MONOGRAPH OF THE ORDER OF OLIGOCHAETA

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Handle with EXTREME CARE, mis volume is and ; damaged or brittle CANNOT be repaired! photocopy only return to staff donotpm in if necessary bookdroo OLIGOCHAETA JJonbon HENRY FROWDE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE AMEN CORNER, MACMILLAN & CO., E.C 66 FIFTH AVENUE /:, A MONOGRAPH OF THE ORDER OF OLIGOCHAETA BY FRANK EVERS BEDDARD M.A (OxoN.), F.R.S PROSECTOR TO THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON AND LECTURER ON BIOLOGY AT GUY'S HOSPITAL OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS M DCCC XCV *$ i PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS BY HORACE HART PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY PREFACE are already two works dealing with the Order Oligochaeta first of these, in time of publication, is The Professor Franz Vejdovsky's 'System und Morphologie der Oligochaeten,' which appeared in 1884 Six years later Professor L^on Vaillant contributed to the volumes on the ' ' a volume and a half dealing with the same group It might appear, therefore, at first sight, that the ground has already been taken up, and that there is no occasion for the present work It must be recollected, however, that it is nearly ten years since the Annelids of the Suites k Buffon publication of Professor Vejdovsky's treatise, and that during this period more particularly of the earthworms, Professor Vejdovsky's object, moreover, was more our knowledge of the Oligochaeta, has increased enormously especially to give an account of the structure of the group from his own observations, and to spend less time in dealing with the results of other not that the previous work upon the group was by any means neglected by him, but no great amount of detail was given as to the genera and species of Oligochaeta not occurring in his native country observers work rather more comprehensive in scope, but there so that the large is no account of any researches made after the year 886 amount of literature which has appeared since that date has not yet been M Vaillant's is ; M Vaillant's contribution also is rather incorporated into any general work more devoted to the systematic side of the subject than to the description of structure appeared to me that there was room for a treatise of rather wider scope than those of either Professor Vejdovskv or Under these circumstances it PREFACE vi of M Vaillant, and one which should deal with the entire subject up to the date of publication As will be seen from the bibliography which I have given in the Appendix, the literature of this subject is large and scattered ; so that to bring together under one cover all of importance that known about the group is as yet of the Oligochaeta will possibly be considered not to have been a useless performance In attempting this labour I have received much kindly encouragement from Professor Ray Lankester, which I gratefully I have been so fortunate, through the kind influence of acknowledge Dr Burdon Sanderson, as to secure the assistance of the Clarendon Press, to the Delegates of which institution I wish to express ness The my great indebted- cost of the necessary illustrations, which has been considerable, has been largely defrayed by the generosity of Mr J P Gassiot, F Z S., 100 at my who, at the suggestion of Mr Sclater, has placed a sum of Without disposal for this purpose this very liberal act of assistance on Mr Gassiot's part this work could hardly have been undertaken The I may now say a few words about the scope of this monograph study of the group with which it deals is one which has occupied my leisureI have had the opportunity of dissecting time for the past fifteen years and examining most, if not all, of the more important types so that while ; ; a good part of the volume siderable proportion of is necessarily derived from compilation, a con- the result of first-hand knowledge Whilst recent papers into the present work, I have also it is have amalgamated my incorporated with it a certain amount of new matter which I I have not published elsewhere, and I have given, in the systematic part, descriptions of have not, however, made any lengthy investigations for the express purpose of this monograph, but I have in several cases verified the statements of others, and have corrected, in a few minor particulars, a few new species I errors of observation on the part of myself, as well as of other zoologists Those who have not followed closely the progress of knowledge in this group of animals may be surprised at the large number of pages which it has taken me to set down the facts : I have erred, however, rather on the side of compression and omission than on that of undue prolixity The omissions (with a few exceptions to be noted immediately) will not be found, I trust, to be of facts of much importance They chiefly concern the progress of our OLIGOCHAETA 762 Megaseolcx (continued) M capensis 421 Megascolides M ceylonicus 368, 370, 372, 385 M cingulatus 372, 382, 383 M coeruleus 43, 58, 64, 67, 68, 146, 148, 358, 361, 364, 386 M M M M M M M M M M M M coxii 372, 381 clendyi 370, 372, 380 diffringens 402, 427 dorsalis 146, 372, 376 elongatus 431 enoimis 360, 372, 381 M M M M M M M 69, 75, 76, 372, 383, M australis 2, 20, 41, 48, 51, 146, 358, 447, 450, 451, 488, 495 M camdenensis 448 M earner-oni 448, 502 M frenchi 488, 493 M gippslandicus 447, 448, 450, 488, 492 M grundis 448 M hulmei 448, 501 M illaioarrae 446, 448, M pygmaeus M M M M M M M M M lineatus 369 macleayi 372, 376 macquariensis 372, 378 madagascariensis 372, 385 margaritaceus 371, 383 monticola 372, 374 steeli 372, 379 373 Stirling! 371, M sumatranus 422 sylvaticus 372, 378 M sylvestris 369, 370, 522 M templetonianus 386 M tenax 372, 377 M wilsoiiiauus 372, 375 503 M incertus 447, 448, 488, 490 371, 383 lateralis 372, 380 leucocyclus 386 386 425 M newcombei 118, 372, 378 M perrieri 369 M pictus 371, 372, 384 M quadragenariits 431 IT raymondiauus 372, 373 M robustus 430 M ruber 372, 379 M sanctae-helenae 402, 403 M sieboldi 420 M 452, 456, 477, 482, 486, 497 indissimilis 371, 372, 376 M moseleyi M musicus M M 369, 45, M M M M M M iris 27, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, M attenuatus 448, 488, 491 excavata 536 exiguus 372, 373 fecundus 372, 375 fielder! 372, 379 frenchi 372, 379 frosti 372, 380 goonmurk 372, 378 gracilis 377 hallii 372 hamiltoni 372, 373 M M M M M hasselti 426 M hoggii 372, 379 M indicus 427 M M M 20, 21, 46, 51, 151, 153, 380, 444, 445, 446, 447, M M insignia 448, 501 iiitermedius 488, 492 lucasi 488, 489 macedonensis 488, 493 manni, 448, 488, 49O minor 488, 489 narrensis 488, 489 obncurus 448, 501 M ornatus 488, 495 M orthostichon n, 488, 498 M papillifer 488, 495 M perrieri 488, 496 M M 448, 504 roseus 448, 488, 491 rubens 488, 491 semicinctus 488, 494 sinuosus 447, 448, 488, 490 smithi 488, 494 493 tasmanianus 448, 450, 488, 492 tanjilensis 488, tuberculatus 447, 448, 488, 494 victoriae 488 victoriensia 448, 500 willsiensis 488, 493 Mesenehytraeus 77, 93, 95, 168, 310, 311, 312, 314 M arinatus 316, 319, 320 M beumeri 77, 127, 317, 318 M falciformis 77, 317 M fenestratus 317 M flavidus 77, 319 M flavus 318 M mirabilis 77, 316 M primaevus 77, 316 M setosus 309, 316, 319 MESOPACHYS 156 Metadrilus 151, 580, 582, 592 M rukajurdi 594 Microehaeta 14, 37, 38, 67, 68, 130, 151, 153, 624, 626, 628, 629, 631, 635, 637, 640, 664, 665, 667, 674, 677, 682 INDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES Microchiieta (continued) M beddardi 668, 669, 672, 673 Moniligaster (continued) M viridis 194, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203 M, belli 664, 669, 673 M benliami 120, 665, 668, 669, 678 M microcluieta 670 M papillata 664, 668, 669, 672 M rappi 2, 668, 689, 672, 673, 711 Microdrilus 53, 61, 140, 151, 152, 357, 444, 456, 458, 459 477 484, 6O5, 561 M saliens 458, 459, 506 Microscolex 116, 140, 150, 151, 152, 444 455 .456, 457- 459 M algeriensis 460, 462 M M M M M M M M M 46, 55, corralensis 461, 465 diversicolor 461, 466 NAIDIKA umbellifera 260 NAIDIUM 278, N brevicepn 289, 290, 302 290 luteum 278, 292 155, 156, 242, 262, 275, 278, 281, 289, N Nais dubiiis 460, 461 elegans 461, 466 gracilis 461, 465 M M nigra 480 M ruhens 450 Moniligaster 14, N auricularis 298 barbata 278, 280, 282, 283 bipunctata 283 caecilia 292 Carolina 283 caudata 298 clavicornis 283 diaphana 306 diastropha 307 N elinquis 7, 65, 106, 276, 277, 282, 283, 284, 288 N escherosa 287 N.Jlliforniis 136, 244 N.fusca 282, 288 479 193, N N N N 198, X 114, 150, greeffi 284 hamata 296 heterochaeta 277, 278, 282, 288, 295 josinae 277, 282, 285, 286, 288, 289, 295 lacustris 3, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 284, 293 37 199, 202, 203 M barwelli 197, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203 M beddardi 197, 198, zoo M deshayesi 192, 196, 198, 199, 200 littoralis 295, 328 N lurida 282, 287 *V papillosa 259, 263 N parasitica 293 N picta 283 N.proboscidea 196, 197, 198, 199, 201, 203, 204 M indicus 133, 196, 197, 198, 204 japonicus 198, 199, 201 minutus 198, 199 papillatus 198 robustus 198 ruber 198, 199 3, 216, 284 N pustulosa 261 JV 199, 200, 202, 278, 279, N gigantea 250 N gracilis 282, 286 N 55, 57, 82, 88, 93, 100, 115, 117, 118, 119, 121, 125, 140, 151, 152, 158, 159, 161, 164, 192, 194, 195, 196, 205, 575, 668, 683 M bahamensis 133, 140, 194, 196, 197, M grandis 192, 198 M houteni 194, 195, appendiculata 282, 287 N M poultoni 460, 462 M robustus 461, 464 M spatulifer 460, 463 M troyeri 461, 467 64, 153, 444, 445, 456, 459, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 304, 306, 307, 321 albida 313 N N N N N N N N N griseus 461, 464 longiseta 461, 466 michaelseni 461, 464 minutus 460, 463 M modestus 161, 459, 460, 461, 523 M monticola 461, 467 M novae-zelandiae 10, 460, 463 M papillosus 461, 465, 466 M M M M M M M MONOPYLEPHORUS 2O, 23, 268, 271 M rubroniveus 268, 269, 296 MUCIDA 691 MUTXJA 304 M heterodactyla 306 benhami 461, 467 MiUsonia 763 qiiadricvt/ndata 283 N reckei 282, 289 ,V rivulosa 284 N sanguinea 244, 252 N scoti 51O, 524, 561, 650 affinis 515 O agricola 511, 514 O beddardi 512 bukobensis 514 O contractus 511, 514 O eiseni 453, 511, 512 guatemalae 512 O hendriei 512 O lacuum 511, 515 O limicola 510, 511, 512 O occidentals 511, 512 O quilimauensis 514 rosae 511, 512 O sonorae 512 550, 551, 6, 10,15,55, 150, 152,623,624, 626, 627, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 648, 654, 656 windlei 7, 649 NITOCBIS 362, 388 N gracilis 402 Notykus 148, l6o, Onychochaeta N vejdovskyi 318, 336 NEREIS (continued) 171, 172, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 6, 7, 529, 53> 65O, 619, 623 O antarcticus 122, 517, 520, 550, 551, 553 O huttoni 519, 520, 550, 551, 552 O multiporus 33, 41, 47 48, 49 55> 156, 187, 188 NEODKILUS 522, 523 N monocystis 518, 535 NEOENCHTTTRAEUS 314, 315, 335, 344 N bisetosus 344 .A Octochaetus 521, 523, 27, 33, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 52, 53, 63 86, 103, 105, 115, 151, 153, 162, 169, P P P P P P P 101, 156, 168, 194, 247, 309, 310, 312, 314, 321, 329, 340, 349, 350, 325 beumeri 315, 318 catanensis 324 cavicola 325 affinis charkoviensis 325 erassus 324, 332 ebudensis 331 P flaws 318 P.fossarum 324 P georgianus 332 P germanicus 323, 328, 329 P P P P P gracilis 325 krohnii 324, 325 lacteus 322, 336, 337 lacustris 325 limosus 327 P lineatus 323, 324, 325, 328 P litoreus 325, 329 P maxiraus 323, 324, 325, 327 INDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES Pachydrilus Perichaeta (continued) (continued) P barbadensis 391, 393, 394, 395, 397, 400, minutus 309, 324, 325, 328 P nervosus 323, 324, 326, 328, 337 P 412, 415 P opacus 325 P pagenstecheri 309, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327 P profugus 324, 325, P P P P 326 P bicincta 392, 402 rivalis 328 semifuscus 331, 341 similis 325 P sphagnetorum 322, 330 P subterraneus 324, 325, 327, 328 P verrucosus 324, 325, 326, 331 Paradrilus 127, 578, 579, 580, 581, 615 P purpureus 615, 616 P rosae 573, 615, 616 P ruber 615, 616 P bivaginata 371 P bosschae 398, 432 P bournei 395, 398, 403 P P P P brachycycla 382 burlariensis 403 campanulata 424, 425 canaliculata 364, 366, 375 P capensis 393, 395, 397, 400, 421, 432 P carinensis 395, 398, 404 P ceylonica no, 119, 121, 168, 385 P cingulata 382 P coerulea 369, 384 P copelandi 367, 442 PAEANAIS 294 P littoralis 295, 296 P uncinata 296 Parenchytraeus 311, 314, 357 P litteratus 357 Pareudrilis 112, 134, 151, 574, 580, 582, 583, 595, 596, 599 P stagnalis 596 Pelodrilus 14, 18, 85, 108, 143, 145, 158,191 P violaceus 192 PBLOKYCTES 246, 260 P arenarius 247 P inquilina 261, 296 Peloscolex 228, 232, 258 P variegatus 258 10, n, 23, 41, 43, 44 45, 52, 54, 55 56, 63, 64, 71, 75, 78 79, 82, 85, 86, 97, 98, 101, 104, 109, no, 113, 114, 115, 119, 123, 129, 130, 131, 141, H2, 156, i, 8, 9, 143 r 48, 149 15 S*, 161, 162, 164, 166, 169, 237, 240, 358, 360, X 53, 171, X 54, 172, 361, 362, 363, 364, 388, 434, 435, 439, 457, 480, 481, 49* 506, 518, 520, 522, 524, 549, 558, 628, 633, 34, 635, 642, 655, 661, 689 P acystis 126, 369, 391, 393, 398, 423, 430 P aeliana 395, 398, 4O5 P affinis 149, 424 P albida 387 P alsophila 367, 441 P annulata 394, 398, 426 P armata 384 P aspergillum 144, 395, 400, 410, P attenuata 364, 367, 381 P australis 366, 374 P austrina 366, 377 P bakeri 364, 365, 366 440 P barronensis 365, 366, 440 P bermudensis 43, 44, 144, 391, 395, 397, 400, 410, 430 P birmauicH 395, 398, 405 P biserialis 391, 400, 423, 43O proximus 325 Perichaeta 765 430 P corticis 369, 370 P coxii 364, 367, 381 P darnleiensis 364, 367, 394, 396, 397, 400, 406, 416 P dendyi 365, 367, 368, 380 P dicksonici 367, 441 P dicystis 402 P diffiringens 427 P divergens 390, 396, 400, 414, 417 P dorsalis 366, 376 P dubia 367, 395, 400, 443 P dyeri 29, 388, 391, 396, 397, 400, 411 P elongata 394, 397, 400, 431 P engaiiensis 396, 398, 404, 422 P enormis 364, 367, 381 P everetti 168, 389, 397, 419, 428 P txrigua 366, 373 P falcata 400, 431 P fasciata 394, 398, 405 P feae 388, 396, 398, 404 P.fecunda 366, 368, 375 P ferdinandi 390, 393, 394, 398, 418 P.fielden 367, 379 P forbesi 143, 395, 398 423 P.frenchii 367, 379 P frosti 367, 380 P goonmurk 367, 378 P gracilia 366, 371, 377 P grubei 394, 397, 398, 417 P hallii 367 P hamiltoni 366, 373 P hasselti 97, 394, 398, 426 P hawayana 395, 397, 398, 42O OLIGOCHAETA 766 Perichaeta (continued) P hesperidum 114, 394, 397, 400, 415 P heterochaeta 427 P hilgendorfi 144, 171, 389, 394, 397, 398, Perichaeta (continued) P pusilla 398, 433 P quadragenaria 394, 400, 431 P queenslandica 364, 366, 390, 395, 397, 400, 407 409 P hoggii 367, 379 P horsti 434 P houlleti 78, 124, 133, 144, 149, 359, 360, 424 384, 39 392 393 395 397 P hulikalensis 371 P ijima 359, 393, 395, 398, 414 P indica n, 29, 114, 144, 149, 388, 391, 396, 397 39_8, 402, 427 4, P indissimilis 367, 376 P inflata 400, 433 P intermedia 364, 365, 439 P japonica 394, 398, 413, 426 P Juliana 402 P kinabaluensis 168, 389, 429 P lateratts 367, 380 P lawsoni 371 P leucocycla 363, 369, 386 P lochensis 367, 442 P longa 385, 395, 398, P P P P P stelleri 168, 389, 393, 397, 398, 419, 428 P stirlingi 366, 373 P stuarti 368, 522 P subquadrangula 402, 428 P sumatrana 358, 395, 398, 422 P sylvatica 367, 378 P taifensis 417 P tanjilensis 367, 442 409 luzonica 369, 384 machayi 366, 376 mucquariensis 366, 378, madagascariensis 152, 385 P malamaniensis 44 P mandhorensis 395, 398, 418 P martensi 396, 400, 414, 416 P taprobanae 10, no, 360, 388, 390, 391, 411, 416 394 397 P tenax, 366, 377 P tenkatei 400, 432 P terrae-reginae 364, 366, 441 P masatakae in, 395, 400, 414, 417 P mauritiana 369, 394, 400, 415 P minima 388, 394, 400, 414 P modigliani 396, 398, P tijibodae 398, 432 P tokioensis 394, 400, 413 405 P tricystis 402 P monilicystis 410 P monticola 366, 374 P morrisi 388, 394, 400, 411 P musica 359, 388, 389, 394, 398, 409, 425 P neoguinensis 389, 396, 398, 416 P newcombei 378 P nipponica 394, 396, 397, 400, 413 P novae-zelandiae 364 P novarae 395, 397, 398, 417 P obscura 367, 442 P operculata 421 P pallida 397, 400, 415 429 P urceolata 398, 432 P vaillanti 396, 398, 421, P variabilis 400, 431 422 407, 415 P walhallae 367, 443 P wilsoniana 366, 375 P yarraensis 367, 369, 441 Perionyx 422 P peregrina 364, 367, 396, 397, 400, P philippina 395, 398, 421 P posthuma 41, 144, 396, 397, 400, P pulchra 394, 398, 408 3- P vitiensis 390, 394, 397, 398, 407, 427 P vordermanni 380, 396, 400, 403 peguana 395, 398, 403 P pentacystis 390, 396, 398, P udekemi 144, 393, 395, 398, 425 P upolueusis 360, 392, 395, 397, 400, 402, P violacea 388, 396, 398, P viridis 388, 402 P papillata 68, 428, 429 P parva 398, 433 P 420 P raymondiana 366, 373 P ringeana 390, 393, 395, 397, 398, 419 P robusta 41, 395, 400, 430 P rodericensis 402 P rokugo 389, 409 P rubra 367, 379 P salettensis 371 P saiigirensis 130, 389, 394, 398, 418 P sarawacensis 168, 389, 429 P schmardae 394, 413 P sieboldi 64, 389, 395, 398, 413, 420 P sinensis 360, 388, 391, 396, 400, 410 P sluiteri 395, 400, 407 P steelii 367, 379 P racemosa 394, 398, 406 46, 123, 151, 152, 370, 381, 435, 623 P arboricola 436, 438 P excavatus 142, 435, 696 424 P gruenewaldi 436, 437 437 P intermedius 436, 153, 362, 363, NDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES Perionyx Polytoreutus (continued) P macintosh!! 436, 438 P PEBRIERA 363, 388 362, 388 P californica 369 P montana 369 PHOTODRILUS 444, 455, 456, 468 P 2>/iO8phoreux 472 85, 208, 210, 217, 218, 222, 256, 277, 327 P pragensis 219 Phreatothrix 7, 14, 22, 23, 66, 68, 69, 72, 77, 78, 80, 85, 95, 99, 102, 132, 167, 207, 227, 228, 232, 255, 273 P subterraneus 175 Phreoryctes 66, 85, 86, 91, too, 102, 156, 157, 158, 168, 171 172, 173, 187, 191, 194, 323 P emissarius 189, 190 P filiformis 189 P heydeni 189 P meiikeanus 189, 190 P stnithii 140, 172, 188, 19O, 191 Plagiochaeta 41, 64, 151, 153, 154, 165, 359, 365, 451, 484, 516, 519, 522, 523, 327, 558, 559 P punctata 558 Platydrilus 574, 576, 580, 582, 584, 597 P callichaeta 597 P lewaensis 576, 587, 597, 598 P megachaeta 598 Pleionogaster 8, 55, 151, 153, 194, 368, 433, Polytoreutus P violaceus 575, 608, 609, 610 612 Pontodrilus 20, 22, 23, 34, 46, no, 114, 116, 117, 149 !50, 15L "58, 24, 435, 443 444 455 456, 462, 468, 627, 644, 654, 659, 696 P arenas 469, 470, 479 P bermudensis 55, 444, 468, 469, 659 P hesperidura 468, 471 P insularis 468, 471 P littoralis 468, 469, 470 P marionis 469 P phosphoreus 468, 472 Pontoscolex 4, 6, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22, 38, 48, 59 61, 67, 71, 76, 77, 120, 150, 156, 166, 279, 361, 468, 519, 520, , 151, 624, 626, 627, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, 34, 35, 37 43 45, 46, 647, 648, 649, 653, 661, 663, 664, 681 P arenicola 469, 653, 656, 659, 663, 664 P corethrurus 48, 64, 141, 149, 164, 646, 647, 656, 658, 660, 661 P hawaiensis 658, 660 P trtnitatu 646, 647 Preussia 580, 581, 582, 614 P lundaensis 582, 615 P siphonochaeta 582, 614 Pristina 275, 283, 289, 302 P breviceps go P breviseta 277, 290, 292 P equiseta 72, 277, 290, 291, 305 P.flagdlum 298 P inequalis 290 P longiseta 278, 29O P lutea 290, 292 457 586 P horsti 359, 365, 434, 435 P jagori 365, 434 P samariensis 365, 434 PLEUROCHAETA 363 P mofseleyi 386 103, 151, 444, 445, 452, 486 P fieteroporns 452, 487 P perrieri 452, 487, 496 PODODHILUS 246, 248, 249 P sylvestris 608, 613 P usindjaensis 613 55 S 3, 7, 12, 18, 19, 22, 65, PLEUHOPHLEBS 182 PLUTELLUS 34, 86, fiiini P kilindinensis 576, 608, 611 P magilensis 608, 609, 610 PBRISSOGASTEII 55, 151, 444, 450, 451, 484 P excavata 450, 486 P nemoralis 450, 486 P queenslandica 450, 485 Phreodrilus (continued) 586, 608, 611 P gregorianus 612 P saltans 436, 438 P sansibaricus 152, 436, 438 P violaceus 436, 437 PHEKETIMA 767 P proboscidea 290, 293 PRISTINAIS 209 P longiseta 291 PRONAIDITES 153,- 435, 443, 26, 58, 60, 88, 93, 136, 138, ipi, 573- 579 58o, 581, 585, 586, 593, 608, 615, 623, 666 P coeruleus 60, 582, 608, 609 611 PHOTO 297 PSAMMOBJUS 246 Psammoryctea 6, 108, 136, 228, 230, 235, 238, 240, 243, 259, 261, 262 P barbatus 1, 34, 132, 237, 26O P batillifer 260 P remifer 260 P umbellifer 245, 260 PsEUDOLUMBBICULUS 2O8, 212, 219 P claparedianus 210 231, OLIGOCHAETA 768 PTEROSTYLARIDES 293 Siphouogaster P macrochaeta 294 P parasitica 293 PYGMAEODHILUS 46, 57, 151, 453, 153, 506, 510, 521 P affinis 515 P bukobensis 514 P lacuum 515 P quilimanensis 514 Reithrodrilus 573, 580, 582, 590 R minutus 166, 573, 590 Rhinodrilus 3, 150, 152, 174, 624, 626, 627, 629, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 636, 646, Rh Rh Rh Rh brunneus 638, 641 callichaetus 642 ecuadoriensis 38, 48, 66, 637, 638, 639, 141, 636, 637, 638, 639, 640, 641 Rh parodoxus 3, 637, 639, 641 Rh proboscideus 102, 159, 642, 645 Rh tenkatei 635, 637, 639 RHODODEILUS 444, 459, 460 R minutus 463 RHODOPIS 302, 388 34, 53, 71, 74, 100, 146, 147, I I 53, 62 4, 627, 645, 667 S tamesis 646 , 6, 20, 228, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 240, 262, 272 S.ferox 7, 242, 249, 259, 263 Stercutus S niveus 263 74, 77, 310, 32O 320 STREPHURIS 242 S agilis 244 Stuhlmannia 62, 79, 88, 125, 126, 151, 574, 580, 582, 583, 684, 585, 595, 602, 613, 615, 617, 622 S variabilis 150, 574, 603 STYLARIA 156, 283, 289, 293 R.javanica 402, 403 15, 18, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 32, 33, 5, 53, 69, 74, 75, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, IJ 5, 117, I2 7> I28 r 33> J 45, 146, 147, 148, 156, 162, 175, 208, 210, 34, SparganopMlus S papillosus gulielrai 3, 37, Rhynehelmis S lurida 287 S serpentina 285 Spirosperma distinctus 641 640, 641 Rh S appendiculata 287 S gracilis 286 I 651 (continued) 586, 624, 628, 629, 643, 664, 665, 666, 675, 681, 682 S aegyptiacus 684 S emini 684 S millsoni 100, 126, 684, 685, 686 S stuhlmanni 684, 686 SLA VINA 15, 272, 281 > S fossularis 284, 285 S gracilis 281 S lacustris 65, 106, 155, 284, 285 S longiseta 290 S paludosa 284, 286 215, 223, 636 R limosella 217 R obtusirostris 217 Bipistes 281, 293 R macrochaeta 293, 294 R parasitica 293 parasitica 293 philadelphiana 284 S proboscidea 94, 284, 636 STYLINAIS 281 SAENURIS 156, 211, 242, 314, 321 Stylodrilus S S S proboscidea 284 S abyssicola 250, 313 S barbata 260 78, 85, 125, 186, 207, 208, 210, 211, 221, 225, 226, 586 S gabretae 125, 222 S canadensis 267 S diversisetosa 244 S heringiauus 222 S vejdovskii 222 S limicola 251, Sutroa 29, 30, 85, 114, 115, 117, 118, 127, 128, 131, 208, 209, 216, 222 310, 636 alpestris 223, 224 S rostrata 224 513 S lineata 328 S peculiaris 244 S taurica 244 S tubifex 244 Teleudrilus 99 126, 575, 580, 581, 617, 621, S umbellifera 260 S vagans 251, 313 S variegata 244 S velutina 259, 263, 272 SEHPENTINA 156, 281 S (juadristriata 285 Siphonogaster 125, 126, 139, 151, 153, 175, 627 T ragazzii 67, 622 Telmatodrilus 108, 115, 118, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 240, 241, 263, 265, 270 T vejdovskii 264 Tetragonurus 102, 193, 195, 692, 697 T pupa 688, 697 INDEX OF GENERA AND SPECIES THAMNODRILUS Tubifex 624, 627, 636, 640 (continued) T lonyicauda 245 T gulielmi 640 TlTANUS 174, 624, 627, 643 T marinus 244 T brasiliensis 643, 644 T forguesi 644 T.pallidug 313 Trichochaeta 3, 93, 7, 150, 152, 166, 175, 586, 624, 627, 628, 629, 631, 632, 633, 634, 636, 637, 643, 646 T barbadensis 630, 646, 647 T hesperidum 3, 7, 630, 646, 647 Trichodrilus 85, 156, 208, 210, 217, 218 T allobrogum 217 T pragensis 219 46, 444, 445, 456, 481 T dubius 482, 484 T fastigatus 445, 483 T mediocris 482, 483 T tenuis 482, 483 THITOGENIA 57^, 624 T sulcata 573 Tubifex 2, 6, 23, 30, 75, 88, 94, 95, "4, "5, "7, Il8 "9, I2 7, 106, 108, 131, 133, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 248, 255, 256, 259, 260, 261, 264, 265, 267, 269, 270, 288, > > !55, 228, 243, 244, 250, 251, 265, 266, 267 T tubifex 244 Tykonus 150, 152, 624, 627, 628, 629, 631, 632, 634, 635, 637, 638, 648, 65O T appuni 651 T grandis 634, 635, 650 41, 58, 64, no, 116, 151, 152, 167, 358, 6l > 435, 443, 444, 45 *7 47 , 623, 635 T foveatus 475 '56, 227, 228, , T gammii 472, 478, 475 T laevis 475, 476 T masoni 472, 474, 476, 478 T orientalis 412, 473, 474, 475 Uncinais 206, 275, 276, 294, 303 U littoralis 33, 72, 277, 278, 279, 294, 295 U uncinata 296 568 !3 J 37 232, 233, 242, 246, 262, 263, T pajnllosus 261, 262 T rivulorura 7, 72, 136, 137, 138, 174, Typhaeus Trigaster 41, 150, 152, 519, 524, 525, 526, 527, 529, 558 T lankesteri 142, 524, 525, 536, 559, 567, Trinephrus 769 TJnyoria 580, 596 U pupillata 596 Urobenus 64, 120, 150, 152, 166, 361, 624, 626, 627, 629, 631, 632, 634, 661 U brasiliensis 64, 634, 635, 661 U papillifer 661, 662 U teres 662 UROCHAETA T benedii 260, 261, 262 T blanchardi 137, 228, 245, 248 T bonneti 243, 244 T campanulatus 244 T coccineus 264, 265, 266 T deserticola 251 T diaphanus 245 T elongatus 250 T hyalinus 247, 296 12, 65, 624, 626, 627, 653, 654 U corethrura 658 U dubia 658 U hystrix 470, 658 URONAIS 297 Vermiculus 131, 149, 228, 230, 232, 271 V pilosus 271 VBTROVERMIS hyalinus 280 XANTHO 297 X decapoda 298 Cjcfoti PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS BY HORACE HART PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY Clarendon Press Publications ABLER Alternating Generations By HERMANN ADLER, M.D Flies With coloured a Biological Study of Crown Illustrations of forty-two Species The Birds APLIN ; Oak Galls and Gall Translated and Edited by C R STRATON, F.R.C.S Ed., F.E.S of Oxfordshire By 8vo, cloth extra, lew O V APLIN 6d 5^ ETHERIDGE Fossils of the British Islands, Stratigraphically and ZoologiPart I Palaeozoic By R ETHERIDGE, F.R.SS.L & E., F.G.S 410, i/ is KEWENSIS an enumeration of 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appended to the present work shows how very recent is our of the knowledge anatomy of the Oligochaeta Of the exotic earthworms,... behind the clitellum the clitellum ; formed by a specialized set of segments Pro&tomium In the majority of Oligochaeta a process of the first segment of the body overhangs the mouth on the dorsal... of Rhinodrilus from the mouth, and ; from a slight invagination of the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity just in front of the brain and at a point posterior to the orifices of the first pair of
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