Test bank for fundamentals of anatomy and physiology 11e c03

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Nguyên tắc cơ bản của Giải phẫu Sinh lý học giúp sinh viên thành công trong khóa học A P đầy thách thức với cách kể chuyện dễ hiểu, hình ảnh chính xác và độ chính xác kiên định. Với Phiên bản thứ 11, nhóm tác giả rút ra từ nghiên cứu gần đây khám phá cách sinh viên sử dụng và tiêu hóa thông tin hình ảnh để giúp sinh viên sử dụng nghệ thuật hiệu quả hơn để học A P. Các tính năng sách mới khuyến khích học sinh xem và xem xét các số liệu trong sách giáo khoa, và các video tường thuật mới hướng dẫn học sinh thông qua các số liệu sinh lý phức tạp để giúp chúng giải mã và hiểu rõ hơn các quy trình phức tạp. Giáo viên hướng dẫn cũng có thể yêu cầu một cuốn cẩm nang mới của Lori Garrett, có tựa đề Nghệ thuật giảng dạy A P: Sáu bài học dễ dàng để cải thiện việc học của học sinh, trong đó khám phá một số thách thức phổ biến nhất gặp phải khi sử dụng nghệ thuật để dạy A P, bên cạnh các chiến lược để giải quyết những thách thức này.Nội dung test bankGiới thiệu về Giải phẫu và Sinh lý học, Cấp độ tổ chức hóa học, Cấp độ tổ chức tế bào, Cấp độ tổ chức, Hệ thống tích hợp, Cấu trúc xương và xương, Bộ xương trục, Bộ xương ruột thừa, Khớp, Mô cơ, Hệ thống cơ bắp , Mô thần kinh, Tủy sống, Thần kinh cột sống và Phản xạ cột sống, Thần kinh não và sọ, Đường dẫn truyền cảm giác và Hệ thần kinh Somatic, Hệ thần kinh tự chủ và Chức năng bậc cao, Các giác quan đặc biệt, Hệ thống nội tiết, Máu Tim, mạch máu và tuần hoàn, hệ thống bạch huyết và miễn dịch, hệ hô hấp, hệ tiêu hóa, trao đổi chất, dinh dưỡng và năng lượng, hệ thống tiết niệu, chất lỏng, chất điện giải và cân bằng axit, hệ thống sinh sản Chapterȱ3 TheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganization Multiple Choice Questions 1) Whatȱisȱanȱadvantageȱofȱtheȱelectronȱmicroscopeȱoverȱtheȱcompoundȱlightȱmicroscope? A) Itȱcanȱfunctionȱinȱcompleteȱdarkness B) Itȱisȱolder,ȱmoreȱreliableȱtechnology C) Itȱisȱlessȱexpensive D) Itȱallowsȱmuchȱgreaterȱmagnificationȱofȱaȱspecimen E) Itȱisȱportable Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 2) Theȱsmallestȱlivingȱunitȱwithinȱtheȱhumanȱbodyȱis A) aȱprotein B) aȱcell C) aȱtissue D) anȱorgan E) anȱorganȱsystem Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 3) Theȱcellȱtheoryȱincludesȱallȱofȱtheseȱconceptsȱexcept A) eachȱcellȱmaintainsȱhomeostasisȱatȱtheȱcellularȱlevel B) cellsȱareȱtheȱsmallestȱunitsȱthatȱcarryȱoutȱtheȱessentialȱfunctionsȱofȱlife C) cellsȱareȱtheȱbuildingȱblocksȱofȱallȱorganisms D) allȱcellsȱcomeȱfromȱtheȱdivisionȱofȱpreexistingȱcells E) everyȱcellȱisȱcapableȱofȱlivingȱonȱitsȱownȱifȱisolatedȱfromȱtheȱbody Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 4) Theȱonlyȱkindȱofȱcellȱinȱtheȱbodyȱthatȱisȱnotȱproducedȱbyȱtheȱdivisionȱofȱpreexistingȱcellsȱis A) aȱgameteȱ(spermȱorȱeggȱcell) B) aȱneuronȱ(nerveȱcell) C) anȱosteocyteȱ(boneȱcell) D) none,ȱbecauseȱeveryȱcellȱisȱproducedȱbyȱtheȱdivisionȱofȱanotherȱcell E) aȱliverȱcell Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 64ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 5) Whatȱwouldȱbeȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱcellȱmaintainingȱhomeostasisȱatȱtheȱcellularȱlevel? A) aȱcellȱofȱtheȱintestineȱsecretesȱdigestiveȱenzymes B) aȱmuscleȱcellȱcontracts C) aȱspermȱfertilizesȱanȱegg D) aȱcellȱtakesȱupȱpotassiumȱtoȱmaintainȱtheȱproperȱcytoplasmicȱpotassiumȱconcentration E) aȱcellȱdividesȱtoȱbecomeȱtwoȱcells Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 6) Cytologyȱisȱtheȱstudyȱof A) biologicalȱmacromolecules B) causesȱandȱtreatmentȱofȱcancer C) theȱoriginsȱofȱlifeȱonȱEarth D) genesȱandȱtheirȱfunction E) theȱstructureȱandȱfunctionȱofȱcells Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 7) ȱcellsȱareȱallȱofȱtheȱcellsȱofȱtheȱbodyȱexceptȱtheȱreproductiveȱcellsȱ(spermȱandȱoocytes) A) Core B) Somatic C) Corpus D) Main E) Primary Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 8) Mostȱcellsȱhaveȱonlyȱone A) nucleus B) ribosome C) peroxisome D) lysosome E) mitochondrion Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 9) Theȱextracellularȱfluidȱinȱmostȱtissuesȱisȱcalledȱ ȱfluid A) interstitial B) cytosolic C) cytoplasmic D) outside E) peripheral Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ65 10) Whatȱisȱaȱstructureȱthatȱseparatesȱtheȱcontentsȱofȱaȱhumanȱcellȱfromȱitsȱsurroundingȱmedium? A) cellȱwall B) tissue C) plasmaȱmembrane D) skin E) nucleus Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 11) Ifȱaȱholeȱisȱtornȱinȱaȱcellȇsȱplasmaȱmembrane,ȱtheȱcellȱwillȱdieȱbecause A) itȱwillȱnotȱbeȱableȱtoȱmaintainȱdifferencesȱbetweenȱtheȱcytoplasmȱandȱextracellularȱfluid B) germsȱareȱattractedȱtowardȱcytoplasmȱleakingȱfromȱaȱcell C) itȱwillȱnotȱbeȱableȱtoȱundergoȱcellȱdivision D) itsȱchromosomesȱwillȱnotȱbeȱheldȱinȱplace E) cellsȱcanȱonlyȱmakeȱmoreȱplasmaȱmembraneȱduringȱcellȱdivision Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 12) WhatȱisȱtheȱfirstȱpartȱofȱtheȱcellȱthatȱisȱaffectedȱwhenȱtheȱpHȱofȱextracellularȱfluidȱchanges? A) theȱnucleus B) theȱnucleolus C) theȱcytosol D) theȱplasmaȱmembrane E) theȱcytoskeleton Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 13) Howȱisȱtheȱplasmaȱmembraneȱinvolvedȱinȱstructuralȱsupportȱofȱbodyȱtissues? A) Itȱhasȱspecializedȱconnectionsȱtoȱotherȱcellsȱorȱextracellularȱmaterials B) Itȱprimarilyȱconsistsȱofȱfibrousȱproteins C) Itȱisȱinflatedȱbyȱcytoplasmȱatȱhighȱpressure D) Tissuesȱareȱlargelyȱcomposedȱofȱemptyȱplasmaȱmembranesȱleftȱbyȱdeadȱcells E) Itȱisȱhydrophobic,ȱsoȱitȱrepelsȱextracellularȱfluidȱandȱattractsȱtheȱmembranesȱofȱother cells Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 14) Functionsȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembraneȱincludeȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱexcept A) separationȱofȱtheȱcytoplasmȱfromȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid B) regulationȱofȱexchangeȱofȱmaterialsȱwithȱtheȱextracellularȱenvironment C) sensitivityȱtoȱchemicalȱchangesȱinȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid D) thermalȱinsulation E) structuralȱsupport Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 66ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 15) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱnotȱaȱfunctionȱofȱmembraneȱproteins? A) bindȱtoȱligands B) regulateȱtheȱpassageȱofȱions C) actȱasȱcarrierȱmoleculesȱforȱvariousȱsolutes D) actȱasȱanchorsȱorȱstabilizersȱforȱtheȱcellȱmembrane E) storeȱcellularȱnutrients Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 16) Mostȱofȱtheȱsurfaceȱareaȱofȱaȱplasmaȱmembraneȱconsistsȱof A) aȱproteinȱbilayer B) aȱphospholipidȱbilayer C) carbohydrateȱmolecules D) DNA E) cells Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 17) Theȱtailsȱofȱaȱphospholipidȱmoleculeȱinȱaȱplasmaȱmembraneȱare A) hydrophilic B) composedȱofȱaminoȱacids C) hydrophobic D) facingȱtheȱcytosol E) interlockedȱtoȱprovideȱmembraneȱstrength Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 18) Theȱplasmaȱmembraneȱdoesȱnot include A) integralȱproteins B) glycolipids C) phospholipids D) cholesterol E) silkȱmesh Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 19) Identifyȱtheȱroleȱofȱcholesterolȱinȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane A) enablesȱionsȱtoȱpass B) formsȱenzymes C) reducesȱmembraneȱfluidityȱandȱpermeability D) anchorsȱtheȱphospholipids E) providesȱenergy Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ67 Figureȱ3-1ȱȱTheȱPlasmaȱmembrane UseȱFigureȱ3-1ȱtoȱanswerȱtheȱfollowingȱquestions 20) Whatȱpartȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembraneȱisȱhydrophobic? A) B) C) D) E) Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 68ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 21) Whichȱstructureȱisȱwaterȱmostȱlikelyȱtoȱpassȱthrough? A) B) C) D) E) Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 22) WhichȱstructureȱhasȱaȱȈgateȈȱtoȱcontrolȱtransport? A) B) C) D) E) Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 23) Microfilamentsȱareȱlabeled A) B) C) D) E) Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 24) Membraneȱproteinsȱperformȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱfunctionsȱexcept A) anchoringȱtheȱcellȱtoȱotherȱstructures B) bindingȱtoȱextracellularȱligands C) transportingȱsolutesȱacrossȱtheȱmembrane D) catalyzingȱchemicalȱreactions E) metabolizingȱglucoseȱtoȱgainȱenergy Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 25) Identifyȱtheȱmismatchedȱpair A) receptorȱproteinsNbindȱtoȱextracellularȱligands B) channelȱproteinsNprovideȱpassagewayȱforȱions C) recognitionȱglycoproteinsȱandȱglycolipidsNidentifyȱtheȱcellȱasȱȈselfȈ D) carrierȱproteinsNallowȱaȱcellȱtoȱmove E) enzymesNspeedȱupȱchemicalȱreactions Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ69 26) Proteinsȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembraneȱcarryȱoutȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱfunctionsȱexcept A) bindingȱtoȱDNAȱtoȱturnȱonȱgenes B) sendingȱandȱreceivingȱsignalsȱtoȱandȱfromȱotherȱcells C) transportingȱsubstancesȱacrossȱtheȱmembrane D) anchoringȱtheȱcellȱtoȱexternalȱstructures E) catalyzingȱchemicalȱreactionsȱatȱtheȱinnerȱorȱouterȱsurfaceȱofȱtheȱmembrane Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 27) Receptorȱmoleculesȱonȱtheȱsurfaceȱofȱcellsȱbindȱspecificȱmoleculesȱcalled,ȱinȱgeneral, A) recognizers B) binders C) ligands D) bonders E) reactants Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 28) Waterȱandȱsmallȱhydrophilicȱsolutes A) mayȱpassȱthroughȱtheȱphospholipidȱbilayerȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane B) cannotȱpassȱthroughȱaȱplasmaȱmembrane C) canȱdissolveȱholesȱinȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane D) mayȱpassȱthroughȱchannelsȱinȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane E) doȱnotȱmixȱwithȱeachȱother Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying 29) Theȱwateryȱcomponentȱofȱtheȱcytoplasmȱisȱcalled A) cytosol B) protoplasm C) extracellularȱfluid D) interstitialȱfluid E) matrix Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 30) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱdescriptorsȱregardingȱcytoplasmȱisȱfalse? A) containsȱlessȱproteinȱthanȱextracellularȱfluid B) theȱmaterialȱthatȱfillsȱaȱcell C) syrupyȱorȱgel-likeȱconsistency D) includesȱcytoskeleton E) includesȱcytosol Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 70ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 31) Manyȱproteinsȱinȱtheȱcytosolȱareȱ ȱthatȱaccelerateȱmetabolicȱreactions A) carbohydrates B) enzymes C) lipids D) messengers E) ions Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 32) Comparedȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid,ȱcytosolȱcontains A) aȱhigherȱconcentrationȱofȱpotassiumȱions B) aȱlowerȱconcentrationȱofȱdissolvedȱproteins C) almostȱnoȱglycogen D) aȱhigherȱconcentrationȱofȱaminoȱacids E) almostȱnoȱlipids Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 33) Theȱcytoplasmȱcontainsȱtheȱfluidȱcytosol,ȱinsolubleȱinclusions,ȱandȱthe A) microvilli B) nucleolus C) enzymes D) organelles E) cilia Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 34) Massesȱofȱinsolubleȱmaterialȱthatȱareȱsometimesȱfoundȱinȱcytosolȱareȱknownȱas A) colloids B) emulsifiers C) solutes D) crystals E) inclusions Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 35) Theȱendoplasmicȱreticulumȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱa(n)ȱ ȱorganelle A) filamentous B) extracellular C) interstitial D) membranous E) bound Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ71 36) ȱareȱcompartmentsȱwithinȱtheȱcellȱwhoseȱcontentsȱareȱisolatedȱfromȱtheȱcytosol A) Cytoskeleton B) Microvilli C) Nonmembranousȱorganelles D) Membranousȱorganelles E) Ribosomes Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 37) Eachȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱnonmembranousȱorganelleȱ except A) lysosomes B) cilia C) centrioles D) ribosomes E) cytoskeleton Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 38) Matchȱtheȱorganelleȱ(1-4)ȱwithȱtheȱcorrectȱdescriptionȱ(5-8) 1)ȱmitochondrion 2)ȱcentriole 3)ȱendoplasmicȱreticulum 4)ȱcytosol 5)ȱsynthesizingȱmolecules 6)ȱliquidȱinȱcell 7)ȱprovidesȱcellȱwithȱenergy 8)ȱaidsȱtheȱformationȱofȱtheȱspindleȱapparatus A) 1ȱandȱ7,ȱ2ȱandȱ6,ȱ3ȱandȱ8,ȱ4ȱandȱ5 B) 1ȱandȱ8,ȱ2ȱandȱ5,ȱ3ȱandȱ6,ȱ4ȱandȱ7 C) 1ȱandȱ7,ȱ2ȱandȱ8,ȱ3ȱandȱ5,ȱ4ȱandȱ6 D) 1ȱandȱ5,ȱ2ȱandȱ6,ȱ3ȱandȱ7,ȱ4ȱandȱ8 E) 1ȱandȱ6,ȱ2ȱandȱ8,ȱ3ȱandȱ5,ȱ4ȱandȱ7 Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 39) Tubulinȱisȱtoȱmicrotubulesȱasȱactinȱisȱto A) ribosomes B) microfilaments C) intermediateȱfilaments D) flagella E) microvilli Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 72ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 40) Microfilamentsȱdoȱnot A) anchorȱtheȱcytoskeletonȱtoȱmembraneȱproteins B) helpȱdetermineȱtheȱconsistencyȱofȱcytoplasm C) produceȱcellȱmovement,ȱwithȱmyosin D) consistȱofȱtheȱproteinȱcalledȱactin E) distributeȱchromosomesȱtoȱoppositeȱendsȱofȱaȱdividingȱcell Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 41) Microfilaments A) areȱusuallyȱcomposedȱofȱmyosin B) areȱhollow,ȱfilamentousȱstructures C) anchorȱtheȱcytoskeletonȱtoȱintegralȱproteinsȱofȱtheȱcellȱmembrane D) interactȱwithȱfilamentsȱcomposedȱofȱtubulinȱtoȱproduceȱmuscleȱcontractions E) areȱfoundȱinȱtheȱcytoplasmȱradiatingȱawayȱfromȱtheȱcentrosome Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 42) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱcytoskeletonȱcomponentsȱmovesȱtheȱchromosomesȱduringȱcell division? A) microfilaments B) intermediateȱfilaments C) thickȱfilaments D) microtubules E) basalȱbodies Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 43) Whichȱofȱfollowingȱpropertiesȱofȱmicrotubulesȱisȱcorrect? A) madeȱofȱmyosin B) madeȱofȱactin C) foundȱonlyȱinȱtheȱterminalȱweb D) anotherȱtermȱforȱmicrofilaments E) interactȱwithȱdyneinȱandȱkinesin Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 44) Whichȱofȱfollowingȱpropertiesȱofȱtheȱcytoskeletonȱisȱincorrect? A) supportsȱorganelles B) controlsȱcellȱshape C) providesȱcellȱstrength D) connectsȱcellsȱtoȱeachȱother E) movesȱorganelles Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 92ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 129) Theȱprocessȱbyȱwhichȱmoleculesȱsuchȱasȱglucoseȱareȱmovedȱintoȱcellsȱalongȱtheirȱconcentration gradientȱwithȱtheȱhelpȱofȱmembrane-boundȱcarrierȱproteinsȱisȱcalled A) osmosis B) facilitatedȱdiffusion C) activeȱtransport D) endocytosis E) exocytosis Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 130) Facilitatedȱdiffusionȱdiffersȱfromȱordinaryȱdiffusionȱinȱthat A) facilitatedȱdiffusionȱconsumesȱATP B) facilitatedȱdiffusionȱmovesȱmoleculesȱfromȱanȱareaȱofȱlowerȱconcentrationȱtoȱanȱareaȱof higherȱconcentration C) theȱrateȱofȱfacilitatedȱdiffusionȱisȱlimitedȱbyȱtheȱnumberȱofȱavailableȱcarrierȱproteins D) facilitatedȱdiffusionȱneverȱeliminatesȱtheȱconcentrationȱgradient E) facilitatedȱdiffusionȱdoesȱnotȱrelyȱonȱcarrierȱproteins Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 131) Membrane-boundȱproteinsȱthatȱuseȱmetabolicȱenergyȱtoȱmoveȱionsȱacrossȱtheȱplasma membraneȱareȱcalledȱ ȱpumps A) channel B) receptor C) active D) motor E) ion Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 132) Aȱprocessȱthatȱrequiresȱcellularȱenergyȱtoȱmoveȱaȱsubstanceȱagainstȱitsȱconcentrationȱgradient isȱcalled A) activeȱtransport B) passiveȱtransport C) facilitatedȱtransport D) osmosis E) diffusion Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ93 133) Secondaryȱactiveȱtransport A) isȱnotȱcarriedȱoutȱbyȱmembraneȱproteins B) isȱnotȱdirectlyȱlinkedȱtoȱtheȱhydrolysisȱofȱATP C) doesȱnotȱlinkȱtheȱpumpingȱofȱoneȱsubstanceȱtoȱtheȱconcentrationȱgradientȱofȱanother D) doesȱnotȱrequireȱtheȱcellȱtoȱinvestȱenergy,ȱeitherȱdirectlyȱorȱindirectly E) cannotȱmoveȱaȱsubstanceȱagainstȱitsȱconcentrationȱgradient Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 134) Anȱextracellularȱcationȱwhoseȱconcentrationȱgradientȱdrivesȱtheȱsecondaryȱactiveȱtransportȱof manyȱdifferentȱsolutesȱis A) sodium B) calcium C) potassium D) chloride E) glucose Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 135) Inȱorderȱtoȱmaintainȱcellularȱhomeostasis,ȱoneȱabundantȱtypeȱofȱexchangeȱpumpȱejects ȱionsȱfromȱtheȱcellȱandȱimportsȱ ȱions A) potassium;ȱcalcium B) sodium;ȱcalcium C) potassium;ȱsodium D) sodium;ȱpotassium E) calcium;ȱsodium Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 136) Allȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱmembraneȱtransportȱmechanismsȱareȱpassiveȱprocessesȱexcept A) diffusion B) facilitatedȱdiffusion C) vesicularȱtransport D) osmosis E) movementȱofȱwater Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 94ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 137) Theȱintakeȱofȱmaterialsȱfromȱtheȱextracellularȱfluidȱusingȱvesiclesȱisȱcalled A) osmosis B) exocytosis C) facilitatedȱtransport D) endocytosis E) anȱionȱexchangeȱpump Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 138) Endocytosisȱisȱa A) methodȱforȱtransportingȱsubstancesȱintoȱtheȱcell B) methodȱforȱmetabolizingȱwithinȱtheȱcytosol C) formȱofȱanabolism D) viralȱinfection E) methodȱforȱpackagingȱsecretions Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 139) Receptor-mediatedȱendocytosis A) isȱaȱtypeȱofȱsecretion B) importsȱtargetȱmoleculesȱafterȱtheyȱbindȱtoȱmembraneȱproteins C) doesȱnotȱrequireȱenergyȱfromȱtheȱcell D) canȱonlyȱmoveȱaȱsubstanceȱdownȱitsȱconcentrationȱgradient E) importsȱextracellularȱfluid,ȱincludingȱallȱofȱitsȱdissolvedȱmolecules Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 140) Aȱdefenseȱcellȱengulfingȱaȱbacteriumȱillustrates A) pinocytosis B) receptor-mediatedȱexocytosis C) exocytosis D) phagocytosis E) receptor-mediatedȱendocytosis Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 141) Theȱelectricȱpotentialȱdifferenceȱacrossȱtheȱcellȱmembraneȱisȱknownȱas A) theȱmembraneȱpotential B) theȱmembraneȱdifference C) theȱcellularȱpotential D) theȱcellularȱdifference E) theȱplasmalemmaȱpotential Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-7 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ95 142) Theȱmembraneȱpotentialȱinȱanȱundisturbedȱcellȱisȱcalledȱits A) quietȱpotential B) inactiveȱstate C) passiveȱstate D) restingȱmembraneȱpotential E) interphase Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-7 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 143) Inȱaȱseriesȱofȱmeasurementsȱofȱrestingȱmembraneȱpotentials,ȱtheȱfollowingȱvaluesȱwere recorded.ȱWhichȱoneȱisȱlikeliestȱtoȱbeȱanȱerror? A) -10ȱmV B) -20ȱmV C) -40ȱmV D) -70ȱmV E) +100ȱmV Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-7 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 144) Theȱpotentialȱdifferenceȱacrossȱtheȱcellȱmembraneȱisȱdueȱtoȱtheȱunequalȱdistributionȱof ȱacrossȱtheȱmembrane A) carbohydrateȱmolecules B) waterȱmolecules C) cationsȱandȱanions D) acidsȱandȱbases E) phospholipidsȱandȱproteins Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-7 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 145) Whichȱofȱtheseȱsubstancesȱcouldȱbeȱdrivenȱacrossȱaȱmembraneȱbyȱtheȱrestingȱmembrane potential? A) H2 O B) O2 C) glucose D) Na+ E) CO Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-7 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 96ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 146) Theȱgeneticallyȱprogrammedȱdeathȱofȱcellsȱisȱcalled A) differentiation B) replication C) apoptosis D) metastasis E) mitosis Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 147) IfȱaȱcellȱlackedȱtheȱenzymeȱDNAȱpolymerase,ȱitȱcouldȱnot A) maintainȱtheȱintegrityȱofȱtheȱnuclearȱenvelope B) formȱcomplementaryȱstrandsȱofȱDNAȱduringȱreplication C) linkȱsegmentsȱofȱDNAȱtogether D) formȱspindleȱfibers E) formȱaȱnewȱnuclearȱmembraneȱduringȱtelophase Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 148) InȱDNAȱreplication, A) 23ȱcopiesȱareȱmadeȱofȱeachȱchromosome B) oneȱnewȱcopyȱisȱmadeȱofȱeachȱchromosome,ȱandȱtheȱoriginalȱchromosomeȱremainsȱintact C) twoȱnewȱcopiesȱareȱmadeȱofȱeachȱchromosome,ȱandȱtheȱoriginalȱchromosomeȱis destroyed D) twoȱcopiesȱareȱmadeȱofȱeachȱchromosome,ȱandȱeachȱcopyȱcontainsȱoneȱofȱtheȱDNA strandsȱfromȱtheȱoriginalȱchromosome E) theȱchromosomeȱisȱcopiedȱtoȱRNA,ȱwhichȱisȱthenȱcopiedȱtoȱDNAȱforȱaȱnewȱchromosome Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 149) WhenȱisȱDNAȱreplicated? A) interphase B) anaphase C) metaphase D) telophase E) interkinesis Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ97 150) Theȱstageȱinȱaȱcellȇsȱlifeȱcycleȱinȱwhichȱtheȱcellȱperformsȱitsȱnormalȱfunctionsȱandȱpreparesȱfor divisionȱisȱcalled A) prophase B) metaphase C) interphase D) telophase E) anaphase Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 151) Theȱprocessȱofȱduplicatingȱchromosomesȱpriorȱtoȱcellȱdivisionȱisȱcalled A) replication B) repetition C) recurrence D) remodeling E) reassembling Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 152) Aȱcellȱduplicatesȱitsȱchromosomesȱduringȱtheȱ ȱphase A) Go B) G1 C) G2 D) Gm E) S Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 153) Beforeȱaȱcellȱdivides,ȱitsȱDNAȱmustȱbeȱreplicatedȱto A) provideȱaȱbackupȱcopyȱofȱDNAȱinȱcaseȱtheȱoriginalȱDNAȱisȱdamagedȱduringȱmitosis B) replaceȱtheȱDNAȱlostȱduringȱtranscription C) supplyȱeachȱnewȱcellȱwithȱaȱfullȱsetȱofȱtheȱgeneticȱmaterial D) replaceȱgeneticȱinstructionsȱusedȱbyȱtheȱoriginalȱcell E) useȱasȱanȱenergyȱsourceȱduringȱcytokinesis Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 98ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 154) Theȱproperȱdistributionȱofȱaȱsomaticȱcellȇsȱgeneticȱmaterialȱtoȱtwoȱdaughterȱcellsȱis accomplishedȱbyȱtheȱprocessȱof A) cytosis B) mitosis C) cytokinesis D) phoresis E) meiosis Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 155) Duringȱmitosis,ȱchromatidsȱseparateȱintoȱdaughterȱchromosomesȱatȱtheȱstartȱof A) prophase B) metaphase C) interphase D) telophase E) anaphase Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 156) Duringȱthisȱphaseȱofȱcellȱdivision,ȱtheȱchromosomesȱuncoil,ȱtheȱnuclearȱmembraneȱforms,ȱand cytokinesisȱoccurs A) anaphase B) prophase C) interphase D) telophase E) metaphase Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 157) Duringȱmitosis,ȱtwoȱdaughterȱcellsȱform,ȱeachȱofȱwhichȱhas A) aȱdifferentȱnumberȱofȱchromosomesȱthanȱtheȱoriginalȱcell B) twiceȱasȱmanyȱchromosomesȱasȱtheȱoriginalȱcell C) theȱsameȱnumberȱofȱchromosomesȱasȱtheȱoriginalȱcell D) aȱlesserȱnumberȱofȱchromosomesȱthanȱtheȱoriginalȱcell E) halfȱasȱmanyȱchromosomesȱasȱtheȱoriginalȱcell Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ99 158) Theȱcorrectȱorderȱofȱphasesȱinȱtheȱcellȱcycleȱis A) prophase,ȱinterphase,ȱanaphase,ȱmetaphase,ȱandȱtelophase B) telophase,ȱanaphase,ȱmetaphase,ȱinterphase,ȱandȱprophase C) interphase,ȱprophase,ȱanaphase,ȱmetaphase,ȱandȱtelophase D) interphase,ȱprophase,ȱmetaphase,ȱanaphase,ȱandȱtelophase E) metaphase,ȱanaphase,ȱinterphase,ȱprophase,ȱandȱtelophase Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 159) Ifȱanȱanimalȱcellȱhasȱ18ȱchromosomesȱandȱundergoesȱmitosis,ȱhowȱmanyȱchromosomesȱwould eachȱdaughterȱcellȱhave? A) B) 36 C) 23 D) 18 E) Itȱvaries,ȱbutȱtheȱtotalȱnumberȱinȱtheȱtwoȱdaughterȱcellsȱwillȱalwaysȱaddȱupȱtoȱ18 Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 160) Whichȱphaseȱofȱtheȱcellȱcycleȱhasȱtheȱbiggestȱextremesȱinȱduration? A) Sȱphase B) G0 ȱphase C) G1 ȱphase D) G2 ȱphase E) Vȱphase Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 161) Generally,ȱcellsȱwithȱaȱveryȱbriefȱinterphaseȱandȱlackingȱaȱG phase A) areȱstemȱcells B) doȱnotȱexhibitȱcytokinesis C) haveȱbriefȱlifeȱspans D) areȱreproductiveȱcells E) lackȱtheȱenzymeȱDNAȱpolymerase Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 100ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 162) Specialȱcellsȱcalledȱ ȱcellsȱmaintainȱtissuesȱbyȱunendingȱcyclesȱofȱcellȱdivision A) cytogenic B) mother C) stem D) root E) omnipotent Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 163) Theȱphysicalȱprocessȱbyȱwhichȱaȱsingleȱanimalȱcellȱseparatesȱintoȱtwoȱcellsȱisȱcalled A) cytosis B) mitosis C) cytokinesis D) phoresis E) meiosis Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-8 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 164) Duringȱgrowth,ȱaȱtissueȱincreasesȱinȱsizeȱby A) increasingȱtheȱsizeȱofȱitsȱcells B) increasingȱtheȱosmolarityȱofȱitsȱtissueȱfluidȱtoȱdrawȱinȱwater C) increasingȱitsȱrateȱofȱcellȱdivision D) dilatingȱbloodȱvesselsȱtoȱincreaseȱitsȱbloodȱsupply E) recruitingȱcellsȱfromȱsurroundingȱtissues Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-9 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 165) Aȱchemicalȱfromȱoutsideȱaȱcellȱthatȱpromotesȱcellȱdivisionȱisȱcalledȱa A) nutrient B) promoter C) mutagen D) telomere E) growthȱfactor Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-9 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 166) Cyclin,ȱaȱproteinȱthatȱbecomesȱmoreȱabundantȱasȱtheȱcellȱcycleȱproceeds, A) delaysȱcytokinesis B) activatesȱrepressorȱgenes C) triggersȱDNAȱreplication D) damagesȱtelomeres E) takesȱpartȱinȱtriggeringȱmitosis Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-9 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ101 167) Whenȱtelomeresȱgetȱtooȱshortȱafterȱrepeatedȱcellȱdivisions, A) theȱcellȱdies B) theȱcellȱbecomesȱcancerous C) theȱcellȱstopsȱdividing D) theȱchromosomesȱuncoil E) theȱcellȱdividesȱmoreȱfrequently Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-9 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 168) Anȱalternateȱtermȱforȱtumorȱis A) neoplasm B) cytoplasm C) benignȱmalignancy D) primaryȱmetastasis E) nucleoplasm Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-10 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 169) Cancerȱcells A) areȱindistinguishableȱfromȱnormalȱbodyȱcells B) haveȱaȱslowȱmitoticȱrate C) mayȱexhibitȱmetastasis D) doȱnotȱformȱneoplasms E) generallyȱformȱbenignȱtumors Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-10 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 170) A(n)ȱ ȱisȱaȱmutatedȱregulatoryȱgeneȱthatȱcausesȱcancer A) neogene B) plasmogene C) toxogene D) oncogene E) monogene Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-10 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 171) ,ȱwhichȱisȱusuallyȱinactiveȱinȱadultȱcells,ȱisȱactiveȱinȱ90%ȱofȱcancerȱcells A) Phagocytosis B) Apoptosis C) Theȱp53ȱgene D) Telomerase E) DNAȱpolymerase Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-10 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 102ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 172) Theȱprocessȱbyȱwhichȱcellsȱbecomeȱspecializedȱisȱcalled A) determination B) cytokinesis C) mutation D) differentiation E) distinction Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-11 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 173) Differentȱcellȱtypesȱinȱtheȱbody A) produceȱexactlyȱtheȱsameȱproteins B) haveȱdifferentȱgenes C) areȱidenticalȱexceptȱforȱtheirȱsuperficialȱappearance D) haveȱtheȱsameȱgenes,ȱbutȱdifferentȱsetsȱofȱgenesȱareȱinactivated E) haveȱtheȱabilityȱtoȱtakeȱonȱtheȱcharacteristicsȱofȱeachȱotherȱorȱanyȱcellȱinȱtheȱbody Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-11 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 174) EmbryonicȱstemȱcellsȱmightȱbeȱusedȱtoȱreplaceȱneuronsȱlostȱinȱParkinsonȇsȱDiseaseȱbecause A) theyȱareȱreadilyȱavailable B) theyȱdivideȱquickly C) theyȱareȱyoungȱandȱvigorous D) theyȱhaveȱnotȱyetȱdifferentiated E) theyȱareȱtakenȱfromȱtheȱbrainȱofȱtheȱembryo Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-11 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding In-Text Figure Based Questions 1) Whatȱareȱtheȱthreeȱdifferentȱcomponentsȱthatȱmakeȱupȱtheȱcytoskeletonȱinȱallȱbodyȱcells? (Figureȱ3-3) A) thickȱfilaments,ȱthinȱfilaments,ȱintermediateȱfilaments B) microfilaments,ȱmicrovilli,ȱvilli C) microfilaments,ȱintermediateȱfilaments,ȱmicrotubules D) thickȱfilaments,ȱthinȱfilaments,ȱmicrovilli E) microtubules,ȱmacrotubules,ȱtubules Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ103 2) Whatȱareȱtheȱtwoȱreactantsȱshownȱhereȱthatȱareȱnecessaryȱforȱenergyȱproduction?ȱWhatȱareȱthe threeȱproductsȱshownȱhereȱasȱaȱresultȱofȱthisȱreaction?ȱ(Figureȱ3-9) A) oxygenȱandȱATP;ȱcarbonȱdioxide,ȱpyruvate,ȱandȱwater B) oxygenȱandȱcarbonȱdioxide;ȱpyruvate,ȱcarbonȱdioxide,ȱandȱwater C) waterȱandȱpyruvate;ȱoxygen,ȱcarbonȱdioxide,ȱandȱATP D) oxygenȱandȱpyruvate;ȱcarbonȱdioxide,ȱATP,ȱandȱwater E) carbonȱdioxideȱandȱpyruvate;ȱoxygen,ȱATP,ȱandȱwater Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 3) HowȱisȱDNAȱorganizedȱinȱtheȱnucleusȱwhenȱtheȱcellȱisȱpreparedȱforȱdivision?ȱHowȱisȱDNA organizedȱinȱtheȱnucleusȱwhenȱtheȱcellȱisȱnotȱdividing?ȱ(Figureȱ3-11) A) tightlyȱcoiledȱasȱchromosomes;ȱlooselyȱcoiledȱasȱchromatin B) tightlyȱcoiledȱasȱchromatin;ȱlooselyȱcoiledȱasȱchromosomes C) looselyȱcoiledȱasȱchromosomes;ȱtightlyȱcoiledȱasȱchromatin D) looselyȱcoiledȱasȱchromatin;ȱtightlyȱcoiledȱasȱchromosomes E) looselyȱcoiledȱasȱchromosomes;ȱlooselyȱcoiledȱasȱchromatin Answer: A LearningȱOutcome: 3-3 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 4) Howȱdoȱsmallȱwater-solubleȱmoleculesȱandȱionsȱdiffuseȱacrossȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane?ȱHow doȱlipid-solubleȱmoleculesȱdiffuseȱacrossȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane?ȱ(Figureȱ3-15) A) diffuseȱbyȱosmosis;ȱdiffuseȱbyȱcarrier-mediatedȱtransport B) diffuseȱbyȱendocytosis;ȱdiffuseȱbyȱpinocytosis C) diffuseȱbyȱcarrier-mediatedȱtransport;ȱdiffuseȱbyȱpassiveȱtransport D) diffuseȱdirectlyȱthroughȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane;ȱdiffuseȱthroughȱmembraneȱchannels E) diffuseȱthroughȱmembraneȱchannels;ȱdiffuseȱdirectlyȱthroughȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane Answer: E LearningȱOutcome: 3-5 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering 5) Describeȱtheȱconcentrationȱofȱtheȱintracellularȱfluidȱrelativeȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluidȱinȱpartsȱb andȱc.ȱ(Figureȱ3-17) A) hypotonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid;ȱhypertonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid B) hypertonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid;ȱhypotonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid C) isotonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid;ȱhypertonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid D) isotonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid;ȱhypotonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid E) hypertonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid;ȱisotonicȱtoȱtheȱextracellularȱfluid Answer: B LearningȱOutcome: 3-5 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 104ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 6) Inȱtheȱfacilitatedȱdiffusionȱofȱglucose,ȱwhatȱdeterminesȱtheȱdirectionȱinȱwhichȱglucose moleculesȱwillȱbeȱtransported?ȱ(Figureȱ3-18) A) theȱamountȱofȱATPȱavailableȱinsideȱtheȱcellȱversusȱoutsideȱtheȱcell B) theȱamountȱofȱsodiumȱavailableȱtoȱbindȱinsideȱtheȱcellȱversusȱoutsideȱtheȱcell C) theȱconcentrationȱgradient D) theȱvoltageȱofȱtheȱmembrane E) theȱtonicityȱofȱtheȱcell Answer: C LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 7) Whatȱprovidesȱtheȱenergyȱforȱtheȱsodium-potassiumȱexchangeȱpump?ȱ(Figureȱ3-19) A) breakingȱtheȱhighȱenergyȱbondȱofȱADP B) theȱconcentrationȱgradientȱofȱsodium C) theȱconcentrationȱgradientȱofȱpotassium D) breakingȱtheȱhighȱenergyȱbondȱofȱATP E) theȱvoltageȱofȱtheȱcell Answer: D LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering Essay Questions 1) Describeȱtheȱwaysȱthatȱproteinsȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembraneȱallowȱaȱcellȱtoȱcontrolȱitsȱinternal environmentȱorȱinteractȱwithȱitsȱexternalȱenvironment Answer: Carrierȱproteinsȱandȱchannelsȱhelpȱcontrolȱtheȱcellȇsȱinternalȱenvironmentȱbyȱallowing specificȱmaterialsȱtoȱenterȱtheȱcell.ȱAnchoringȱproteinsȱconnectȱtheȱcellȇsȱcytoskeletonȱto extracellularȱproteinsȱorȱtoȱotherȱcells.ȱRecognitionȱproteinsȱallowȱimmuneȱcellsȱto identifyȱtheȱcell.ȱReceptorȱproteinsȱallowȱtheȱcellȱtoȱrespondȱtoȱexternalȱsignalsȱsuchȱas hormones.ȱFinally,ȱenzymesȱcanȱcarryȱoutȱchemicalȱreactionsȱinsideȱorȱoutsideȱtheȱcell, dependingȱonȱwhichȱfaceȱofȱtheȱmembraneȱtheyȱareȱattachedȱto LearningȱOutcome: 3-1 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 2) Whichȱorganellesȱareȱinvolvedȱinȱmembraneȱflow?ȱTraceȱtheȱrouteȱofȱaȱsingleȱintegral membraneȱproteinȱfromȱformationȱtoȱincorporationȱintoȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane Answer: Allȱmembranousȱorganellesȱareȱinvolvedȱinȱmembraneȱflow.ȱThoseȱmostȱdirectly associatedȱareȱtheȱER,ȱGolgiȱapparatus,ȱsecretoryȱvesicles,ȱandȱplasmaȱmembrane.ȱA membraneȱproteinȱwouldȱbeȱsynthesizedȱinȱtheȱRER,ȱthenȱflowȱthroughȱtheȱcisternaeȱto aȱtransportȱvesicle.ȱThereȱtheȱproteinȱwillȱbeȱmovedȱtoȱtheȱformingȱfaceȱofȱtheȱGolgi apparatus,ȱwhereȱitȱwillȱslowlyȱtravelȱupwardȱtowardȱtheȱmaturingȱface,ȱusually becomingȱmodifiedȱalongȱtheȱway.ȱOnceȱreachingȱtheȱmaturingȱfaceȱofȱtheȱGolgi apparatus,ȱtheȱproteinȱwouldȱbeȱembeddedȱinȱtheȱmembraneȱofȱaȱsecretoryȱvesicleȱand transportedȱtoȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane.ȱThereȱtheȱvesicleȱwillȱfuseȱwithȱtheȱmembrane, insertingȱtheȱproteinȱinȱtheȱcellȱmembrane LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc Chapterȱ3ȱȱTheȱCellularȱLevelȱofȱOrganizationȱȱȱ105 3) Whatȱorganellesȱwouldȱbeȱenhancedȱinȱaȱcellȱthatȱproducesȱdigestiveȱenzymesȱandȱsecretes themȱintoȱtheȱintestine?ȱWhy? Answer: Digestiveȱenzymesȱareȱproteins,ȱandȱtheyȱareȱproducedȱatȱaȱhighȱrateȱwhileȱaȱmealȱis beingȱdigested.ȱOrganellesȱthatȱwouldȱbeȱenhancedȱincludeȱtheȱnucleus,ȱwhichȱwould haveȱlargerȱorȱmoreȱnumerousȱnucleoliȱforȱmakingȱribosomes;ȱaȱlargerȱnumberȱof ribosomesȱforȱmakingȱproteins;ȱincreasedȱroughȱER,ȱwhereȱproteinsȱtoȱbeȱsecretedȱare made;ȱmoreȱnumerousȱorȱlargerȱGolgiȱapparatus,ȱwhereȱproteinsȱareȱpackagedȱfor secretion;ȱandȱmoreȱsecretoryȱvesiclesȱtoȱcarryȱtheȱenzymesȱtoȱtheȱsurfaceȱofȱtheȱcell LearningȱOutcome: 3-2 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying 4) Differentiateȱbetweenȱtranscriptionȱandȱtranslation Answer: Inȱtranscription,ȱRNAȱpolymeraseȱusesȱtheȱnucleotideȱsequenceȱonȱDNAȱtoȱconstructȱa complementaryȱstrandȱofȱmRNA.ȱInȱtranslation,ȱribosomesȱuseȱinformationȱcarriedȱby theȱmRNAȱstrandȱandȱtRNAȱtoȱsynthesizeȱtheȱcorrespondingȱpolypeptide LearningȱOutcome: 3-4 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 5) Whenȱaȱpersonȱreceivesȱintravenousȱfluidsȱtoȱhelpȱbuildȱupȱbloodȱvolume,ȱwhyȱisȱitȱimportant forȱtheȱfluidȱtoȱbeȱisotonic? Answer: Intravenousȱfluidsȱmustȱbeȱisotonicȱtoȱpreventȱtheȱcellsȱfromȱlosingȱorȱgainingȱwater.ȱIf theȱsolutionȱwasȱhypertonic,ȱtheȱcellsȱofȱtheȱbodyȱwouldȱloseȱwater,ȱshrink,ȱandȱpossibly beȱharmed.ȱOnȱtheȱotherȱhand,ȱtheȱintroductionȱofȱhypotonicȱfluidȱwouldȱcauseȱtheȱcells toȱswellȱandȱtissuesȱtoȱrupture LearningȱOutcome: 3-5 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying 6) Defineȱosmosisȱandȱtellȱinȱwhatȱdirectionȱitȱoccurs Answer: Osmosisȱisȱtheȱtransferȱofȱwaterȱacrossȱaȱsemipermeableȱmembraneȱdueȱtoȱaȱdifference inȱconcentrationȱofȱimpermeantȱsolutes.ȱWaterȱmovesȱfromȱlowerȱtoȱhigherȱsolute concentrationȱ(orȱfromȱhigherȱtoȱlowerȱwaterȱconcentration,ȱorȱfromȱlowerȱtoȱhigher osmolarity,ȱorȱfromȱlowerȱtoȱhigherȱtonicity) LearningȱOutcome: 3-5 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 7) Duringȱkidneyȱdialysis,ȱaȱpersonȇsȱbloodȱisȱpassedȱthroughȱaȱbathȱthatȱcontainsȱseveralȱions andȱmolecules.ȱTheȱbloodȱisȱseparatedȱfromȱtheȱdialysisȱfluidȱbyȱaȱmembraneȱthatȱallows water,ȱsmallȱions,ȱandȱsmallȱmoleculesȱtoȱpass,ȱbutȱdoesȱnotȱallowȱlargeȱproteinsȱorȱbloodȱcells toȱpass.ȱWhatȱshouldȱtheȱcompositionȱofȱdialysisȱfluidȱbeȱforȱitȱtoȱremoveȱureaȱ(aȱsmall moleculeȱwithoutȱchangingȱtheȱbloodȱvolumeȱ(removingȱwaterȱfromȱtheȱblood)? Answer: Forȱtheȱdialysisȱfluidȱtoȱremoveȱureaȱwithoutȱremovingȱwater,ȱitȱshouldȱnotȱcontain urea.ȱBecauseȱureaȱisȱaȱsmallȱmolecule,ȱitȱwillȱdiffuseȱthroughȱtheȱdialysisȱmembrane fromȱanȱareaȱofȱhighȱconcentrationȱ(theȱbloodȱtoȱanȱareaȱofȱlowȱconcentrationȱ(the dialysisȱfluid).ȱToȱpreventȱanȱassociatedȱosmoticȱwaterȱmovement,ȱtheȱdialysisȱfluid shouldȱhaveȱanȱosmoticȱconcentrationȱsimilarȱtoȱthatȱofȱbloodȱplasma,ȱbutȱwithȱhigher concentrationsȱofȱsolutesȱsuchȱasȱbicarbonateȱionsȱorȱglucose.ȱAsȱureaȱdiffusesȱintoȱthe dialysisȱfluid,ȱglucoseȱandȱbicarbonateȱdiffuseȱintoȱtheȱblood;ȱasȱaȱresult,ȱtheȱsolute concentrationsȱremainȱinȱbalanceȱandȱnoȱosmoticȱwaterȱmovementȱoccurs LearningȱOutcome: 3-5 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 106ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e 8) A)ȱWhatȱareȱtheȱsimilaritiesȱbetweenȱfacilitatedȱdiffusionȱandȱactiveȱtransport?ȱB)ȱWhatȱareȱthe differences? Answer: A)ȱBothȱprocessesȱuseȱcarrierȱproteinsȱandȱexhibitȱsaturation.ȱB)ȱFacilitatedȱdiffusionȱis drivenȱbyȱaȱconcentrationȱgradient,ȱdoesȱnotȱconsumeȱATP,ȱandȱsoȱisȱȈpassive,Ȉȱwhereas activeȱtransportȱisȱactive,ȱconsumesȱATP,ȱandȱmovesȱaȱsubstanceȱupȱitsȱconcentration gradient LearningȱOutcome: 3-6 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding 9) Tellȱhowȱaȱcarcinogenȱcanȱcauseȱcancer,ȱandȱdescribeȱtheȱprogressionȱofȱcancer Answer: Someȱcarcinogensȱdirectlyȱcauseȱrapidȱcellȱdivisionȱandȱothersȱareȱmutagensȱthatȱmay mutateȱaȱgeneȱthatȱregulatesȱcellȱgrowth,ȱdifferentiation,ȱorȱdivision.ȱCancerȱbeginsȱwith increasedȱcellȱdivisionȱtoȱproduceȱaȱclusterȱofȱcellsȱcalledȱaȱtumorȱorȱneoplasm.ȱThese cellsȱchangeȱtheirȱappearance,ȱloseȱtheirȱresponseȱtoȱcertainȱinhibitoryȱsignals,ȱandȱmay acquireȱotherȱmutations.ȱMalignancyȱoccursȱasȱcellsȱfromȱtheȱtumorȱinvadeȱsurrounding tissues.ȱMetastasisȱoccursȱwhenȱtheseȱcellsȱenterȱtheȱcirculatoryȱsystemȱandȱstartȱtumors inȱdistantȱregionsȱofȱtheȱbody.ȱAngiogenesisȱisȱtheȱgrowthȱofȱbloodȱvesselsȱintoȱthe regionȱofȱtheȱtumor.ȱTumorsȱcanȱdisruptȱnormalȱfunctionȱbyȱfailingȱtoȱcarryȱoutȱtheir regularȱfunctions,ȱphysicallyȱinterferingȱwithȱnormalȱtissue,ȱoutcompetingȱnormal tissuesȱforȱnutrients,ȱorȱoverproducingȱtheirȱnormalȱproducts,ȱsuchȱasȱhormones LearningȱOutcome: 3-10 BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc ... 8)ȱaidsȱtheȱformation of theȱspindleȱapparatus A) 1 and 7,ȱ2 and 6,ȱ3 and 8,ȱ4 and 5 B) 1 and 8,ȱ2 and 5,ȱ3 and 6,ȱ4 and 7 C) 1 and 7,ȱ2 and 8,ȱ3 and 5,ȱ4 and 6 D) 1 and 5,ȱ2 and 6,ȱ3 and 7,ȱ4 and 8... Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc 66ȱȱ Test Bank for Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 11e 15) Which of theȱfollowingȱisȱnotȱaȱfunction of membraneȱproteins? A) bindȱtoȱligands B) regulateȱtheȱpassage of ions C) actȱasȱcarrierȱmolecules for variousȱsolutes...64ȱȱ Test Bank for Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 11e 5) Whatȱwouldȱbeȱanȱexample of aȱcellȱmaintainingȱhomeostasisȱatȱtheȱcellularȱlevel? A) aȱcell of theȱintestineȱsecretesȱdigestiveȱenzymes
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