Test bank performance management 3rd edition by aguinis chapter 06

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Chapter Chapter 6—Gathering Performance Information True/False Questions 6.1 The basic components that appraisal forms should contain are employee information; accountabilities, objectives, and standards; competencies and indicators; major achievements and contributions; developmental achievements; developmental needs; plans and goals; stakeholder input; employee comments; and signatures (Suggested points: 2, [6.1]) 6.2 Only forms adopting a results-oriented approach need the following features: simplicity, relevancy, descriptiveness, adaptability, comprehensiveness, clarity, communication, and time orientation (Suggested points: 2, [6.2]) 6.3 The mechanical approach to computing an overall performance score involves taking every aspect of performance into consideration and arriving at a defensible summary (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.4 Yearly performance appraisal meetings falling on the anniversary date of the employee’s hire date are the ideal method of communicating performance expectations to the employee (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.5 During the formal performance review meeting the employee’s performance is discussed from the employee and supervisor’s perspective (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.6 All six appraisal meetings should be held as separate meetings (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.7 Supervisors are the best raters of employee performance (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.8 Self-appraisals should not be used as the only source of performance data because they may be more lenient and biased than other ratings (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.9 Ratings gathered from different sources in the organization will mostly be similar given that they are all rating the same employee (Suggested points: 2, [6.7]) 6.10 Regardless of who rates performance, the rater is likely to be affected by biases that could distort the resulting ratings Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.11 The two main reasons that open-ended (i.e., comments) sections are typically not used effectively are that (1) it is not easy to systematically categorize and analyze such comments and that (2) quality, length, and content may vary (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.12 Peers are in the best position to evaluate performance in relation to strategic organizational goals (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) Multiple-Choice Questions 6.13 The basic component that requires forms to contain job title, division, pay grade or salary, and evaluation period is referred to as: A.Accountabilities, objectives, and standards B.Competencies and indicators C.Basic employee information D.Major achievements and contributions (Suggested points: 2, [6.1]) 6.14 The basic component that requires forms to contain definitions of the various knowledge, skills, and abilities to be assessed together with their observable behaviors is referred to as: A Accountabilities, objectives, and standards B Competencies and indicators C Basic employee information D Major achievements and contributions b (Suggested points: 2, [6.1]) 6.15 The feature that recommends that a form specify expectations about past and future performance is referred to as: A Clarity B Comprehensiveness C Time orientation D Descriptiveness c (Suggested points: 2, [6.2]) 6.16 is the feature of forms that ensures that raters provide evidence of performance regardless of the level of performance A Clarity B Comprehensiveness C Time orientation D Descriptiveness Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter (Suggested points: 2, [6.2]) 6.17 The _ method of computing an overall score relies on the weights given to indicate the relative importance of each performance dimension measured to prevent personal bias from entering into the rating A creative B mechanical C methodological D judgmental (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.18 The following are tools for addressing the challenges of open-ended (i.e., comments) sections, EXCEPT: A Computer-aided text analysis (CATA) software B Establish the goals of the information provided C Training in systematic and standardized rating skills D Add weighted scores to obtain overall score (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.19 The meeting is a time to discuss how the system works and where the responsibility of the employee and the supervisor are outlined A system inauguration B self-appraisal C development plan D objective setting (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.20 During the meeting, an employee’s developmental needs and the resources and methods available to meet those needs are discussed A system inauguration B self-appraisal C development plan D objective setting (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.21 An employee’s _ is/are usually best-equipped to rate how well the employee removes organizational barriers, shields employees from politics, and improves other employee’s competence A peers B customers C supervisor D subordinates (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.22 Suggestions to improve the quality of self-appraisals include all of the following, EXCEPT: Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ A B C D 6.23 Use comparative as opposed to absolute measurement systems Allow employees to practice their self-rating skills Assure confidentiality Focus on the past (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) Rating behaviors are influenced by: A Motivation to provide accurate ratings B Motivation to distort ratings C A and B D None of the above (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.24 To maximize merit increases, to encourage employees, to promote undesired employees out of the unit, and to make managers look good to their supervisors are all reasons to employee ratings A inflate B not give C deflate D none of the above (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.25 To shock employees, to teach rebellious employees a lesson, to send a message to employees to leave the division, and to build documentation of poor performance are all reasons to _ employee ratings A inflate B not give C deflate D none of the above (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.26 Training programs that explain the reasons for implementing performance management systems; how to observe, record, and measure performance; and how to use the appraisal form should A decrease intentional rating errors B decrease unintentional rating errors C A and B D none of the above (Suggested points: 2, [6.9]) 6.27 rating errors result because of the complexities involved in observing performance, storing that information in memory, and then recalling that information while rating an employee A Intentional B Unintentional C Negative Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter D Positive (Suggested points: 2, [6.9]) 6.28 Which of the following are among the major components of an appraisal form? A Pay scale E.Names of feedback suppliers F.Developmental achievements G.None of these (Suggested points: 2, [6.1]) 6.29 What are the two main strategies to obtain an overall performance score for an employee? A.Judgmental and mechanical H.Judgmental and objective I.Subjective and objective J.Mechanical and industrial (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.30 What is the purpose of using weights? A.To gain strength K.To allow a supervisor to come to an objective and clear overall performance score L.To identify strengths and weaknesses M.To allow a supervisor to use his/her own subjective ideas when coming to a clear overall performance score (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.31 Which of the following are included in the six possible formal meetings between a subordinate and a supervisor in a performance management system? A.Self-appraisal and debate session N.Debate session and performance review O.Customer satisfaction review and merit/salary review P.Merit/salary review and classical performance review (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.32 The meeting during which the employee’s performance is discussed, including both the perspective of the supervisor and the employee, is called a A.developmental plan Q.self-appraisal R.classical performance review S.system inauguration (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.33 Who can be included as possible sources of performance information? A.Supervisor Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ T Peers U.Subordinates V.All of these (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.34 Disagreement about an employee’s performance as perceived by different sources is a problem A always W never X.inevitably Y.not necessarily (Suggested points: 2, [6.7]) 6.35 Which of the following is a motivation to inflate ratings? A.To build a strongly documented written record of poor performance Z.To maximize merit raise/rewards AA.To teach a rebellious employee a lesson BB.To shock employees (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.36 Which of the following is a motivation to give deflated ratings? A.To promote undesired employees out of the unit CC.To make the manager look good to his/her supervisor DD.To teach a rebellious employee a lesson EE.To increase supervisor’s likelihood of promotion (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.37 What is the overall objective of a rater training program? A.To ensure that raters know the consequences of making errors in evaluations B.To provide raters with tools that will allow them to implement the performance management system effectively C.To introduce raters to an overall view of performance management systems FF.To give raters an opportunity to network with other raters (Suggested points: 2, [6.9]) Essay-Type Questions 6.38 Based on the following job description and list of competencies for a software sales position, please create a performance appraisal form that contains the basic components (Table 6.1) as well as the desirable features of a performance appraisal form (Table 6.2) Job description: Responsible for selling company software programs to schools in designated districts Individuals are responsible for project managing the preparation of customized sales material for each school in their districts Salespeople are also responsible for preparing and giving sales presentations to Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter relevant district employees Finally, the salesperson is responsible for identifying and cultivating key relationships in his/her districts Competencies: • Project Management: organizes and plans projects, completes in timely fashion, and performs at a high quality level • Sales Performance: total sales meet company standards, and demonstrates aggressive but ethical sales practice • New Clients: makes in-roads into school districts, schedules presentations to prospective clients, and closes contracts • Client Relationships: maintains effective client relationships, able to upgrade and deliver new services to clients, and receives praise from clients • Technical Expertise: understands software packages, able to teach clients how to best use software, and can troubleshoot with clients (Suggested points: 10, [6.2]) 6.39 Using the form you designed in question 6.38, complete the form and come up with an overall rating of performance with a hypothetical employee in mind Next, using the weights below, recalculate an overall performance score Discuss the implications of using both methods for employee and organizational performance Actual Accomplishments Project Management Sales Performance New Clients Client Relationships Technical Expertise 2 (Suggested points: 10, [6.3]) 6.40 Using the job description and appraisal form used in the previous two questions, discuss who should rate the performance of this employee (e.g., supervisor, peers, and/or customers)? Discuss why you chose each rater and how conflicts between ratings will be resolved (Suggested points: 5, 5[6.6], 5[6.7]) 6.41 List the desired features of all appraisal forms (Suggested points: 2, [6.2]) 6.42 Describe the judgmental strategy for obtaining an overall performance score (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.43 Describe the mechanical strategy for obtaining an overall performance score (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 6.44 In which strategy is a supervisor most likely to introduce his/her own bias and why? (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.45 Describe the challenges associated with including an open-ended (i.e., comments) section in performance appraisal forms (Suggested points: 2, [6.3]) 6.46 What are the advantages and disadvantages of completing performance reviews on or around an employee’s anniversary date? (Suggested points: 2, [6.4]) 6.47 What are the advantages and disadvantages of completing performance reviews on or around the end of the fiscal year? (Suggested points: 2, [6.4]) 6.48 What is meant to be accomplished in the self-appraisal meeting? (Suggested points: 2, [6.5]) 6.49 What are the problems with peer evaluations? (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.50 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using customers as a source of performance information? (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.51 Provide suggestions of what can be done to improve the quality of self-appraisals (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.52 The motivation to provide accurate ratings is determined by … (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.53 The motivation to distort ratings is determined by … (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.54 What are the motivations for rating inflation? (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.55 What are the motivations for rating deflation? (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.56 Provide two recommendations for reducing intentional rating distortion (Suggested points: 2, [6.8]) 6.57 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using supervisors as raters? (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 6.58 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using peers as raters? (Suggested points: 2, [6.6]) 6.59 When the performance management system uses different sources for ratings, what expectations and actions should be included in the process? (Suggested points: 3, [6.7]) 6.60 List five things rater training programs should cover (Suggested points: 2, [6.9]) Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ Answers 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 6.28 6.29 6.30 6.31 6.32 6.33 6.34 6.35 6.36 6.37 T F: All performance appraisal forms need those features F: This is the judgmental method of computing overall performance F: More frequent communication with employees is desirable, and having appraisal meetings on the anniversary date makes it hard to allocate rewards and bonuses T F: The appraisal meetings can be combined as needed or held separately F: Depending on the performance areas being rated, peers, subordinates, or customers may be better suited to rate performance T F: Ratings from different sources are likely to be different given that different stakeholders are likely to interact with the employee in very different capacities T T F: Supervisors are in the best position to evaluate performance in relation to strategic organizational goals C B C D B D A C D D C A C C B C A B D C D D B C B Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 6.38 Note: This form includes possible information for the overall rating provided to the hypothetical employee in question 6.39 Note that the respondent may provide very different information and ratings, which are acceptable as long as the information provided is consistent with the ratings Performance Review Form Employee Name: Title: Manager: Date of Appraisal Meeting: _ Employee Performance Reviews improve employee performance and development by encouraging communication, establishing performance expectations, identifying developmental needs, and setting goals to improve performance Use the form below to list examples of outstanding performance or achievements, as well as areas of performance that need improvement Please provide open comments on your employee’s performance Complete each section and list examples of performance where applicable Job Description/Key Responsibilities/Required Tasks: Responsible for selling company software programs to schools in designated districts Individuals are responsible for project managing the preparation of customized sales material for each school in their districts Salespeople are also responsible for preparing and giving sales presentations to relevant district employees Finally, the salesperson is responsible for identifying and cultivating key relationships in his/her districts Note expected accomplishments versus actual accomplishments (Please rate as Did not meet expectations—1, Met expectations—2, or Exceeded expectations—3 and provide comments): Sally was expected to reach a reasonable amount of sales in all of her districts, and she performed at a lower rate compared to her peers She did establish new relationships with several districts previously using other software companies She gave an acceptable number of sales presentations and her sales materials meet company standards List the areas where the employee developed, such that they will be able to take on additional responsibilities or be eligible for high-profile assignments: Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ Sally made significant strides developing new relationships within inner city school districts and she will receive three more new inner city school districts as a result of her accomplishments Areas of development for upcoming quarter (i.e., communication skills, teamwork, project management skills, budgeting experience, etc.): Sally must raise her sales figures in the upcoming quarter She must also improve her technical expertise and her ability to tailor her sales presentations to her clients Goals for upcoming quarter (Please list S.M.A.R.T goals): She will enroll in and successfully complete the “Closing Sales Part II” training course by the end of the first month in the quarter She will also follow a more experienced salesperson on two sales calls during the first two weeks of the second month in the quarter She will improve her sales figures in two of her five current districts by the end of the quarter Please circle the number below that best describes the employee’s performance in the following areas (Please see attached job description for definitions of the following competencies and behavioral indicators that signal the presence of the following competencies): Competencies & Indicators Project Management: meets project deadlines, keeps stakeholders up-todate on developments, holds organized project meetings Sales Performance: clients comment positively on performance, organizes sales material, demonstrates good persuasion skills, tailors presentations to clients New Clients: seeks out new clients, attends conferences to build relationships, closes new contracts Client Relationships: receives high customer service ratings, gives excellent customer service, upgrades services to clients as needed, clients ask for by name Needs Acceptable Excellent Improvement 3 3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Technical Expertise: answers questions about software, successfully teaches new team members and clients software attributes Average Performance Score Including Key Accountabilities Employee Use Only Please provide comments and examples of behaviors to describe your performance in the past quarter _ _ Manager Signature Date Employee Signature Date Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 6.39 Please see the ratings in question 6.38 for the judgmental method of computing an overall score (Note that the respondent may provide very different information and ratings, which are acceptable as long as the information provided is consistent with the ratings.) Based on some of the performance elements being rated between and 3, we gave Sally an overall rating of a (instead of the average of 1.6) See the table below for the overall score calculated using the mechanical procedure (This rating came up even lower, at 1.4.) Using this method ensures that the rater’s personal biases are controlled and that the elements that are most important to organizational success are given the most weight Areas of Performance Actual Accomplishments Project Management Sales Performance New Clients Client Relationships WeightScore 1 1 2 Technical Expertise Overall Score of Performance 1 W*S 3 1.4 6.40 Based on the nature of this sales job, we recommend that peers, clients, and the immediate supervisor all rate performance The supervisor is qualified to rate actual accomplishments versus expected accomplishments, new clients, and technical expertise The supervisor is suited to rate these areas because he will be privy to sales information for each subordinate Furthermore, the supervisor will know the number of new clients that the individual has contacted and the technical expertise based on direct evaluation of performance as well as customer feedback The customer is best suited to rate performance regarding sales performance and client relationships, because the client is the individual witnessing the performance and interacting in the relationships Peers are best suited to rate technical expertise and project management, because they will know how well peers know the software based on the classes that they take together, and they will know project management because they are the individuals who the salesperson will be managing If ratings come into dispute, the supervisor’s rating will carry more weight over peers and an average of customer and supervisor ratings will be used in the event they are in disagreement 6.41 The desired features of all appraisal forms are: o Simplicity o Relevance o Descriptiveness o Adaptability o Comprehensiveness o Definitional clarity o Communication Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter o Time orientation 6.42 The judgmental strategy for obtaining an overall performance score requires consideration of every aspect of performance and then arriving at a defensible summary 6.43 The mechanical strategy for obtaining an overall performance score requires consideration of the scores assigned to each section of the appraisal form and then adding them up to obtain an overall score 6.44 A supervisor is most likely to introduce bias in the judgmental strategy because, in this strategy, there are no clear rules regarding the relative importance of various performance dimensions, and there is no direction as to how to combine scores for these dimensions into an overall score 6.45 Open-ended sections such as the comments section of performance appraisal forms are typically not used effectively because of two main challenges First, it is not easy to systematically categorize and analyze such comments Second, the quality, length, and content of these comments may be more a function of the culture of the organization and the writing skills of the person filling out the form than actual KSAs of the employee being rated 6.46 The advantages and disadvantages of completing performance reviews on or around the employee’s anniversary date are: Advantage: Supervisor doesn’t have to all the forms at one time Disadvantage: Because anniversary dates vary, resulting rewards cannot be tied to the fiscal year 6.47 The advantages and disadvantages of completing performance reviews on or around the end of the fiscal year are: Advantages: Cross-employee comparisons are much easier; rewards can be tied to the fiscal year; goal setting is more easily aligned with organization goal setting Disadvantage: Supervisors have to complete forms for all employees at one time, creating an added workload 6.48 In the self-appraisal meeting, the employee’s self-appraisal is discussed It is the opportunity for the employee to share his/her perspective on his/her own performance This is not a time for the supervisor to pass judgment on the employee’s self-appraisal 6.49 Peer evaluations may cause problems because such evaluations may not be readily accepted when employees believe that there is friendship bias; peers are less discriminating among performance dimensions as compared to supervisors; peers are often not given the same training supervisors receive regarding appropriate evaluation of performance Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Part II: System Implementation _ 6.50 The advantages and disadvantages of using customers as a source of performance information include the following: Advantage: The feedback from customers can be particularly useful when a job requires a high degree of interaction with the public or with customers Disadvantage: May involve a costly and time-consuming process 6.51 Suggestions to improve the quality of self-appraisals are as follows: o Use comparative as opposed to absolute measurement systems o Allow employees to practice their self-rating skills o Assure confidentiality o Emphasize the future 6.52 The motivation to provide accurate ratings is determined by whether the rater expects positive and negative consequences of accurate ratings and whether the probability of receiving these rewards and punishments will be high if accurate ratings are provided 6.53 The motivation to distort ratings is determined by whether the rater expects any positive and negative consequences of rating distortions and the probability of experiencing such consequences if ratings are indeed distorted 6.54 Motivations for rating inflation include: o Maximize merit raise/rewards o Encourage employees o Avoid creating a written record o Avoid confrontation with employees o Promote undesired employees out of unit o Make manager look good to his/her supervisor 6.55 Motivations for rating deflation include: o Shock employees o Teach a rebellious employee a lesson o Send a message to employee that he/she should consider leaving o Build a strongly documented, written record of poor performance 6.56 Two recommendations for reducing intentional rating distortion are: o Have raters justify their ratings o Have raters justify their ratings in a face-to-face meeting 6.57 The advantages and disadvantages of using supervisors as raters are as follows: Advantages: Supervisors are in the best position to evaluate performance versus the organization’s strategic goals; supervisors can make decisions about rewards; and supervisors are able to differentiate among performance dimensions Disadvantages: Supervisors may not be able to directly observe performance and their evaluations may be biased Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 6.58 The advantages and disadvantages of using peers as raters include: Advantages: Peers are in an excellent position to assess the employee’s contribution toward the team (teamwork) Disadvantages: Peers may be influenced by context effects, possible friendship bias, and they may be less discriminating 6.59 When the performance management system uses different sources for ratings, disagreement should be expected It is important to ensure that employees take an active role in selecting which sources will rate which dimensions and that the employees receive feedback by source (i.e., customers said this about your performance) In addition, different weights should be assigned to scores by source, depending on their importance 6.60 Rater training programs should cover: • Information—how the system works o Reasons for implementing the performance management system o Information on the appraisal form and system mechanics • Motivation—what’s in it for me? o Benefits of providing accurate ratings o Tools for providing accurate ratings • Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance o How to identify and rank job activities o How to observe, record, and measure performance o How to minimize rating errors • How to interact with employees when they receive performance information o How to conduct an appraisal interview o How to train, counsel, and coach Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc publishing as Prentice Hall ... with tools that will allow them to implement the performance management system effectively C.To introduce raters to an overall view of performance management systems FF.To give raters an opportunity... outstanding performance or achievements, as well as areas of performance that need improvement Please provide open comments on your employee’s performance Complete each section and list examples of performance. .. weight Areas of Performance Actual Accomplishments Project Management Sales Performance New Clients Client Relationships WeightScore 1 1 2 Technical Expertise Overall Score of Performance 1 W*S
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