (61.3%) * Teachers' awareness of children's comparative skills expression through the activities of forming shape symbols Comparative skills expression Amount Ratio (%) Comparative operations are fully performed 71 47,3 Selecting the way to compare appropriately to comparative 105 70 conditions and circumstances Time of performing comparative missions 45 30 Fully and accurately detecting similar and different characteristics 136 90,7 of comparative objects Interpretingcomparative results verbally 33 22 Flexible applicating the comparative skill in different situations 47 31,3 and ambiences All the comments above 32 21,3 14 The results show that the preschool teachers have some certain knowledge about children's comparative skills expression through the activities of forming shape symbols However, each teacher evaluates the expressions differently This shows that the teachers' awareness about children's comparative skills expression is not synchronized and not focused on the characteristic expressions of the comparative skill 2.2.2 Survey results of the current level of comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of 5-6 year old children at preschools 2.2.3.1 The current situation of children’s comparative skills according to the exercises Type of exercise Name of exercise Comparing by real Compari objects ng Comparing by models Comparing by pictures objects Comparing by words Comparing by real Compari objects ng Comparing by models Comparing by pictures objects Comparing by words Comparing by real Compari objects ng over Comparing by models Comparing by pictures objects Comparing by words Compari Comparing by real objects ng Comparing by models object Comparing by pictures groups Comparing by words Compari Comparing by real objects ng Comparing by models object Comparing by pictures groups Comparing by words Levels of children’s comparative skill (%) Below Excellent Good Average Weak Average X S 20,83 38,33 40,83 0,00 0,00 13,65 3,08 18,33 22,50 15,00 35,83 41,66 33,33 45,83 35,83 39,16 0,00 0,00 12,50 0,00 0,00 0,00 13,37 13,91 12,51 3,10 3,09 3,43 4,16 22,50 52,50 18,33 2,50 10,86 3,24 6,66 10,00 4,16 24,16 25,00 22,50 50,83 45,83 39,16 15,83 17,50 26,66 2,50 1,60 7,50 11,13 11,43 10,18 3,33 3,63 3,79 3,33 20,83 54,16 17,50 4,16 10,78 3,39 5,00 9,16 5,00 21,66 23,33 20,83 52,50 50,00 40,83 17,50 15,83 25,00 3,33 1,66 8,33 10,81 11,28 10,08 3,36 3,47 3,75 0,00 23,33 47,50 25,00 4,16 10,28 3,36 0,00 0,00 0,00 22,50 20,83 16,66 45,83 41,66 35,00 22,50 31,66 29,16 9,16 5,83 19,16 9,93 9,65 8,58 3,48 3,28 3,54 0,00 22,50 40,00 26,66 10,83 9,70 3,69 0,00 0,00 0,00 20,83 18,33 15,00 47,50 43,33 33,33 24,16 35,00 32,50 7,50 3,33 19,16 9,75 9,66 8,42 3,25 3,16 3,43 The survey results of the current situation of children according to the exercises showed that the majority of 5-6 year old children have comparative skills at moderate level (from to 12 points) The type of exercise to compare subjects with the highest score because comparison subjects is the content specified in the preschool education program The score of exercises of this type reaches a maximum of 20 points, the lowest score is points The type of exercise with the lowest score is the type of exercise to compare object groups and compare object groups In each type of these exercises, the number of objects that the children need compare is relatively large (in each group, there may be multiple 15 objects of the same type or different types), so the children need enliven in performing comparative manipulations to solve the comparative mission in the shortest time The highest score of the type of this exercise is at good level with 16 points and the lowest score is points Thus, it can be seen that the comparative skills of children groups are still low 2.2.3.2 Current situation of children’s comparative skills according to the principles Expression level (%) X Below Principles Rating Excellent Good Average Weak Average Completeness 15,83 20,83 47,5 11,66 4,16 3,32 Flexibility 4,16 18,33 51,66 13,33 12,5 2,41 Proficiency 2,5 6,66 35,8 30 25 2,32 Effectiveness 11,66 30,83 37,5 12,5 7,5 3,26 The survey results of 20 exercises showed that the principles of comparative skills are expressed at the medium and weak levels In those, the principles for flexibility and proficiency have the lowest score This suggests that it is necessary to instruct the children on how to compare and the comparative sequence so that the children can compare quickly and detect the similar and different characteristics of the objects accurately and completely Conclusion of chapter Survey of children's comparative skills through the system of exercises and principles show that, in general, children's comparative skills are still focused on average and weak levels, some exercises are still relatively low and uneven, requiring to have change and better education Most teachers are aware of the importance comparative skill education through activities of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children at preschool as well as having certain knowledge about the comparative skillexpresionsof children in their activities However, through the survey, each teacher assesses the comparative skill expresions differently because the teacher's awareness of the comparative skill expresions is inconsistent and has not focused on the characteristic expressions of the comparative skill Preschool teachers have more or less used measures to educate comparative skill for children and achieved some initial results However, these measures have not been implemented by the preschool teachers logically, specifically in ways that are appropriate for the goals of children education in preschools, and have not met the requirements of renewing the educational method to deliver cognitive development of children 16 Chapter MEASURES TO EDUCATE COMPARATIVE SKILLS FOR 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGH THE ACTIVITY OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS 3.1 Principles of building measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols 3.1.1 Principles to ensure goal 3.1.2 Principles to ensure system 3.1.3 Principles to ensure inheritance 3.1.4 Principles to ensure feasibility 3.2 Proposing groups of measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols 3.2.1 Group of measures to stimulate needs, excitement and create conditions for children to practice comparative skills 3.2.1.1 Measure 1: Creating a problematic situation to stimulate children’s comparative excitement and needs Steps to use the problematic situation to educate the comparative skills for children through the activity of forming shape symbols - Detecting or creating problem situations When organize activities of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children, teachers set up problematic situations to force children to seek to mobilize intellectual activities to dominate the subjects (these cognitive problems contain a conflict between what the children already know and what the children unknow The problematic situation can be created by the teacher, can be also arised in the process of children conducting comparative activities - Problem solving After finding and addressing the problem that need solving, the teacher and the children propose hypotheses and plan to solve the problem - Implementing a plan of problem solving Children proceed to follow the plan While children implement the plan, the teacher observes the children, if the children have difficulties that cannot solved themselves, she can suggest different ways to solve the problem And it was her suggestions or directional questions that forced the children to think, and have to compare, choose the appropriate solution to solve the comparative mission - Evaluating implementation results Depending on children’s knowledge and experience, teachers can create conditions for children to evaluate their own results 3.2.1.2 Measure 2: Enhancing the use of games to create conditions for children to practice comparative skills - Choice of games: In order to be able to select suitable games, teachers need to base on the purpose, requirements, specific contents of each topic and the level of developing children’s skills The games need to stimulate excitement and the need for awareness, train for children with 17 the ability to sense, comparison and attention focus The content of the games must be aimed at strengthening the symbols of shapes, basic similarities and differences between objects and object groups When children play, they must use their senses actively, apply measures to survey objects and think actively - Preparing toys, means and space for game organizing - Instructing the games The instruction of the game must ensure the children's comparative ability, cognitive positivity and position of the subject in determining and solving tasks and situations occurring in the game to maximize 3.2.2 Group of measures to organizes practical experience activities of the comparative skill through activities of forming shape symbols 3.2.2.1 Measure 1: Creating conditions for children to actively experience and implement actively the comparative measures Establishing contents for children to explore and experience specifically, clearly, developmentally, both in accordance with the content of forming shape symbols regulated in the program and in accordance with children’s cognitive characteristics, needs, aspirations and interests Selecting and using a combination of methods and forms of organizing activities of appropriated discovering and experienced (observing, practicing, exploring through pictures, models, real objects in the form of whole class , in groups, individuals in lessons and other activities during the day) Creating opportunities for children to be self-employed, self-experienced (with enough time, place, adequate facilities ) In order to create good opportunities for children to self-explore and experience, first, teachers should establish a plan to organize discoveries by identifying objects, content, methods, means and forms of organization of discovery activities Besides, teachers also need to prepare facilities and choose the appropriate time to organize these activities 3.2.2.2 Measure 2: Guide children the comparative process by combining verbal, visual, and practical measures Instruction the children comparative process should be conducted in the comparative operation itself The steps of the comparative process include: Acquiring and identifying comparative missions; following plans and participating in planning; choosing and applying the measure of surveying subjects; detecting similar and different characteristics Guiding the children to compare is helping the children know how to apply comparative measures not only to a situation but also to other comparative situations with different comparative situations and tasks 18 3.2.2.3 Measure 3: Guide children how to perform comparative tasks with various comparative medias and ways - Variety of comparative missions - Variety of comparative means The variety of comparative means is using different types of means such as real objects, pictures, models, words for children to compare Each type of mean requires different comparative procedures and sequences Therefore, the use of various comparative means is synonymous with diversifying comparative measures - Variety of ways of comparing organization Through the activity of forming shape symbols, teachers can organize for children to compare in large groups (25-30 children), compare in small groups (4 - children) and compare individually 3.2.3 Group of measures to evaluate the children's comparative results 3.2.3.1 Measure 1: Evaluating the comparative results regularly in the direction of energizing children’s cognitive activities In order to evaluate the children’s comparative results through the activity of forming shape symbols (which is the actualization of the proposed objectives), certain principles must be built and these principles must be built based on theoretical basis of comparative skills, activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years When evaluating children's comparative results, several steps are required: - Collecting information to determine children's knowledge and comparative skills - Comparing children’s current knowledge and skills with the previous level - Comparing children’s current knowledge and skills with goals and requirements should be achieved in children There are two ways to gather information about the children's ability to know and when performing comparative tasks through the activity of forming shape symbols The first way: Observing and monitoring children's actions and manipulations regularly during their comparative performance or see their comparative results and products in other activities The second way: teachers can offer games, situations, multiple choice exercises in the form of playing in which children have to solve a certain cognitive problem 3.2.3.2 Measure 2: Encouraging children to evaluate each other and self-evaluate in comparative activities Before proceeding the evaluation, teacher and her children have to agree on the clear bases such as the purpose, requirements and ways of operation, the manipulations, the comparation skills that the children implement with you On this basis, it will serve as a fulcrum for children to compare, evaluate you and evaluate themselves, thereby adjusting their behaviors so that the children's comparative skills are more and more mature and fluent 19 First, let children self-comment and self-evaluate their comparative results by saying their own feelings Compare the results of their activities with the set objectives, self-comment on the ability to pay attention to the work, the obtained results and self-propose ways to renew, fix, overcome limitations and hangover in results of their activities Encouraging children to participate in comments and assessments their friends, through which the children determines their friends’quality and performance This process requires children to discover their friends’ abilities and compare with themselves, based on the results of the review, assessing their friends, the children self -assessing and thereby adjusting the behavior, acting for fit Reviewing the results of children’s friends’ together will train them to pay attention to their friends’ results, can comment on fair results, goodwill, educate children to be happy with own accomplishments, their friends’ and group’s Conclusion of chapter - Measures to educate comparative education for children are built on the basic principles as a foundation for the direction of educating children this skill high effectively - The basic content of chapter is to build a system of groups with pedagogical measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in the activity of forming shape symbols These groups of measures are determined according to the internal and external structural components of comparative skills and based on the process of educating comparative skills for children in the activity of forming shape symbols at pre schools Therefore, these groups of measures have the ability to influence children's motivation and cognitive activities in order to educate children in the activity of forming shape symbols for children - The above measures are related to each other closely, interacted with each other and supported each other in the unity of the whole process of educating comparative skills for children The measures are all aimed at contributing to educating comparative skills for children in the activity of forming shape symbols In which, the first group of measures is the basis for changes in the children’s activities in the second group of measures, and at the same time the teachers often check, evaluate and let children self-evaluate and evaluate each other in the third group of measures will help children try and make more efforts in their activities to accomplish the task Therefore, it is necessary to synchronize the use of these groups of measures to educate comparative skills for children in the activity of forming shape symbols 20 Chapter PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT 4.1 Experimental organization 4.1.1 Experimental purpose In order to test the feasibility and effectiveness of measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols at preschools and confirm the correctness of the scientific hypothesis 4.1.2 Experimental requirements Choosing samples of experiment and control have to be similar in terms of quantity and conditions of learning (preschool teachers, children's awareness, facilities) 4.1.3 Experimental content Experimentalizing the measures of educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in the activity of forming shape symbols proposed in the thesis Experimental content uses measures synchronously and is conducted through learning activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities 4.1.4 Experimental objects, scope and time Pedagogical experiment was conducted on 200 children aged 5-6 years of kindergartens in Hai Duong province Pedagogical experiment for round 1: Conducting over 50 children aged 5-6 years at Binh Minh preschool In which, there are 25 children in the group of control and 25 children in the group of experiments Experiments were conducted in the school year 2016 - 2017 in a narrow area in order to initially explore the appropriateness of the measures of educating the children’s comparative skilss Pedagogical experiment round 2: Conducting over 150 children in old kindergarten classes in schools (Hoa Sen preschool, Hoa Le preschool and Le Loi preschool in cities, rural and mountainous areas) Experiments are conducted in the school year 2017-2018 on a large scale in order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the measures to educate children 's comparative skills 4.1.5 Method of evaluating experimental results 4.1.5.1 Principles and tools of assessing Assessing the children's comparative skills through exercises (Appendix 4) Refer to evaluation principles in section 2.1.7 4.1.5.2 Conduct experiments Round was conducted to explore, edit, complete the content and measures of experiments Round was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of the measures that the thesis has built, confirm the correctness of the scientific hypothesis of the topic In both round of experiments, we proceeded with the following steps: - Conducting input measurement - Conducting impact pedagogical experiments - Conducting output measurement 21 - Evaluate results of experiments + Ways to collect and process information During the experiment process, we observed, monitored the children’s activities, recorded the observation minutes of the lessons organizing the activity of forming shape symbols to supplement the data to help analyze the children's comparative results in the measuring exercises Conducting the measurement of the results of children’s comparative skills through 20 measurement exercises The results of doing the exercises are recorded in the minutes in the form (Appendix 4) The data collected we summarized in two directions: First: Summarizing the points that each child achieved in all principles in each exercise, then calculate the average score of each exercise Second: Summarizing the points of each principle in all 20 exercises, then calculate the average score of each principle + Synthesizing the data collected from the exercises and the principle of the children’s comparative skills in both quality and quantity In terms of qualitative: analyzing and evaluating the results of the collected data in the minutes of observing the children's activities and the minutes of observating, recording the children's comparative findings and results through measurement exercises In terms of quantitative: on the basis of the results of the assessing points, test the results of experiments obtained by statistical math 4.2 Analysis of experimental results 4.2.1 Experimental results of round - The results of the survey on children's comparative skills according to the exercises show that: before the experiment, the comparative skill expression of experiment groups and control groups were similar; after the experiment, the results of the comparative skill tests according to exercises of children in experimental group are much higher than those of control group - Results of survey on comparative skills of children according to principles Before the experiment, the comparative skills of the experimental groups and comtrol groups are similar After the experiment, there is a clear difference in the level of the comparative skill expression in groups:experimental and control, in which all principles in the experimental group are expressed at a better level than that of the control group Principles expressed at a low level before the experiment such as the principle for proficiency and flexibility are significantly improved after experiment in round The level of the development of comparative skills according to the principles in the experimental and control groups before and after the experiment in round is shown in chart 4.1 22 Chart 4.1 The level of children's development of comparative skills according to principles in groups: experimental and control before and after the experiment in round - Testing the difference in results of experiment in round Table of testing results of experiment in round Type of exercises tα (α = X1 X2 n S1 S2 t 0,05) Comparing objects 25 16,1 2,1 12,7 3,2 4,44 2,02 Comparing objects 25 15,5 2,3 12 3,3 4,35 2,02 Comparing over objects 25 14,3 2,5 11,4 3,6 3,31 2,02 Comparing object groups 25 13,5 10,3 3,6 3,41 2,02 Comparing object groups 25 13,2 3,5 10,1 3,9 2,96 2,02 The t-Student test showed, with 95% accuracy (α = 0.05), the results in the experimental group were higher than the control group (t = 4,44; 4,35; 3,31; 3,41; 2,96˃ t α = 2,02) The test results showed that the experiment has a positive impact on the children’s comparative skills This proves that the experimental measures we proposed are appropriate and the scientific hypothesis is correct 4.2.2 Experimental results of round - The results of the survey on children's comparative skills according to the exercises show that: before the experiment, the children of experiment groups and control groups were similar After the experiment, the results of the experimental group are much higher than those of control group - Results of survey on comparative skills of children according to principles Before the experiment, the comparative skills of the experimental groups and comtrol groups are similar After the experiment, the comparative skills of the experimental groups is higher than that of the control group Especially, there is a superiority in the basic principles of proficiency, flexibility and efficiency This proves and confirms that experiments are effective in developing children's comparative skills The level of the development of comparative skills 23 according to the principles in the experimental and control groups before and after the experiment in round is shown in chart 4.2 Chart 4.2 The level of children's development of comparative skills according to principles in groups: experimental and control before and after the experiment in round - Testing the difference in results of experiment in round Table of testing results of experiments in round Type of tα (α = n X1 S1 X2 S2 t exercises 0,05) Comparing 75 14.65 2.31 12.59 3.26 4.47 1,98 objects Comparing 75 14.12 2.4 11.85 3.43 4.70 1,98 objects Comparing 75 13.25 2.68 10.95 3.63 4.41 1,98 over objects Comparing 75 12.76 2.91 10.64 3.61 3.96 1,98 object groups Comparing 75 12.35 3.28 10.05 3.55 4.12 1,98 object groups The t-Student test showed, with 95% accuracy (α = 0.05), the results in the experimental group were higher than the control group (t = 4,47; 4,70; 4,41; 3,96; 4,12˃ t α = 1,98) The test results showed that the experiment has a positive impact on the children’s comparative skills This proves that the experimental measures we proposed are appropriate and the scientific hypothesis is correct 24 Conclusion of chapter - Results of experiments in Round and Round show: + Before the experiment, the children’s comparative skills under the principles and exercises in both experimental groups and control groups were similar The majority of children 's comparative skills are at the medium level, the dispersion is still large, proving that children' s comparative skills are not equal + After the experiment, the level of children’s comparatve skills in the experimental groups is higher than the control groups The children in the experimental groups expressed interest in comparative activities clearly, expressed comparative skills higher, were more stable at all exercises and more equal compared than the control groups Thus, it can be affirmed that the experimental measures have a positive impact on the development of children’s comparative skills - The results of the two experimental rounds have confirmed the feasibility and educational effectiveness of the measures to educate comparative skills for children and proving that the scientific hypothesis was correct CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION 1.1 The comparative skill is an essential skill to develop thinking for preschool children The comparative skill is conscious, technical and resulted actions that are made to determine the similarity or difference, uniformity or heterogeneity, equality or inequality between objects, phenomenas based on the knowledge and experience inherent in certain conditions This skill is not natural to exist but it must be guided and implemented regularly in activities such as learning activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities with comparative subjects which are diversified about size, shape, quantity, color The comparative skill includes composition and logic manipulations aranged and organized as follows: 1/ Identifying things; 2/ Analyzing signs of things; 3/ Classifying different and identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and identities discovered 1.2 The reality of comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years is not high and not synchronized In the survey exercises, the type of exercise comparing two subjects has the highest results and the other types of exercises have lower results The results of the comparative skills survey according to the principles also showed that the proficiency achieved the lowest results Most teachers find the need to use the measures of educating children comparative skills However, the reality shows that teachers have not really paid attention to the education comparative skills for children, have not paid attention to encouraging children to participate in comparing activities, have not created conditions for children to experience and actively implement how to compare Therefore, the result of organization thí activity in preschools is not high 25 1.3 On the basis of theoretical and practical research, the thesis offers some groups of measures to educate comparative skills for children, including: * Group of measures to stimulate needs, excitement and create conditions for children to practice comparative skills - Measure 1: Creating a problematic situation to stimulate children’s comparative excitement and needs - Measure 2: Enhancing the use of games to create conditions for children to practice comparative skills * Group of measures to organizes practical experience activities of the comparative skill through activities of forming shape symbols - Measure 1: Creating conditions for children to actively experience and implement actively the comparative measures - Measure 2: Guide children the comparative process by combining verbal, visual, and practical measures - Measure 3: Guide children how to perform comparative tasks with various comparative medias and ways * Group of measures to evaluate the children's comparative results - Measure 1: Evaluating the comparative results regularly in the direction of energizing children’s cognitive activities -Measure 2: Encouraging children to evaluate each other and self-evaluate in comparative activities The measures of educating comparative skills for children are used flexibly, ensuring inheritance and promotion of strengths in current comparative skills education at preschools in Hai Duong province Measures affect the whole process of organizing children’s activities to form shape symbols 1.4 The results of pedagogical experiment at some preschools in different areas in Hai Duong province have the same results The comparative skills of children in the experimental groups are higher than the control groups The difference is meaningful This proves that the experimental measures have a positive impact on the development of the children’s comparative skills At the same time, these measures are also applicable in other children's educational activities at preschools Experimental results have proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the measures of educating comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years in the activity of formation shapesymbols built in the thesis RECOMMENDATIONS 2.1 For preschool management levels - Organize training and fostering preschool teachers on comparative skills and measures to educate comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years 26 - Need to respect and have a clear strategy of directing educational activities at preschools in order to develop awareness in general and comparative skills in particular Principles for assessing the children's comparative skills must become a basis for assessing children's cognitive outcomes - Continue to study and improve some measures of educating comparative skills in other activities for children aged 5-6 years in particular and preschool children in general - Compile and support documents to guide the implementation of the content of comparative skills education for preschool children at preschools 2.2 For preschools - It is necessary to encourage teachers in the process of organizing educational activities at preschools to pay attention to the education of children’s comparative skills - Facilitate teachers to foster and raise awareness about the educating comparative skills for children in educational activities at preschools - Enhance the exchange and sharing of professional skills for teachers at preschool on the comparative skills and the issue of educating comparative skills for children 2.3 For preschool teachers - It is necessary to pay attention to the comparative skills and education of comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years in the process of organizing educational activities - When organizing activities to form shape symbols and other activities at preschools, teachers need to recognize the manifestations of children 's comparative skills, highly appreciate the children's comparative skills and create opportunities for children to compare - Should apply flexibly the measures of educating comparative skills that the thesis built and evaluate, adjust in the LIST OF PUBLISHED SCIENCE WORKS Pham Thi Oanh (2016), "Some opinions about developing comparative skills of 56 year old children in activities of familiarizing with mathematics", Journal of Education, (special issue, December 2016), p 215 - 217 Pham Thi Oanh (2018), "A number of measures to stimulate comparative needs, motivations, and excitement of 5-6 year old children in operating of forming shape symbols", Journal of Education, (special issue , August 2018), p 113 - 116 Pham Thi Oanh (2018), "Current situation of the level of expression of comparative skills of 5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools", Journal of Education, (No 440, October 2018), p 26 - 29 ... 22 ,50 50 ,83 45, 83 39, 16 15, 83 17 ,50 26, 66 2 ,50 1 ,60 7 ,50 11,13 11,43 10,18 3,33 3 ,63 3,79 3,33 20,83 54 , 16 17 ,50 4, 16 10,78 3,39 5, 00 9, 16 5, 00 21 ,66 23,33 20,83 52 ,50 50 ,00 40,83 17 ,50 15, 83 25, 00... 3,33 1 ,66 8,33 10,81 11,28 10,08 3, 36 3,47 3, 75 0,00 23,33 47 ,50 25, 00 4, 16 10,28 3, 36 0,00 0,00 0,00 22 ,50 20,83 16, 66 45, 83 41 ,66 35, 00 22 ,50 31 ,66 29, 16 9, 16 5, 83 19, 16 9,93 9, 65 8 ,58 3,48... 13, 65 3,08 18,33 22 ,50 15, 00 35, 83 41 ,66 33,33 45, 83 35, 83 39, 16 0,00 0,00 12 ,50 0,00 0,00 0,00 13,37 13,91 12 ,51 3,10 3,09 3,43 4, 16 22 ,50 52 ,50 18,33 2 ,50 10, 86 3,24 6, 66 10,00 4, 16 24, 16 25, 00
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