01 overview of PLC AB system

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DAY SESSION 1-1 OVERVIEW OF AB PLC’S SYSTEM Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 WHAT IS PLC? • Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a computer-based device that used to control industrial equipment • Used to replace relay functions 1-2 • PLC controlling an equipment based on input/output status of the equipment and logical program Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 RELAY • Relay was used for control logic • Relay is a simple device that use magnetic field to control the switch • Contact that will be closed when the coil energized is called normally open • Contact that will be closed when the coil wasn’t energized is called normally closed 1-3 Coil Arus Listrik Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 1-4 HOW DOES RELAY CONTROL? Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 1-5 EQUIVALENCY BETWEEN RELAY AND PLC PROGRAM Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 1-6 PLC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 BASIC COMPONENTS OF PLC • Processor • Memory outputs inputs • Power Supply I/O System Power Supply • I/O Interface • Programming Device & Languages PROCESSOR Memory Unit 1-7 Programming Device Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 HOW DOES A PLC WORK ? • Examine the status of inputs and outputs • Controls some process or machine through outputs using some control logic • This control logic is executed periodically by the processor in a predetermined sequential order 1-8 • User can change the control logic using a programming language and it is stored in the program memory Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 PLC WORK POWER ON Sanity Check STOP Indikator On Yes Error No Save to Memori Scanning All Inputs Ladder Logic Solved Outputs Change Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 1-9 Scanning All Outputs PLC WORK (2) Real Input POWER ON Scanning Input New Output Overview of AB PLC’s System 1-10 Scanning Operation Execution! – 10 December 2010 PLC SYSTEM DESIGN Process Description I/O Sizing Memory Sizing Selecting programming language Peripheral requirements System drawing and I/O wiring diagrams 1-28 System programming Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 PROCESS DESCRIPTION States the purpose and the steps of the process/plant operation Process Description is the most important step in the design process Bridge of communications between the user and the designer 1-29 • Piping and Instrument Diagram (P&ID) and Mechanical Flow Diagrams (MFDs) • Simplified drawing that shows only the equipment and instrumentation controlled or measured by the PLC is required • This drawing will be used to show the status of the process in each step or state to aid in the programming of the system Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 1-30 PIPING & INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM (P&ID) Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 I/O SIZING (1) Estimate the number of input/output (I/O) required to control the process • Obtain the number of device from P&ID diagram • Add the number of I/O points from each devices to obtain total I/O points Consider different types of I/O : • Discrete AC/DC • Limit switches, push buttons, selector switches, solenoid, etc • TTL • solid state displays and electronic instrumentation • Analog 1-31 • Level transmitter, pressure transmitter, etc • Encoders Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 I/O SIZING (2) Select PLC size : • Micro : up to 32 I/O points • Small : 32 - 256 I/O points • Medium : 256 - 1024 I/O points • Large : > 1024 I/O points Estimate the number of I/O module • Classify each type of I/O points • Discrete, analog, isolated, TTL, dry contact Add spare and future expansions (10-20% spare capacity) Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 1-32 • Select suitable I/O modules from PLC manual and obtain the number of I/O points per module • The number of each I/O module type required = [Total I/O points] / [Number of I/O points per module] MEMORY SIZING The amount of memory required depends on : • control program complexity • the number of I/O points Precise (almost impossible) method to determine memory size : • Write out the control program • Count the number of instructions used • Multiply this count by the number of words used per instructions (obtained from PLC programming manual) • Add the amounts of memor used by executive programs and the processor overhead Practical method : Overview of AB PLC’s System 1-33 • Total memory = 10 x [the number of I/O points] – 10 December 2010 I/O AND MEMORY SIZING EXAMPLE • Remote Area : I/O = 70 + 35 + = 111 • Remote Area : I/O = 95 + 50 + 10 = 155 • Main Process Area : I/O = 300 + 156 + 32 + = 493 • Total I/O points = 759 • Spare points = 10% x 759 = 76 Overview of AB PLC’s System PLC size = Medium-sized (1024 I/O points max.) Memory size = 10 x 759 = 7590 or 8K 1-34 I/O Points – 10 December 2010 REDUNDANT CONFIGURATION • I/O modules are not permitted in either chassis of a redundant chassis pair 1-35 • Both chassis of a redundant chassis pair must have identical slot-for-slot configurations Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 SELECTING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE Most PLCs offer the basic ladder logic instructions plus a combination of the other types of languages Programming language selections is depends on : 1-36 • Complexity of the control system • Background knowledge of the control system programmers and operators Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 PERIPHERAL REQUIREMENTS Peripheral = other equipment in the PLC system that is not directly connected to field I/O devices • • • • • • Compact portable programming device from PLC manufacturer Portable PC with PLC software Magnetic tape storage unit to store control program PROM Programmer Process I/O simulators Communications modules • Depends on plant network design • Extra modules is required for integration within different brands • Operator interfaces hard-wired local and main control panels GUI software runs on a personal computer Intelligent peripheral devices such as touch screen Industrial PC with function keys and GUI software Overview of AB PLC’s System 1-37 • • • • – 10 December 2010 SYSTEM DRAWING Gives an overall view of the system hardware • • • • • I/O modules processor peripheral equipment system interface communication cabling 1-38 Useful in identifying all the interface cables by model number Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 EXAMPLE OF I/O WIRING DIAGRAMS • Field wiring is normally indicated by a dashed line • PLC output addresses are given on the left-hand side • TB = Terminal Box 1-39 • JB = Junction Box Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 SYSTEM PROGRAMMING Person involved in system programming : • System design engineer • Plant operations personnel • Maintenance personnel • Control system integrator Programming by system design engineer takes less time and require less documentation (flowcharting, process description, etc.) 1-40 Selection of programming language type should usually be left to plant operations personnel for easier maintenance and troubleshooting Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 INSTALLATION Control Panel Design • Layout • Heating Consideration • Enclosure Standards (NEMA) Maintenance Features Panel Duct and Wiring Design Power Distribution Design Grounding Considerations Electrical Interference Considerations I/O Module Installation and Wiring Overview of AB PLC’s System 1-41 Equipment Layout Design – 10 December 2010 NEXT SESSION 1-42 AB CONTROLLOGIX PLC’S HARDWARE CONCEPT Overview of AB PLC’s System – 10 December 2010 ... Listrik Overview of AB PLC s System – 10 December 2010 1-4 HOW DOES RELAY CONTROL? Overview of AB PLC s System – 10 December 2010 1-5 EQUIVALENCY BETWEEN RELAY AND PLC PROGRAM Overview of AB PLC s System. .. System – 10 December 2010 1-6 PLC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Overview of AB PLC s System – 10 December 2010 BASIC COMPONENTS OF PLC • Processor • Memory outputs inputs • Power Supply I/O System Power Supply... Outputs Change Overview of AB PLC s System – 10 December 2010 1-9 Scanning All Outputs PLC WORK (2) Real Input POWER ON Scanning Input New Output Overview of AB PLC s System 1-10 Scanning Operation
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