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TheLawofLibraries andArchives TheLawofLibraries andArchives BryanM Carson SCARECROWPRESS,INC PublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica byScarecrowPress,Inc Awhollyownedsubsidiaryof TheRowman&LittlefieldPublishingGroup,Inc 4501ForbesBoulevard,Suite200,Lanham,Maryland20706 www.scarecrowpress.com EstoverRoad PlymouthPL67PY UnitedKingdom Copyright©2007byBryanM Carson Allrightsreserved Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorby anymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisher BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationInformationAvailable LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData Carson,BryanM.,1965– Thelawoflibrariesandarchives/BryanM Carson p cm Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex ISBN-13:978-0-8108-5189-4(hardcover:alk paper) ISBN-10:0-8108-5189-X(hardcover:alk paper) Library legislation-United States Archives-Law and legislation-United States Fair use (Copyright)–United States I Title KF4315.C372007 344.73'092-dc22 2006020318 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—PermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSI/NISOZ39.48-1992 ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica Tomyparents, AdaLouCarsonandHerbertL Carson, whotaughtmehowtowrite and tomywife,GayleNovick, whohasprovidedmyinspirationforthepastsixyears Contents Acknowledgments LibrariesandtheU.S LegalSystem Contracts:AMeetingoftheMinds CopyrightandPatentLaw FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:TheBasicsofUsingInformationLegally CopyrightandEducation TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw LicensingofIntellectualProperty InformationMalpractice,Professionalism,andtheUnauthorizedPracticeofLaw andMedicine SearchWarrants,Investigations,LibraryRecords,andPrivacy 10 InternetUsePoliciesandtheFilteringDebate 11 EmploymentandWorkplaceLaw 12 FormingaNonprofitOrganization Notes Index AbouttheAuthor ExpandedTableofContents Acknowledgments Chapter1 LibrariesandtheU.S LegalSystem Chapter2 Contracts:AMeetingofMinds Chapter3 CopyrightandPatentLaw Chapter4 FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:TheBasicsofUsing InformationLegally Chapter5 CopyrightandEducation Chapter6 TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw Chapter7 LicensingofIntellectualProperty Chapter8 InformationMalpractice,Professionalism,andthe UnauthorizedPracticeofLawandMedicine Chapter9 SearchWarrants,Investigations,LibraryRecords,andPrivacy Chapter10 InternetUsePoliciesandtheFilteringDebate Chapter11 EmploymentandWorkplaceLaw Chapter12 FormingaNonprofitOrganization SupplementalMaterialsonWebsite HowtoReadaLegalCitation Table1.1 ReportersContainingStateCourtCases Table1.2 ReportersContainingFederalCourtCases Table1.3 SetsContainingFederalStatutesandRegulations Table1.4 Encyclopedias,Digests,andAnnotations Conclusion Chapter2 Contracts:AMeetingoftheMinds DefinitionofaContract A Offers B Acceptance,Rejection,andCounter-Offers C TheConceptsofConsiderationandReliance D TheStatuteofFrauds GovernmentalContracts LegalDamagesforBreachofContract A CompensatoryDamages B PunitiveDamages C ConsequentialDamages D LiquidatedDamages E PromissoryEstoppel EquitableDamages A InjunctionsandSpecificPerformance B ReformationofContracts C Quasi-contractualRemedies IllegalContractsandAgreementsAgainstPublicPolicy Conclusion Chapter3 CopyrightandPatentLaw CopyrightLaw A DerivativeWorks B InternationalProtectionforCopyrightLaw C FairUse InfringementofCopyright A RemediesforCopyrightInfringement B ActualDamagesandStatutoryDamages C TheSonyCase D TheFile-SharingCases TheWorkforHireDoctrine A EmployeesversusIndependentContractors:TheReidCase B StatutoryCategoriesandWorkforHireAgreements Figure3.1 CopyrightAssignmentClause C WorkforHireontheCollegeCampus ExceptionstoCopyrightLawforLibrariesandArchives Figure3.2 CopyrightNoticeforLibraries DurationofCopyright Table3.1 DurationofCopyright TheU.S PatentSystem Conclusion Chapter4 FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:TheBasicsofUsing InformationLegally WhatIsFairUse? A TheNatureoftheUse B TheNatureoftheCopyrightedWork C AmountUsed,Substantiality,andEffectonPotentialMarket D CananArtistPlagiarizeHimself?TheCaseofJohnFogerty FairUseandtheConstitution:AFirstAmendmentRight? FairUseandtheCommonLawofCopyrights A StateCommonLaw,FederalCopyright,andtheQuestionofPreEmption B CommonLawCopyrightandtheFairUseDoctrine C CopyrightLawandUnfixedWorks D UnpublishedManuscripts Conclusion Chapter5 CopyrightandEducation WhatCanYouDoinaClassroomorLibrary? A CopyrightandE-Reserves DistanceEducationandCopyrightLaw A The1976CopyrightActandDistanceEducation B TheTEACHActandTransmissionofPerformances C WhattheTEACHActCovers Figure5.1 CopyrightNoticeforOnlineClass Conclusion Chapter6 TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw TrademarkLaw A DilutionofTrademarks B PalmingandReversePalming C TheDastarCaseandtheRelationshipbetweenTrademarkand Copyright Trademarks,DomainNames,andCybersquatting InternetLinkingandFraminginCopyrightandTrademarkLaw A Copying,Displaying,andTransmittingFiles B CopyrightandTrademarkIssueswithDeepLinkingandFraming C OtherLegalIssueswithLinkingandFraming TradeSecrets A TheCaseofthe“AncientFamilySecret!” B ReasonableEffortstoMaintainSecrecy C LegalandEquitableRemediesforTradeSecrets D LibrarianConfidentialityandTradeSecretLaw Conclusion Chapter7 LicensingofIntellectualProperty TheUniformComputerInformationTransactionsActandtheAttempt toCreateaSpecialLawofLicensing Halvorson,T R Hamilton,Ian Hand,JudgeLearned harassment Harper,Georgia HarryPotterandtheHalf-BloodPrince HarvardBluebook Hatch,SenatorOrrin Hauptman,Robert Healey,Paul Heinlein,Robert Hemingwaycase hiringpractices holdingsquestions Hoon,Peggy hostileworkenvironment HustlerMagazine ICANN(InternetCorporationforAssignedNamesandNumbers) illegalcontractsandagreementsagainstpublicpolicy impliedcontracts incorporatingnonprofitorganizations independentcontractors copyrightlaws employmentandworkplacelaw independenteconomicvalue inevitabledisclosuredoctrine informationmalpractice AmericanLibraryAssociation Seealsomalpractice infringementofcopyrights Seecopyrights injunctions contracts copyrightinfringements bootlegs HarryPotterandtheHalf-BloodPrince Napster WindDoneGone instructionaltexts,worksforhire intellectualfreedom Seefreedomofspeech intellectualproperty Article1SectionClauseofU.S Constitution contractlaw copyrights Seecopyrights defined fairuse Seefairuse freelancearticles licensing Seelicensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty patents Seepatents permissionsfor policies softwareanddatabases tradesecrets Seetradesecrets trademarks Seetrademarks intelligence-gathering SeeForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceAct;searchwarrants interlibraryloans,copyrights intermediatescrutiny internationalprotectionofcopyrights internationaltradeagreements InternationalTrademarkAssociation Internet: CopyrightActof1976 distanceeducation Seedistanceeducationandcopyrights educationandcopyrights InternetCorporationforAssignedNamesandNumbers linkingandframing resources trademarks copying,displaying,transmittingfiles deeplinkingandframing defamation linkingandframing usepolicies AmericanLibraryAssociation Children’sInternetProtectionAct(CIPA) U.S SupremeCourtruling collectiondevelopment harassmentoflibrarians heightenedscrutiny libraryresponsibilities resourcesfor unblockingfilters SeealsoWebsites InternetCorporationforAssignedNamesandNumbers(ICANN) InternalRevenueCode§501(c)(3)status Seetax-exemptstatus JohnDoeprivacycases: Connecticut NewYork jointcopyrights Jonas,David journalist’sprivilege juniormark defined jurisdictionforcourtordersandsearchwarrants justcauseforbeingfired Kaner,Cem Kaufman,Paula Kennedy,Justice knowledgeofcopyrightinfringement labor: unions Seealsoemploymentandworkplacelaw Lange,David LanhamAct law,unauthorizedpracticebyinformationprofessionals Leahy,SenatorPatrick learnedemployees lectures,fairuse legaladviceasunauthorizedpracticeoflaw legalannotations legalcitations legaldamagesforbreachofcontract legalinterviews Leidecke,John Lewinsky,Monica LexNotes Li,Yanqing liabilitylimitations LibraryHotelinNewYork libraryprivilegeunderevidencecodesofGeorgiaandNewYork libraryrecords: defined privacy Seeprivacyofpatroninformationandlibraryrecords LibraryServicesandTechnologyAct(LSTA) licensetoenjoy licensetoexclude licensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty assignmentofexistingrights choice-of-lawissues click-throughlicenses compilations computersoftwareanddatabases contractlaw contracts databases defined distinctionsbetweenlicensingagreementsandsales fairuse freelancearticles organizationsforcopyrightedmaterial patents permissionsforuse proposedlaw salesandlicenses shrink-wraplicenses signedlicenses software specialcollections Tasiniv NewYorkTimes UniformCommercialCodeArticle2(B) UniformComputerInformationTransactionsAct Websites limitedpublication linkingandframing liquidateddamagesforbreachofcontract LouisandAnneAbronsFoundation Love,James lukeskyywalker(Campbell,Luther) MacDonald,Mary MadridProtocol Mahnk,Karen Maimonides malpractice codeofethics definitionofprofessional dutyofcare liabilitylimitations negligence professional,described unauthorizedpracticeoflaw protectionfrom VirginiaStateBarguidance unauthorizedpracticeofmedicine Seealsoinformationmalpractice Mandela,Nelson mapsasworksforhire markets,effectoffairuseonpotentialmarkets marks Seetrademarks mediatedinstructionalactivities medicaladviceandunauthorizedpracticeofmedicine meetingofminds Seecontracts membershiporganizations “Minneapolis12” MinnesotaCouncilonNonprofits misattributioninWebsites missionstatementsofnonprofitorganizations Moatz,Harry ModernLanguageAssociation Monaghan,Tom monetarydamagesforcopyrightinfringement Montgomery,Jack Moseleycase motionpicturesasworksforhire Napster NationalConferenceofCommissionersonUniformStateLaws(NCCUSL) NationalEndowmentfortheArts(NEA) NationalLaborRelationsBoard(NLRB) NationalScienceFoundation(NSF) nationalsecurityletters(NSLs) negligenceactions Seealsomalpractice Nelson,JamesA NewYorkPublicLibrary NewYorkTimes: FBILibraryAwarenessProgram Tasinicase non-exemptemployees noncompetitionagreements nondisclosure: agreements PATRIOTAct privacypolicies nonprofitorganizations accountingpractices advisorygroups affiliatedorganizations articlesofincorporation auditcommittees boardsofdirectors auditcommittees ethicsof bylaws electioneering ethicsforboardmembers governingdocuments articlesofincorporation bylaws grassrootslobbying incorporating MinnesotaCouncilonNonprofits missionstatement Sarbanes-OxleyAct tax-exemptstatus affiliatedorganizations articlesofincorporation electioneering grassrootslobbying notices: CommerceBusinessDaily copyrights,noticesrelatedto Washington,D.C subpoena OccupationalSafetyandHealthAct(OSHA) OCLC(OnlineComputerLibraryCenter) off-siteusers offerofemploymentletters offersforcontracts OfficeofFederalProcurementPolicyAct OnlineComputerLibraryCenter(OCLC) onlinematerials: TEACHAct Seealsodistanceeducationandcopyrights Internet Websites openrecords Orbison,Roy overtimepay pagenumbersinlegalcitations palmingandreversepalming paperreserves parodies: fairuse FirstAmendmentprotection trademarks particularityrequirementforsearchwarrants passingoffintrademarklaw PatentandTrademarkOffice patentlaw copyrightinfringement designpatents first-to-filerule first-to-inventrule librarysearches licenses PatentandTrademarkOffice PatentReformActof2005 provisionalpatentapplications telephones tradesecrets trademarks utilitypatents waterbeds PatentReformActof2005 PATRIOTAct administrativeorders ALAinterpretation computermonitoring jurisdictionofcourts lawenforcementvisits nationalsecurityletters nondisclosureprovisions penregisterprovisions renewalof searchwarrants standardofproofnecessaryforsearchwarrants wiretapprovisions SeealsoForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceAct patronconfidentiality: records Seeprivacyofpatroninformationandlibraryrecords tradesecrets penregisterprovisions,PATRIOTAct performanceofnondramaticworks,copyrightprotection permanencyofformandfairuse permissionsforuse Seelicensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty personnelmanuals Peters,MaryBeth piercingthecorporateveil plagiarism: copyrights Seecopyrights ofoneself trademarklaw Polelle,Michael politicalactioncommittees(PACs) Pope,Alexander pornographyinWebsitelinkingandframing PregnancyDiscriminationAct principleregisteroftrademarks priorartunderpatentlaw priorrestraintsonspeech privacy: records Seeprivacyofpatroninformationandlibraryrecordstradesecrets privacyofpatroninformationandlibraryrecords AttorneyGeneralopinionsinKentuckyandHawaii computermonitoring disclosurethatsearchhasbeenperformed dueprocess ethics evidencecodeofGeorgiaandNewYork FBILibraryAwarenessProgram lawenforcementvisits nationalsecurityletters nondisclosure particularity penregister privilegedcommunications probablecause searchandseizure Seesearchwarrants stateprivacylaws AttorneyGeneralopinions forchildren informationnotprotected informationprotected librariescovered privilegedcommunications tableofstateswithdetailsregardingtheirprivacylaws subpoenas suicidalpatrons typesofinformationcovered typesoflibrariescovered violence,threatsof wiretaps SeealsoForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceAct;PATRIOTAct privatefoundations Seenonprofitorganizations privilegedcommunications underevidencecodeofGeorgiaandNewYork Seealsoconfidentiality proselibraryusers probablecause,searchwarrants professionalemployees promise promiseesandpromisors promissoryestoppel “protectitorloseit,”trademarks provisionalpatentapplications publiccharities publicdomain,worksentering publicpolicy,agreementsagainst punitivedamagesforbreachofcontract qualificationsforemployment quantummeruit quantumvalebant quasi-contracts quidproquoharassment RailwayLaborAct Raitt,Ronald Randall,Alice rationalbasistest Reagan,PresidentRonald reasonableaccommodations reasonableefforttomaintaintradesecrets records Seelibraryrecords Redmondcase ReferenceandUserServicesAssociation(RUSA) referenceinterviews reformationofcontracts regularsecretsandtradesecretsdistinguished RehabilitationAct Rehnquist,ChiefJustice Reidcase rejectionsandcounteroffers relianceoncontracts remote-usepolicies renewalofPATRIOTAct reporterscontainingstatecourtcases RequestsforInformation(RFIs) RequestsforProposals(RFPs) RespondeatSuperiordoctrine reversepalmingofforpassingoff Rubin,Richard RUSA(ReferenceandUserServicesAssociation) salesandlicensingagreements:distinguished Salinger,J D Salingercase Sarbanes-OxleyActof2002 Schembechler,Bo Schruers,Matt searchandseizure FourthAmendmentprotection particularity probablecause searchwarrants particularity probablecause searchwarrants computermonitoring disclosurethatsearchhasbeenperformed dueprocess FBILibraryAwarenessProgram jurisdictionofcourts nationalsecurityletters particularity particularityrequirement PATRIOTAct SeePATRIOTAct;penregisterandwiretap provisions probablecause standardofproofnecessaryforsearchwarrants searchingU.S patentsystem self-perpetuatingorganizations self-plagiarizationandfairuse seniormarks September11th SeePATRIOTAct servicemarks Seealsotrademarks setscontainingfederalstatutesandregulations sexualharassment shopliftinginvestigation shrink-wraplicenses signedlicenses SmallBusinessAct software: licensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty UniformComputerInformationTransactionsAct SonnyBonoCopyrightTermExtensionAct Sonycase Souter,JusticeDavidHackett sovereignimmunityprinciple specialcollections,licenses specificperformance spidersprogram Springer,RandelS standardofproofnecessaryforsearchwarrants Stanleycase Starr,Kenneth statelaws: fairuseunderstatecommonlaw Seealsostatutes StatuteofFrauds statutes: citationstolegalcasesandstatutes federal Seefederallegislation workforhireagreements,statutorycategories statutorydamagesforcopyrightinfringement Stevens,JusticeJohnPaul StreamCast strictscrutiny Sturm,JohnF subpoenas subscriptions Seelicensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty substantiality,andeffectonpotentialmarket suggestivemarks suicidalpatrons supplementalmaterialson supplementalregisteroftrademarks supplementaryworksforhire supportURL SupremeCourt SeeU.S SupremeCourt surveillance SeeForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceAct;searchwarrants tableofappropriateandinappropriateemploymentinterviewquestions tableofstateswithdetailsregardingtheirprivacylaws tarnishmentoftrademark Tasinicase licensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty tax-exemptstatus affiliatedorganizations articlesofincorporation electioneering grassrootslobbying nonprofitorganizations TEACHAct teaching: academiclibrarians copyrightissues Seeeducationandcopyrights Technology,Education,andCopyrightHarmonizationAct(TEACHAct) telephones: patentlaw telephonedirectoryfairusecase testsasworksforhire textoflibraryprivacylaws,howtofind tradeagreements tradedress Seealsotrademarks tradesecrets confidentialityforlibrarians defined employmentlaw legalandequitableremedies maintainingsecrets patentlaw patronconfidentialityinlibrarysettings reasonableefforttomaintainsecrecy regularsecretsandtradesecretsdistinguished two-parttest Seealsotrademarks trademarks applicationfor copyrights cybersquatting DastarCorporationv 20thCenturyFoxFilmCorporation deeplinkingandframing defamationinWebsitelinkingandframing defined dilutionoftrademarks displayingonlinefiles domainnames expiredcopyrightsandpatents,useoftrademarkstocircumvent fairuse framing,defined generic Internet copying,displaying,transmittingfiles deeplinkingandframing defamation linkingandframing juniormark Seejuniormarklawof applicationfortrademark dilutionoftrademark linkingandframing misattributioninWebsites mutualexclusivity,copyright,andtrademarkrights palmingofforpassingoff parodies patents plagiarism pornographyinWebsitelinkingandframing “protectitorloseit” reversepalming tradesecretslaws Seetradesecretslaws transmittingonlinefiles typesof U.S PatentandTrademarkOffice U.S SupremeCourt “useitorloseit” Websitelinkingandframing WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganization tradesandprofessionalemployees translationsasworksforhire transmittingonlinefiles trebledamages 2LiveCrewcase two-parttestfortradesecrets UCC SeeUniformCommercialCode(UCC) unauthorizedpracticeoflawandmedicine: malpracticebyinformationprofessionals unblockingfilters unfairuseoftrademarks unfixedworks,fairuse UniformCommercialCode(UCC): contractlaw licensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty UniformComputerInformationTransactionsAct(UCITA) UniformSystemofCitation(HarvardBluebook) UniformTradeSecretAct Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act (USA PATRIOTAct) SeePATRIOTAct UniversalCopyrightConvention UniversityofPhoenix unpublishedlectures unpublishedmanuscripts URLforsupportWebsite U.S Constitution Seeconstitutionalissues U.S CopyrightOffice U.S CourtofAppeals,filesharingcases U.S DefenseDepartment U.S DepartmentofEducation U.S DepartmentofLabor U.S PatentandTrademarkOffice(USPTO) patentsearches trademarks U.S SupremeCourt Children’sInternetProtectionAct citations copyrights dueprocess fairuseandparody filesharingcases Ford,Gerald,autobiographyof Internetusepolicies Reidcase sexualharassment Sonycase Tasinicase trademarks workforhiredoctrine USAPATRIOTAct SeePATRIOTAct “useitorloseit”trademarks utilitypatents Vacwellcase Victoria’sSecretcast videocassetterecorders(VCRs) copyrightviolationsand violence,threatsof VirginiaBarAssociationguidelinesregardingreferencequestions voidabinitio volumenumbersinlegalcitations Walker,Margaret warningsrelatedtocopyrights waterbedsandpatents Watkins,Sherron Websites: distanceeducation Seedistanceeducationandcopyrights licensestouseproductsofintellectualproperty restriction SeeInternetusepolicies support trademarks,Websitelinkingandframing UniformComputerInformationTransactionsAct SeealsoInternet Wengert,Robert Whytecase Wilder,Thornton WindDoneGone wiretapprovisions,PATRIOTAct Wood,Don workforhiredoctrine answermaterialsfortests atlases audiovisualwork oncollegecampuses commissionedworks compilations contributionstocollectiveworks independentcontractors instructionaltexts maps motionpictures Reidcase supplementaryworks TEACHAct tests translations workplaceconsiderations Seeemploymentandworkplacelaw WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganization(WIPO) WorldWideWeb SeeWebsites Wright,Richard writtencontracts StatuteofFrauds wrongfulterminationofemployment Seeemploymentandworkplacelaw AbouttheAuthor Bryan M Carson is an associate professor and Coordinator of Reference & Instructional ServicesatWesternKentuckyUniversityLibraries HereceivedhisB.A degreeineconomics fromAdrianCollege,J.D degreefromtheUniversityofToledo,andM.I.L.S degreefromthe UniversityofMichigan Heiscurrentlyworkingonadoctorateinhighereducationleadership andpolicyatVanderbiltUniversity’sPeabodyCollegeforTeachers Bryan is a member of the Kentucky and Ohio bars He has written extensively about intellectual property, access to information, and legal issues relating to libraries, and has spoken at numerous state and regional conferences He writes a popular column, “Legally Speaking,” for the journal Against the Grain Bryan has also taught classes for the Library MediaEducation(schoolmedia)master’sdegreeprogramatWesternKentuckyUniversity BryanisamemberoftheKentuckyBarAssociation,theLouisvilleBarAssociation,the Warren County Bar Association, the American Library Association, the Reference & User ServicesAssociation(co-chair,AccesstoInformationCommittee),theLibraryAdministration & Management Association (former chair, Public Relations & Marketing Section Governmental Advocacy Skills Committee; member, Education & Training Committee), the Kentucky Library Association (former chair, Library Instruction Roundtable), the Kentucky SOLINETUsersGroup(formerchair),andtheAmericanIntellectualPropertyAssociation .. .The Law of Libraries and Archives The Law of Libraries and Archives BryanM Carson SCARECROWPRESS,INC Publishedin the UnitedStates of America byScarecrowPress,Inc... The ideaisthat,afteryouhavereadthisbook,youwillnotonlyunderstand the rules,butyouwillalsounderstandwhy the law isfashioned the wayitis Beingableto understand the reasonsfor the law willhelp libraries and archives toruninamoreefficient... the law, on the other hand, it is the policy and the history behind the rulethatismoreimportantthan the ruleitself In the law, rulesareflexibleenough toapplytoeachparticularset of facts
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