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LONGMAN EXAM SKILLS Proficiency Longman Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world www.longman -elt com © Pearson Education Limited 1999 The right of Fiona Scott-Barrett to be identified as author of this Work has been asserted by her in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers ISBN 582 36340 First published in 1999 Second impression 2000 Set in Wilke and Delta Printed in Spain by Mateu Cromo Acknowledgements Edited and designed by Gecko Ltd Photo acknowledgements We are grateful to the following for their permission to reproduce copyright photographs: Camera Press for 58 top left; Colorsport for 58 bottom right and Rex Features for 58 top right CONTENTS MAP Section Page Proficiency Listening and Speaking: an overview page Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency: Exam factfile page Additional ideas and activities page Lesson notes and answer key (Units 1-10) pages 6-50 ! Practice exam pages 51 -53 Mock exam pages 54-56 Proficiency Listening and Speaking TeMtatflcMiKI Proficiency Listening & Speaking: an overview Approach and organisation of the Students' Book Proficiency Listening & Speaking is organised around ten theme-based units Each unit contains two listening sections and two speaking sections: Listening A: introduces the topic and key vocabulary contains two or more listening passages with tips and guidance Speaking A: provides speaking practice on topics related to those in Listening A includes tips, guidance and language support Listening B: expands and develops on the topic contains three listening passages (From unit onwards all three of these passages are of UCLES Proficiency exam length and format.) includes tips, guidance and vocabulary support where appropriate Speaking B: provides speaking practice on topics related to those in Listening B includes tips, guidance and language support Through this approach the learners: • are given gradual and thorough familiarisation with key themes and vocabulary related to contemporary topics and issues which commonly feature in the Proficiency exam • build up strategies for dealing with the tasks that appear in papers and of the exam The units may be used in chronological order, or at random However, if used at random, it should be noted that the later units offer fewer tips and less guidance and language support than the earlier units Organisation of the Teacher's Book The unit-by-unit notes contain: • Boxes containing background information on people, places or events mentioned in the Listening or Speaking sections • Boxes highlighting common errors of vocabulary, grammar or pronunciation • Answers to 'Before you listen' activities • Answers to the Listening tasks • Tapescripts for the Listening passages with the sections where the answers may be found highlighted in bold • Model responses for Speaking activities which are fairly controlled • Answers to questions on passages in the Speaking sections Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency: Exam factfile About the exam The UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate) examination leading to the Certificate of Proficiency consists of five papers: Paper - Reading Comprehension Paper - Composition ' Paper - Use of English Paper - Listening Comprehension Paper - Interview There is a maximum of 180 marks for all five papers A candidate must achieve a minimum score of about 60% of the total marks in order to pass The marks for all the papers are combined; it is not necessary for candidates to achieve a pass mark in each individual paper A pass in the Certificate of Proficiency is generally recognised by (some) universities in Britain as indicating a level of competence, which fulfills their entrance requirements in English language Proficiency Listening and Speaking 1tatftafttifii$f- Paper - Listening ff#v^ m^m^ about 40 minutes groups three or four sections making up a total of 25-30 items Unlike the First Certificate, there is no set format for the different tasks They could take the form of: • multiple choice questions • true-false questions • • • ••• ; * • > ' • - • " ,">? • • • , V-.-.:'*• * •• • •;.' ?: ' •.' • " ' ' • - note-taking and blank-filling exercises yes-no questions identifying who said what labelling diagrams listen to a spoken text and: • understand the gist • : " : ' • • • • • '•?:• • • • • • follow the significant points identify specific information understand points of detail recognise attitude, emotions and opinions infer underlying meaning by giving one mark for each correct answer Each candidate's raw score is converted to a final score out of a total of 20 marks Proficiency Listening and Speaking TaacfeMjSg Bpflfc Paper - Interview takes about 15 minutes (for individual candidates) OR about 20 minutes (paired candidates) OR about 25-27 minutes (groups of three) it conducted ki a one-to-one interview with an examiner OR an interview in pairs with an examiner OR an interview in groups of three with an examiner consists of four parts: • some general, personal or social questions (about minute) • a discussion based on one or more photographs (about minutes for individual candidates; about minutes for paired candidates; about 10 minutes for groups of three) • commenting on a short passage (about minutes for individual candidates; about minutes for paired candidates; about minutes for groups of three) • a communicative activity (about minutes for individual candidates; about minutes for paired candidates; about 12 minutes for groups of three) tests «b*y to interact in a theme-based conversation in English on general, specific or abstract topics while demonstrating appropriate control of: • fluency • accuracy • pronunciation of sentences • pronunciation of individual sounds • interactive communication • vocabulary kmartnd by awarding marks out of five for each of these six areas The raw score out of 30 is adjusted to a final score out of a total of marks Additional ideas and activities Dealing with unfamiliar vocabulary in Paper Sometimes the questions related to listening passages may contain vocabulary that candidates are not familiar with This can cause learners to get anxious about being able to answer the questions, and so they tend to ask for explanations or translations of unfamiliar words However, as they will be unable to ask for clarification during the exam, they need to learn the skill of deducing meaning from the context Often the meaning of unfamiliar words will become clear during or after the first listening To help them develop this skill, not always define unfamiliar vocabulary before listening Instead, put the unfamiliar word(s) on the board before the first listening Then ask them after the first listening if they now have a general idea of what the word relates to Frequently, a general understanding is sufficient in order to complete the task Unit 2, Listening B, Listening 1, page 16 In question mink may be an unfamiliar word After Listening 1, however, it should become clear that: a it is an animal which is used to make fur coats b it is a predator A more precise understanding of the word is not needed in order to complete the task Proficiency Listening and Speaking ItadHflrUPBook Recording vocabulary Proficiency students can very usefully spend time recording and revising vocabulary at home This assists them with all aspects of exam preparation, not just paper Many learners, however, are not sure how best to go about this, so you can this the first time together in class Example: recording vocabulary by topic Put this blank chart on the board health and medicine illnesses/health problems treatments/medicines preventive measures Ask learners to go through the unit, adding vocabulary they find in the correct section The completed chart could be: health and medicine illnesses/health problems surgery diabetes obesity heart disease high blood pressure degenerative diseases an allergy infections/infectious diseases cancer rickets scurvy food poisoning AIDS depression treatments/medicines preventive measures surgery tonics vitamins diet supplements an injection an operation a transplant a life support system pain relief vitamins tonics diet supplements vaccinations antiseptics Example: recordina vocabularv bv tvpes of word/phrase adjectives to describe people's physical condition adjectives to describe people's character adjectives to describe emotions/attitudes healthy, obese, chubby, overweight, sedentary, terminally i l l humane, compassionate reassuring/reassured, enthusiastic, scornful, astonished, furious, guilty, depressed Pronunciation In total, pronunciation makes up one third of the marks in the Proficiency interview Some common pronunciation errors are highlighted in the unit-by-unit notes However, as pronunciation errors tend to be particular to individual students, it is not possible to predict which areas will cause most difficulty The following ideas may take up a little more time in class, but will pay dividends in making learners more aware of their pronunciation of individual sounds and of complete sentences • Play selected sentences from listening passages in Proficiency Listening & Speaking and ask the students to repeat them, reproducing the sounds and intonation patterns as closely as possible You could even record the students' pronunciation of the target sentence for them to compare and correct against the original • Record students talking in the classroom while carrying out any^of the tasks in the Speaking sections of this book Two to three minutes per student should be a sufficient sample Play the recording back to let them hear and analyse their typical intonation patterns and/or pronunciation difficulties Provide a correct pronunciation model for them to practise on their own This could be done two or three times in the school year Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Book Man and the environment Listening A Before you listen Answer key b 2d 3a 4c Listening 2, page Answer key Orange County, Osceola County, Volusia County Orange County, Osceola County, Volusia County Orange County Orange County, Osceola County Orange County Orange County, Volusia County Osceola County - Listening 1, page Answer key a a past participle of a verb 5, a figure 2, an adjective describing geographical location 3, a service or organisation 6, a day or date 1, a noun relating to people b Monday (or Monday morning) 200 central died injured Weather Service local residents Background information A tornado and a hurricane are both violent winds A tornado, however, is characterised by the circular movement of its funnel-shaped centre Listening - Tapescript ; You will hear part of a radio news bulletin about a natural I disaster in Florida • Announcer Severe storms ripped across Florida in the J early hours of Monday morning, stirring u p ; deadly tornadoes that knocked out power and ; damaged or destroyed scores of buildings It is : estimated that some of the t o r n a d o e s h a d w i n d ; speeds close to 200 miles per hour, which • represents an intensity of f3 on the six-point Fujitsa ; Tornado Intensity Scale The areas affected, all in * central Florida, are Seminole County, Osceola » County, Orange County and Volusia County Reports ; are still coming in of casualties, but current • estimates place the death toll at at least 36 : people alid another 21KJ are believed to have ; sustained injuries Although the National "• Weather Service issued tornado-watch ; warnings o n Sunday evening, by the time these * had been upgraded to full-scale tornado warnings J many Florida residents had already gone to bed ; Ironically, Monday was to have been the start of « Florida Hazardous Weather Awareness Week, an * event which would have included a state-wide ; tornado drill Instead, local residents a n d '• emergency-management officials find ; themselves facing an e n o r m o u s clean-up • operation Now, we'll go over to our correspondent l in Orlando, Florida for an on-the-spot report on the tornado damage Listening - Tapescript \ The news bulletin you heard in Listening continues ; Local correspondent Well, the scene here in central Florida is one of total devastation T h r o u g h o u t the disaster-stricken area, trees have b e e n • u p r o o t e d and p o w e r lines d o w n e d Here in : Orange County, three people have died and about ; 100 mobile h o m e s a n d an a p a r t m e n t complex • have b e e n severely damaged or destroyed In t Winter Garden, a suburb of Orlando, the rrtnf of a • convenience store was ripped off and several • cars in t h e p a r k i n g lot t h r o w n skyward by the ; force of the wind Luckily, however, the three • theme p a r k s in the county -Walt Disney World, • Universal Studios Florida and Sea World - have all escaped damafie The death toll has been heaviest • in neighbouring Osceola County - so far twenty: five deaths have been reported Many of the victims were residents of a campsite near Kissimmee which "• has n o w been reduced to n o t h i n g b u t rubble : Also near Kissimmee, a 27-store s h o p p i n g centre has b e e n t o r n to pieces, leaving only the facade J standing A woman up in Volusia C o u n t y had a : lucky escape - she heard the tornado approaching • and ran next door for safety Unfortunately, her ' boyfriend refused to join her She was gone for just three minutes when the tornado struck, destroying I their mobile h o m e and killing her boyfriend : Meanwhile in Seminole County (fade) Before you listen Answer key e 2a 3b 4c 5d Listening 3, page Answer key December three to seven years higher (or warmer or about ten degrees higher) from east to west Eastern arid conditions or droughts Guano anchovies Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Book Background information El Nino: a climatic phenomenon, which occurs along the tropical west coast of South America and affects weather patterns worldwide Listening - Tapescript : You will hear a lecture about a climatic phenomenon called • El Nino ' Woman Good afternoon and welcome to the third ; lecture in our series on 'Man and Nature' Our « speaker today is Stanley Green, a meteorologist and : author of a new book called 'The El Nino ; Phenomenon' Now, I remember from my Spanish • lessons at school that 'El Nino' means 'the Christ ; Child', but don't worry, you've not stumbled into a : lecture on religion by mistake! (audience laughter ) " The El Nino Mr Green will be describing is a climatic ; phenomenon which occurs in the Pacific Ocean and • affects weather patterns worldwide So, let me hand ', over to Mr Green to tell us what it's all about ; (audience applause) : Mr Green Thank you Well, Mrs Murray was perfectly • correct in telling you that El Nino means the Christ • Child and that name originally referred to a warm : southward current that appears on the • Pacific coast of Ecuador and Peru during the ' month of December, in other words around the ; time of Christ's birthday Nowadays, however, the • term El Nino is used in a rather different sense, to " describe a collection of oceanic and : atmospheric phenomena, which occur every '• three to seven years These originate in the : Southern Pacific but can cause climatic disturbances • all round the world I think the easiest way to explain " it to you is to show you the normal wind and ocean I patterns in the Pacific region and to contrast them • with what happens during El Nino Can I have the : first slide, please? Thank you J So, this shows the normal pattern - here in the : Western Pacific the water temperature is • warm, about ten degrees higher than over J here on the coasts of Peru and Ecuador The : air pressure is low over the warm regions, so moist » air rises, causing clouds and the typical heavy rainfall characteristic of South East Asia, New Guinea and ; northern Australia In the eastern Pacific the water is • cold, the air pressure high and this creates the : typically arid conditions you find in coastal South ; America This arrow here shows the direction of the • trade winds, blowing from east to west and ; pushing the warmer surface water westwards (Next • slide, please.) Now, here we see what happens during ", El Nino The trade winds die down, or even change ; direction, and so the warmer water of the • western Pacific flows to the east, bringing : thunderstorms and heavy rain to South • America At the same time, the weather conditions J in India and South East Asia change as a result ; of the influx of cold water and high air pressure, • causing unusually arid conditions or droughts ; So how does this affect the inhabitants of these • regions? Well, apart from the inconvenience and ; discomfort of fluctuating weather patterns, El Nino ; can have drastic effects on the economy of a region I The coastal waters of Peru and Ecuador usually ' support large populations of anchovies, which thrive : : in cool waters, and anchovy-fishing is one of the economic mainstays of the region Another important source of income is guano, which is used in the regional fertiliser industry During El Nino, however, the anchovies either die or leave the area and birds, which feed on the anchovies, the same Thus, the region's two most important industries go into decline until the weather patterns are reversed again And, frequently, the economic effects are felt not just locally, but worldwide To give you an example, in 1972/73 Peru's anchovy-fishing industry collapsed as the result of El Nino Now anchovies are a major constituent of fishmeal, which is used to feed chickens, so fishmeal prices rocketed Naturally, farmers passed their rising costs on to consumers, sending chicken prices soaring by forty percent Now, some of you may be thinking that the unusual climatic patterns I've been describing are another manifestation of global warming, which is so much in the news these days But, in fact, many of my fellow-scientists believe that these fluctuations have been part of the Earth's weather patterns for thousands of years I'd now like to tell you something about the evidence (fade) I ; ' ; I : • : ; \ ; ; ' : ; ; ; • • ; • Speaking A Photographs Answer key a 1b 2c 3a Discussion points Suggested answers a S S Both L S S S Both L 10 L b local governments 3, 5, , national governments 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, , charities 1, 2, 5, 6, international aid organisations 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, insurance companies the victims and their families 8, Passages Answer key f a3 bl text the most convincing theory/It is believed that text D o not run outside./Take shelter /Count to forty text have been drafted /have had to flee a3 b c2 cl text eruption/tidal wave/earth tremors text earthquake/tremors text heavy floods/burst their banks • * " * Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Book and abilities - heredity (nature) or upbringing and environment (nurture) Politically correct is a term that describes people who make deliberate efforts to avoid any kind of discrimination in their language and behaviour e.g to avoid any potential sexism, racial discrimination, discrimination against old people, discrimination against minority groups of any kind etc Listening - Tapescript I • • : • : • ; » I ; • : • • You will hear a radio programme in which a person gives his or her personal opinions on a topic The speaker in this broadcast is talking about the)'nature versus nurture' controversy, with regard to talent and intelligence Presenter In this evening's edition of 'Soapbox' Amanda Johnson talks about the nature versus nurture debate A m a n d a J It seems that the old Nature versus Nurture dispute just won't go away For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the nurturists held sway, with the belief that providing a better environment leads to the development of better people This h a s led, at least in the western world, to important, a n d essential, reforms in the fields of education a n d social services It has not, however, delivered a society in which everyone is equally talented In 1979 the Minnesota Centre for Twin and ; Adoption research began to contact more than 100 I sets of identical twins who had been separated at : birth and reared apart Each pair of twins was • subjected to t h o r o u g h p s y c h o l o g c a l M i J I physiological tests If twins are identical, any ; differences between them are due to the environment • they were reared in, and so various features can be " put down to heredity The study concluded that ; a b o u t seventy percent of I Q is inherited In • addition, it found that in areas such as : personal interests a n d social attitudes, • identical twins reared separately are about as J similar as identical twins reared together In other words, heredity plays a m u c h larger p a r t • in individual make-up and character than • "sociologists would have us believe Of course, • this information came as n o surprise to • parents, w h o k n o w full well that, despite their : best efforts at providing early encouragement or training in all areas of endeavour, one of • their children may turn out to b e musical but : clumsy, while the other is a c h a m p i o n o n the • football field b u t totally tone-deaf' ; Thanks to DNA research, the role of genes has *_ now been linked to the development of diseases such ; as diabetes, heart disease, asthma and the : degenerative brain disease known as Alzheimer's « These discoveries have n o t provoked outraged : cries of 'discrimination' from politically • correct academics or the general public Why, I then, should the idea that genes also play a n ; important role in intelligence a n d talent b e so • t a b o o ? Last week, the psychology department ; of a British university a n n o u n c e d that there is • no such thing as an instinctive, in-built ability to I anything, but that all h u m a n achievement can : b e attributed to 'opportunities, training, • motivation, self-confidence and, most of all, : practice' The sentiments are laudable but, in my : view, neither scientific research nor common sense • bear them out Listening 2, page 72 Answer key space users communicate with the machine (or the computer or computers) directly from the brain controls movement grow inside the cones phrases on a screen the cursor controlling our thoughts disabled people Listening - Tapescript " You will hear a lecture about new developments in : computing ; Lecturer It is common knowledge that since the first : mainframe computers were developed in the 1940s, > the trend has been towards ever more powerful, : cheaper and smaller machines C o m p u t e r s which ; once took u p whole r o o m s can n o w fit in a • jacket pocket C o m p u t e r s any smaller than : that, however, are h a r d e r to achieve This is not because scientists are unable to shrink the electronics, but because of the way users c o m m u n i c a t e with the machine To work with a human, a • computer needs a screen and some kind of keyboard, " mouse or pen for putting in and manipulating : information These devices take up space A • c o m p u t e r which could take signals directly from the brain w o u l d b e truly miniature It • would also be far faster and easier to use Mental, J not physical dexterity would be all that is required This s o u n d s like science fiction, b u t may in fact s o o n become reality Researchers in I neurology in the United States have developed tiny » implants that can be put in disabled patients' brains • The implants are small glass cones w i t h ; electrodes inside They are placed in the » m o t o r cortex, the area of the b r a i n which : controls movement In time, the patients' o w n ; nerves grow inside the cones, encouraged by • chemicals which are extracted from the knees Once the nerves have grown, they connect to I the electrodes inside the cones, allowing the • computer to detect brain signals via a small transmitter located just inside the patient's skull So • how does it work and what are the benefits? Well, " one of the patients on whom the research team are : piloting the cones is an almost totally paralysed • stroke victim Thanks to the implant, h e is n o w : able to use the system to control a computer ; cursor to select phrases o n a screen, a n d thus » communicate with the outside world In : order to d o this, he h a d to learn h o w to control the cursor by thinking a b o u t moving parts of his body At the moment, the implant can only detect thoughts to move the cursor up and down or left and right, so the applications are : limited Nevertheless, the benefits are still substantial ; for a patient like this, who otherwise had no method ; of communicating at all Of course, the technique of implanting cones or chips inside the brain raises considerable questions : and doubts of an ethical nature If it is now possible • for the power of thought to control a computer, is it Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher'* BooV : • : • " ; ; : not likely that a future development would be for computers to be able to control our thoughts? This is a prospect which rightfully fills most people with horror However, many computing experts believe that the potential benefits to disabled people of this technology are so great that public demand will eventually overcome squeamishness about integrating electronics in the human body What will be needed, of course, is careful monitoring of the (fade) Listening 3, page 73 and repetitive tasks carried out by robots and automated processes, it wouldn't be in governments' interests to create an underclass of slave labour which would use up resources for food and jiousing However, in the futuref^infertile couples) w h o are unable to reproduce any other way than by cloning, are likely to want to choose the best in terms of genes for their children As this will be expensive, only a few people will be able to afford to it This is where w e could see the artificial creation of a genetically-enhanced upper class, rather than a deliberately genetically-impoverished subclass as postulated in Huxley's novel Answer key 1T 2T 3T 4F 5T 6T 7T 8T 9T Background information Dolly the Sheep and the topic of cloning were first raised in Unit 2, Listening B of this book - see Tapescript Listening on page 13 The novel Brave New World was written by the British author Aldous Huxley and published in 1932 It describes a futuristic society in which there are five classes of people alphas, betas, gammas, deltas and epsilons Gammas ,deltas and epsilons have been genetically engineered to have low intelligence and carry out menial tasks Listening - Tapescript ; You will hear part of a radio programme about cloning • Presenter Since the birth ofXtofly the Sheep, the I question of the morality of cloning, and of human ; cloning in particular, has caused tremendous • controversy; In fact, Britain has banned human cloning since 1990, and a further 18 European • nations have signed an anti:clpnijig treaty I Nevertheless, many scientists believe that the clock ; cannot be turned back and that certain forms of • human cloning are inevitable in the future My guest : today is Angela Armstrong, a professor of molecular ; biology at Cambridge University Professor I Armstrong, for many people the prospect of : human cloning ^onjures up images of a world « populated by multiple copies of Hitler, as in ; the film "The Boys from Brazil', or of a world ; with a rigid caste structure of superior • humans in positions of power and an under: class of genetically-engineered sub-beings , as • described in Aldous Huxley's novel 'Brave New World' How close is either of these scenarios ; to what may happen if research on human cloning is > allowed to go ahead? I Prof A Let's deal with the fear of armies of power-crazed • despots first For a start, pressure to use cloning to : reproduce humans is most likely to come from the • private sector It's people who want to have children, ; not governments Even if government ; programmes were set up to clone multiple • copies of one person, they wouldn't all end I up the same, as development is affected by ; chemical and hormonal changes in the womb, • which would be different in the case of each ; foetus, and by subsequent life experiences • The second fear is perhaps more justified, though I again developments are unlikely to be government-led ; - with the capacity nowadays to have many manual Presenter Does this prospect not.aDrjgl you? Prof A The idea of genetic engineering is indeed morally repellent to many people However, there are a number of vejxjjosjtivejand.humanitarian, uses to which cloning and genetic engineering could be put for example, they could be used to eliminate inherited diseases, _an application which would greatly improve the human condition But, in ethical terms, it is very hard to know where to draw the line between what constitutes a legitimate and useful genetic improvement, as in this example, and what is morally unpalatable, such as genetically engineering in an attempt to enhance intelligence or character As a scientist, however, I am not in favour of blanket legislation against research into human cloning, as this could hinder the development of many useful applications Presenter What other benefits you see cloning having, then? Prof A There is enormous potential in the cloning of individual human cells Let's take an example of a patient requiring a kidney transplant: at present some of these die before a donor can be found Even if a donor is found, there is a risk of rejection and the patient has to take powerful drugs to suppress the immune system If cloning were allowed, however, it's possible in the future that a new kidney could be grown from the patient's o w n healthy cells and there would be no danger of rejection : after transplantation In cases like this, one could • say that it's unethical not to allow research into these : potential applications of cloning B wmm^vw^^sw^^m^ Photographs Model answer The first photograph relates to the theme of body and mind in that the two children are demonstrating a skill, which requires the physical qualities of dexterity and a good ear for music At such a young age, this also demonstrates talent, which some people believe is an inherited characteristic In the second photo, I would imagine that the metal boxes attached to the wheelchairs are computers and so this photograph illustrates how Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher'* Boob technology allows people who have physical disabilities to communicate their thoughts to the outside world source: extract from an article in a serious newspaper or magazine article (actual); extract from an academic paper or journal possible) O r If I'm not mistaken, the man shown in the second photograph is Stephen Hawking, and so this image illustrates the fact that although people may be severely physically disabled, they may have brilliant minds The third photo is meant to bring out the idea of character being linked to physical appearance; for example, some people believe that you can judge whether someone has criminal tendencies just from looking at him/her Background information Stephen Hawking is a British physicist and author of 'A Brief History of Time', a best-selling book on the origins of the universe He suffers from multiple sclerosis, a degenerative neuromuscular disease and uses a computer and voice box to communicate Media and communication Listening A Listening 1, page 76 Answer key content and pacing language capabilities respond (rapidly) to danger impulsive and inappropriate developing rational thought aggressively desensitisation (or emotional numbness or numbing of the emotions) Discussion points Suggested answers • thai physically disabled people arc also menially impaired • that you can judge someone's character from their facial features • that people who wear glasses arc studious and intelligent • that black people are good dancers • that people who have tattoos or body piercing are mentally disturbed/drug users/unreliable etc • that people with long, thin hands are sensitive/ creative/ artistic • that fat people are greedy/self indulgent/ undisciplined • that people from a different ethnic group to your own are inferior/untrustworthv/lazv Passages Suggested answers Iheme: describes how you can improve your thinking by learning how to use the whole of your brain style: informal - the personal pronouns you and your frequently used; incomplete sentence (Your brain ): informal, non-specialist vocabulary source: extract from an article in a popular magazine (actual); extract from an advertisement for a seminar or training course on thinking skills (possible) theme: discusses to what extent criminality is inherited or learned style: formal - personal pronouns and personal opinions are avoided; some formal vocabulary (innate, homicide statistics) Listening - Tapescript : ; ; ; • ; • • ; • ; • I • • : • You will hear part of a radio debate on electronic media and their effects on young people Presenter Good evening and welcome to our weekly debate This evening's topic is 'Electronic Media and Young People' and our guests tonight are Mike Marshall, a specialist in child development, Tom Gates, an educational psychologist, and Ruth Bowker, a concerned parent Mike, to start off with, could you tell us something about the effects of electronic media on a developing human brain? Mike Certainly First of all, let me say that these are not all bad It depends very m u c h on_the content and pacing of the game, computer p r o g r a m m e o r TV p r o g r a m m e in question So if t h e game o r p r o g r a m m e is relatively slowpaced a n d h a s a narrative form, it can actually help t o develop a form of long-term memoryjthat w e call declarative memory, which is related t o language capabilities • However, many p r o g r a m m e s a n d games are : very frenetically-paced a n d contain violent o r ; bizarre elements which serve t o trigger the • 'fight or flight^rgsponse, priming your I reflexes to r e s p o n d rapidly t o danger It is a • useful response in that it helps to enhance survival, ", but w h e n it is triggered in situations w h e r e n o ; real threat exists, it can cause us to act « impulsively a n d inappropriately Too m u c h ", stimulation of this kind could inhibit t h e ; development of rational thougnTTn^Hildren : R u t h I'm glad you brought up the point about violence, ; because I think that's the main thing that worries I parents Research shows that regular e x p o s u r e t o ; violent scenes can trigger^ggretii>lve attitudes • "and behaviour In children It can also lead t o : desensitisation - in other words, it h a s a ; n u m b i n g effect o n the emotions, so that in the • end young people come to accept violence as a way : of solving problems Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Book Listening 2, page 77 Answer key 1Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes 10 Yes Listening - Tapescript ' The debate you heard in Listening continues • Presenter Tom, I know this is an area that you're : particularly interested in too What are your views on ; the subject of violence in the media? ' Tom Well, I agree entirely with what Mike said about the pacing and content of programmes, and what Ruth | ^ays^BoirriTesefiSitlsation is also true, but recent ; research in America shows that the context in which • violence is portrayed can be as important as the "» content In some contexts, depictions of ; violent incidents on screen can actually • reduce aggressive behaviour in children ; Presenter Really? Such as ? ' Tom The researchers have noted that aggressive ; tendencies may be reduced if the violent act • shown on the screen seems to be unjustified^ : for example if a bank robber shoots one of : the customers in a bank The result is the same when the perpetrator of a violent act is seen to be : punished Aggressive behaviour in viewers is also • inhibited when the consequences of violence are shown, such as pain, physical harm or long-term ; psychological damage to the victim That's the good I news The bad news is that the same research showed : that very few programmes actually show : perpetrators being punished - something in • the region of less than a quarter, as I recall And surprisingly few programmes in the • survey even showed the victim suffering pain ; - only about forty per cent, I think However, ; the implication is clear - if producers feel television I has to be peppered with violence in order to attract ; audiences, they could at least get their scriptwriters working on scenes which will I act as deterrents to violence in susceptible ; viewers "• Ruth I'd rather see them cutting out violence completely ; in programmes which young people may watch It's • unnecessary, and I'm sure you could get antit violence messages over in another way that ; doesn't involve showing pain and suffering ; Presenter Mike, what you think about this? « Mike Well, TV and film companies are in the business to : make money Violence generates emotions, • emotions in turn generate attention to their I products and thus they earn income Therefore, I ; would tend to go along with Tom on this I don't • think it would be easy to eradicate violence from our " screens, but if more films and programmes were : scripted so that the violent scenes actually tended to I inhibit rather than encourage aggression, that would ; "belTveTy positive slep • Presenter Obviously, one option for worried ; parents is banning their children from » watching certain programmes But apart from • this, what can parents do? * Tom I think the best thing parents can is ; communicate with their children For example, by watching videos or TV programmes together " and encouraging children to evaluate what : they have seen, they can help young people to I realise that what happens on screen does not ; necessarily reflect what happens in real life ; They can also discuss alternative methods of » solving problems and conflicts without ; resorting to violence J Mike Absolutely A child w h o grows up in an I environment where there is a lot of ; interaction with parents, teachers and other • adults in the way that Tom describes is : unlikely to damage his or her memory or ; response systems through any of the risks associated with electronic media We should be most concerned about the child whose involvement with games or computers or TV outweighs the amount of time spent in social interaction ; Interviewer Yes, Mike, that brings me to a point I ' wanted to raise (fade) Listening 3, page 77 Answer key B K B K J K B B Background information TV licence fees - in Britain all TV owners must purchase an annual licence The income raised from TV licence fees funds the two national BBC channels, which not carry advertising David Beckham is a player with the Manchester United football team Listening - Tapescript : You will hear a conversation between three colleagues in a • pub after work They are discussing sport on television ; Kevin (fade in) Mmm I'm with you there Can't • say it's ever really been one of my favourites So what • about these takeovers of football clubs by TV companies, then? What you reckon, Bob? • Bob Well, really, I'm not too enthusiastic about it, Kevin I used to enjoy going along to support my local team • on a Saturday afternoon - I liked the spirit of ; camaraderie on the terraces and even knew a couple ; of lads in the team personally But now that it's • become a supersport, I think the heart's gone : out of the game It's all about business and • profits nowadays Oh, look, there's Jane Hi, Jane I - come and join us Do you want a drink? • Jane No, thanks, I've got one at the bar I'll bring it over ; Kevin So, where were we? I can't say I really understand » your reservations, Bob After all, it means they'll ", be able to buy better players and have more ; money to plough back into the game at • grassroots level • Jane Uh-oh You're not talking football are you? I think • I'll go back to the bar • Kevin Well, yes and no We were talking about various '• sports, and the huge amounts of money that have Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Batik been changing hands recently for TV companies to ; get the rights to show major sporting events I Bob and the fact that media companies are now : buying up football teams I think it's all just a I marketing tactic to us into subscribing to digital ; TV and paying to watch programmes I mean, we • already pay TV licence fees, so why on earth I should we have to pay again to watch sports : on satellite or digital channels? : Kevin Like I said, because the coverage will be better, more and bigger events will be shown, and all that money the TV channels I make will go back into the sports and ; improve the standard of the games What you think, fane? ; Jane Quite frankly, I don't see what all the fuss is about I I mean, you can only watch one channel at a ; time anyway, so why we need more and : more? ; Kevin It's about choice Almost any top sporting event • in the world will be available for you to watch, right : there in the comfort of your own living room • Jane It sounds ghastly I don't know why everyone's so " obsessed with watching sports these days D'you ; know even my daughter's got pictures of some • footballer plastered all over her bedroom What's his : name? David something Buckingham, something ; like that I Bob David Beckham? • Jane That's the one In my day it was film stars and pop ; stars ; Kevin Yes, well David Beckham is a star He's rumoured ' to earn more in a year than Hugh Grant does for a • film, and Hugh Grant is Britain's highest-paid actor » So that just goes to show what I'm saying : sport, and football in particular, is the global ; entertainment of the future ; Jane Heaven forbid " Kevin And I'll tell you something else - did you know ; that two billion viewers worldwide watched the final • of the 1998 World Cup, but the Oscars ceremony in I the same year attracted only one billion? Two billion ; people is nearly a third of the world's population • you've got to admit you're outnumbered, Jane • Bob What on earth you when you're not I watching football on TV, Kevin - read the : Guinness Book of Records and memorise the • statistics? : Kevin No, I read it in the newspaper last week '• Jane Oh, well, if that's the way it is, it looks like I'll just ; have to get a digital TV for Peter and the • kids They can watch football to their heart's " content in the kitchen and I'll curl up on the sofa ; with a glass of wine and watch films on our old • telly I'd rather see Hugh Grant than David whatsit ' any day of the week Look, I've got half an hour till : my train Would anyone like another drink? Speaking A Discussion points Suggested answers eyestrain, numbing of the emotions, overstimulation of the 'fight or flight' response detachment from reality, loss of interest in/decline in skills for social interaction Positive - they can develop computer skills, they can improve the speed of their reflexes Negative - they might develop headaches or eyestrain, they might become addicted to the thrill of winning Passages Suggested answers theme: describes how research carried out on St Helena disproved common beliefs about the effects of TV on children style: neutral and factual; no personal opinions expressed; specialist vocabulary not used source: extract from an article in a serious newspaper (actual) theme: suggests a connection between the style of game shows on TV and economic conditions style: semi-humorous; rather mixed in style sonic informal idioms and vocabulary (nailIritintjly serious: stuff the multress with cash, takes off in the ratings) used, but also some rather formal vocabulary (economic barometers, flourish, recession) source: extract from an article in a serious newspaper or magazine (actual) theme: describes how soap operas have developed out of women's preferred style of conversation style: formal; no personal opinions expressed; formal vocabulary and expressions used (a preexisting domain of women's discourse, the modes of relating to the audience) source: extract from a university thesis or academic paper (actual); extract from a spoken lecture (possible) Listening B Listening 1, page 80 Answer key F 2T 3T F SF 6T 7F 8F 9T Background information If you have your mind in cyberspace, you are deeply engrossed in exploring computer networks and data banks Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher'-a Book Surfing the Net involves seeking and finding information on the Internet, often more for fun and entertainment than with any specific purpose in mind Listening - Tapescript : You will hear a radio programme about women whose • partners are very keen on the Internet : Reporter Once upon a time women complained of • being Golf Widows, but now the age of technology ', has created a new kind of widowhood for women ; Unlike golf, this one is not limited by dusk • falling at the eighteenth hole or by closing ; time in the club house bar Tonight we report on • Net Widows - the growing legion of women whose I boyfriends, fiances or husbands just can't resist the : lure of the Internet Shona Harrison from Coventry • has an all-too-typical tale to tell ; Shona I met Steve three years ago in a club He was • really good-looking and a fantastic dancer, so I t couldn't believe my luck when he asked me to dance ; We started going out together, and the first year and I a half of our relationship was great fun Then Steve I bought a computer Soon after that he started • showing up late for dates I'd try to phone him up to ' find out what was going on and his line was : always busy, so I assumed he was chatting to • another girl But one evening when he showed up I two hours late for dinner at my house - a special : meal I'd spent all day cooking - I finally got the • message He spent all night telling me in excruciating t detail about how he'd been tracking down a guy in • the States who'd got a rare recording of some pop " concert back in the seventies - Steve's a big seventies ; music fan - and didn't even realise h o w tedious • he was being Two weeks later he forgot to show ' up for a date at all - phoned him eight times at ; half-hour intervals and the line was always engaged, I so I knew what was going on I thought I'd give him ; one more chance, but when he took me out to dinner • to make up for it, he couldn't stop talking about I all these so-called friends he'd made on the : Internet and the apparently fascinating • conversations they'd had on-line, so I just ; picked up my handbag and walked out of the ; restaurant and out of his life : Reporter Shona got off lightly, but what if you're • married to a computer nerd? Mary from Manchester » is in despair • Mary My husband used to work as a sales rep and I J missed him when he was on the road, so when : his office gave him a promotion and agreed • he could spend part of his hours tele-working ' from home, I thought it would mean I'd see ; more of him Little did I know that though he • might be here more often in body, his mind would be I in cyberspace most of the time On the days he's • working at home, he gets up extra early to get \ the office work over and done with, then he ; spends the rest of the day surfing the Net Yes, » I admit he comes up with interesting titbits of '", information now and again, but I don't really ; need or want to know the number of UFO • sightings in Scotland this month, or that we ; could have got last year's house insurance for • £17 less if we'd researched the market \ properly I've tried to limit the hours he spends ô : ", ; surfing, but to no avail He's got n o concept of time passing when he's on-line Last night I called him when I went to bed at midnight 'I'll be there in a minute,' he said - the usual response I woke up at 4.00 a.m for a glass of water, and he was still hunched in front of the computer screen If anyone out there's got any suggestions, let me know, because I'm at my wits' end Listening 2, page 80 Answer key Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Background information To beep someone means to call them on a pager, so that they will call you back Listening - Tapescript : You will hear a radio phone-in programme on the subject • of mobile phones * Presenter I'm going to open up the phone lines now • Remember, the topic today is mobile phones, so no t calls on any other subjects, please Yes, we have our ; first caller Your name, please? " Mr Smith Smith, Rodney Smith • Presenter Yes, Mr Smith What did you want to say on : the subject of mobile phones? • Mr Smith Absolutely ridiculous things, if you ask me : My daughter gave me one as a present last week for • my birthday, then got all hurt when I told her I'd J given up playing with toys over fifty years I ago She said it was so I could keep in touch with • her when I went out, in case I had an accident or : something • Presenter Well, that seems very thoughtful of her ; Mr Smith Humph! It's not as if I went anywhere » anyway, except down the pub sometimes for a pint at ; lunchtime with my friend Sid • Presenter I take it you're not calling from your mobile I phone now then, Mr Smith? • Mr Smith Certainly not! I'm a pensioner; I haven't got : money to burn And I'll tell you another thing I > was in the pub with Sid the other day and we saw : this bloke talking to himself We assumed he must be a loony though he looked perfectly I normal in every other way, you know, he had a : suit on and all that We felt sorry for him at first : Then it turns out he'd got a mobile phone with • earphones on! I mean why would someone want to draw attention to himself in public like • that? He could use the public phone in the bar like : anyone else • Presenter Well, he may have been protecting his health, : Mr Smith As we heard earlier in the programme, people are worried about possible links between mobile phone use and brain ; tumours Mr Smith I still say it's just showing off • Presenter Well thank you for sharing your opinions with • us, Mr Smith Next caller, please Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Molt ' Karen Hello, this is Karen I'm an Area Sales Manager and I'm calling you from my car • Presenter Hello, Karen What did you want to talk ; about? Caroline Thank you, though I'm not sure if I really qualify as a celebrity After some of the experiences I've had with the press, I'm not sure I'd want to be more famous - it must be awful being hounded 24 hours a day That incident at my father's funeral was traumatic enough There you are in the middle of a deeply personal, sad, and what should be private, event when up pops some cretin and asks you to pose for him I mean, w o u l d n ' t you have been tempted to use a four-letter w o r d in the circumstances t o o ? And then the next day it's splashed all over the tabloids that I've used foul language during my father's funeral, as if I was the one who was guilty of disrespect There was a lot of talk about curbing the press at the time of Princess Diana's death, but I don't see any evidence that things have improved since then I'd like to see Britain introduce a privacy law, such as America has • Karen What you were saying about the health risks of : mobile phone use I would certainly fall into a high • risk category as, because of the nature of my job, I'm ', frequently out of the office and I spend up to three ; hours a day on my mobile phone : Presenter Do you use earphones? • Karen In the car, yes, but not otherwise ; Presenter Then use them all the time, and try to limit | the amount of time you spend on the mobile Get " people to beep you and call them back from a ; standard phone instead : K a r e n OK But - sorry, I missed the first part of the ; programme, so you may have said this already - "• thought mobile p h o n e s w e r e engineered to : meet existing safety standards I Presenter They are, b u t the p r o b l e m is that those : standards were set back in 1992 w h e n • mobiles were generally used for very short : periods only W h a t w e have nowadays is a ; pattern of frequent, quite long, conversations • o n mobiles All the research d o n e so far o n : the effects of being exposed to electro• magnetic fields h a s b e e n carried out in • situations of high exposure for very short ; periods, n o t in situations of prolonged « exposure, as in your case ; K a r e n I see Well, thanks for the information - must • say you've really scared me, though ; Presenter It is scary That's why w e need to press • for further research studies a n d u p d a t e d t standards Like I said, write a letter to your ; M P about it : K a r e n I will Thanks Presenter Jason, what's your reaction to that? Jason Firstly, any suggestion of introducing a law against invasion of privacy comes dangerously close to limiting the freedom of the press which, I think most people would agree, is not acceptable in a democratic country Secondly, privacy laws are quite difficult to enforce, especially for public figures Under American law that includes past and present government officials, political candidates, sports figures and entertainers such as yourself, Caroline They are considered to have voluntarily exposed themselves to public scrutiny a n d thus to have waived m u c h of their right of privacy And despite the existence of legislation, there have been quite as many, if not more, scandals caused by outraged celebrities protesting about invasion of privacy as here in Britain You no doubt remember when Alec Baldwin hit a photographer who Listening 3, page 81 Answer key 1A2B J D C B C D Background information Caroline Carey, Jason Wyatt and The People's Voice are fictitious All the other characters, facts and events mentioned in this listening passage are real A tabloid newspaper is another term for a popular newspaper (e.g The Daily Mail, The Sun, The Daily Mirror) The term derives from the size of the pages, which are relatively small Listening - Tapescript ; You will hear a radio programme about invasion of privacy " Presenter Good evening Tonight we will be discussing ; the question of invasion of privacy and I have two • guests in the studio with me - Caroline Carey, star of : the popular TV series 'Battersea Babes', and Jason » Wyatt, editor of the tabloid newspaper 'The People's I Voice' Caroline, I know you've h a d some • b r u s h e s with paparazzi recently, so perhaps ", you'd like to give the celebrity's point of view first : ; : • • ; I ; • ; • I : I ; I ; • • ; : ; Caroline Come off it! It's the photographers who cause the scandals, not the celebrities - they're trying to protect themselves Isn't that just typical of a n e w s p a p e r m a n to twist the facts r o u n d like that! Presenter Please Caroline, let's not get personal Jason, you were saying Jason Basically, I was making the point that laws don't really change anything They may allow celebrities off the hook when they are provoked to violence, as Baldwin was Or they m a y allow certain very aggressive p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s activities to b e curtailed, as in the case of Princess Diana, w h o successfully took o u t a court injunction against a paparazzo ordering h i m to stay at least 300 metres away from her But no law is going to stop these activities completely because the paparazzi and the press are delivering what the public want - they want gossip and photos of stars Caroline Oh, here we go again - the usual argument that you're just supplying what the m a r k e t wants Certain people in the market also want to b u y heroin or stolen cars, b u t that doesn't stop supplying those being against the law Jason I'm afraid the facts speak for themselves, whatever you think personally After the death of the Princess of Wales in September 1997 national newspapers sold an extra ten million copies Big n a m e s a n d \$tf>* Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Book exclusive photos sell papers and without them the papers wouldn't be able to stay in business and bring other, more serious, news to their readers And what's more, many celebrities are not above using the press for their own ends when it suits them I seem to recall, Caroline, that 'Battersea Babes' had been suffering from a slump in the ratings not long before you went on a supposedly secret holiday to St Lucia Caroline That's true Jason And that was the same holiday during which photographs of you sunbathing topless were shot, apparently without your knowledge, and later published in several of the tabloids, including my own? Caroline Right again Jason Am I also correct in saying that the show's ratings soared after the publication of the photographs? Caroline Yes Jason A happy coincidence, perhaps Or maybe you didn't keep that holiday quite as secret from the paparazzi as you later claimed Caroline I ! Presenter Hold on, please, Jason This is a radio debate, not a court of law Can we bring the discussion back to the point you were making before about (fade) Speaking B Photographs Answer key C It is likely that the people portrayed in all three photographs are using the different media as a source of information, rather than for entertainment In addition, each of the people shown appears to be deeply absorbed in what they're doing, and oblivious to their surroundings Background information A broadsheet newspaper is another term used to describe a quality newspaper (e.g The Times, The Financial Times, The Independent etc) The term derives from the size of the pages, which is double that of tabloid (or popular) newspapers Discussion points Suggested answers Popularity • they are status symbols • they have become cheaper to buy in recent years • they help children to keep in touch with parents while they might not be confident about using a public telephone • we live in a fast-paced environment, so it's necessary to be always available/in touch Functions • they allow you to keep tabs on someone's whereabouts at all times • they allow you to be contacted even when not at home/in the office • they are useful for rapid contact with people in emergencies • they allow you to pretend to be somewhere that you are not • you can call people from isolated places where public phones are not available Advantages • the Internet allows access to a vast amount of information from all over the world • you don't need to store bulky reference volumes • information is more easily accessible than in encyclopaedias, etc • information is presented interactively and in a variety of forms (sounds, video, animation, etc.) Disadvantages • it is only accessible through the use of appropriate computer skills • websites may be cluttered up with irrelevant details • you can run up large phone bills • excessive use of the Internet can be addictive Proficiency Listening and Speaking Teacher's Book Practice exam » ; J Part one, page 84 Answer key F F T T F T T F F Part one - Tapescript I You will hear a news item about a Spanish town called • Villena, the first in the world to have an on-line town hall I For questions - , decide which statements are true and ; which are false Write T if you think the statement is true • and F if you think it is false You now have 30 seconds to " look through the questions for Part one • Speaker At first glance, the small Spanish town of : Villena in the region of Valencia would appear little ; different from other market towns in the \ area Its population of 30,000 is stable and : demonstrates a strong sense of civic pride Half an • hour away by motorway from the seasonal '• influx of tourism on the coast, the town has a ; balanced economy based on agriculture and • related businesses, light industry, services ; and the manufacture of children's shoes But ;; two things make Villena different, and both are based ; in its town hall The first is a collection of antique : gold discovered by a local archaeologist in the • 1950s On his insistence and against all " expectations, the priceless trove remained in ; "Villena instead of being sent to a museum in » Madrid The town hall also houses the systems ; room with all the computer hardware which in 1997 ; made Villena the first town in the world to have an • on-line town hall Among other services, residents of ; the town can book an appointment at the health • clinic, apply for a building permit, or check school I dates and exam results on the town's local ; net On-line shopping, e-mail and access to the • Internet are also available : In order to help launch the scheme, the town's • residents were offered a desktop computer including : connection, software, maintenance and training at • half what would normally be the retail price of the : computer alone The funding for the project : came from the regional government in • partnership with private companies in the : fields of computer software, hardware and ; telecommunications In fact, the initiative in "• Villena is just the first step in an even more : ambitious plan called Infoville, which aims to I have the four million inhabitants of the Valencia ' region on-line by 1999 The thinking behind the plan ; is not only to improve the quality of life for the • region's inhabitants, but also to improve the region's : economy Most companies in the region are ; small to medium-sized family businesses I which are struggling to maintain their market ; share against larger competitors in essential • export markets By helping these companies to go • ; :; '• " : : • : • on-line, the regional government hopes new markets will be opened up and local companies will become more efficient at marketing and distributing their products If the example of Villena holds true, the Infoville initiative is likely to be a success After some initial scepticism among the inhabitants of Villena, the idea of going on-line caught on rapidly At present, the most popular services are the virtual town hall and the Internet, but new ideas for local applications are constantly suggested by the residents of Villena An illustrated town guide featuring the gold collection has been completed and another project is to put the sheet music of original tunes composed by the town band on-line with an accompanying soundtrack It's probably the town's local pride in its heritage which has proved such a critical factor in the success of the computerisation project In Villena people see no conflict between tradition and modernity Part two, page 85 Answer key 10 (rapid) emergency medical relief 11 public health 12 immunisation programmes 13 human rights abuses 14 twenty-four hours 15 local staff 16 payment (or salaries or being paid) 17 private sources 18 administration Background information MSF is the world's largest independent medical aid agency and is committed to two objectives: providing medical aid wherever it is needed, regardless of race, religion, politics or sex and raising awareness of the plight of the people they help Part two - Tapescript : You will hear an interview with a worker from the ; international medical relief organisation Medecins Sans : Frontieres (MSB For questions 10-18, complete the notes : with one or two words or a short phrase You now have 30 • seconds to look through Part two ; Interviewer What are the main objectives and activities > of Medecins Sans Frontieres? : MSF worker Our primary and most important • function is to provide rapid emergency ; medical relief to victims of natural or man-made : disasters or armed corrflict We are now the world's I TargesTindependent medical relief agency, with over 2,000 volunteers working in more than 80 countries We have also helped to set up two independent centres for research into public health, one in France and one in Belgium These provide expert advice to us and other health organisations, the United Nations and : governments Then w e also work in close collaboration with the World Health Organisation, Unicef and local medical personnel on immunisation programmes to I fight the spread of diseases such as diphtheria, polio and tetanus Finally, although we are not a human Proficiency Listening and Speaking Taacher'rBMk ; rights organisation, when medical assistance is not j enough to save lives, our doctors will speak out : against human rights abuses • Interviewer What action you take when a crisis ; strikes? • MSF worker We have developed a unique system of " pre-packaged medical kits which allow us to supply : our medical teams rapidly with the equipment they • need in the field Thanks to these, and a : sophisticated logistics organisation, we are usually • able to deploy in twenty-four hours or less "• Once emergency medical aid has been provided, we : also help with providing clean water supplies and • sanitation, organising immunisation programmes, I monitoring nutrition levels, and if necessary, setting : up isolation units We always recruit, train and • work alongside local medical and : administrative staff so that medical care can ; be sustained once a crisis is over ' Interviewer Where does your funding come from and ; how is it spent? I MSF worker As I mentioned before, the majority of • our medical staff, although all skilled and I experienced professionals, work as : volunteers In order to maintain independence of • action and to retain direct control over the t management and delivery of aid, we try to raise at : least half of our funding from private • sources One common criticism aimed at : charities is that much of the money they raise : is wasted on administration, but we're very • proud of our record on that score At least 80 : percent of our income is spent directly on » operations in the field Part three, page 86 Answer key 19 No 20 No 21 Yes 22 No 23 Yes No 25 No 26 Yes 27 Yes Part three - Tapescript : You will hear a discussion about tourism and its effect on • countries which are tourist destinations For questions 19 : 27, write YES next to those views that are expressed by • either of the speakers, and NO next to those which are not • expressed at all You now have 30 seconds to look through • Part three " Presenter According to the World Tourism Organisation : about 550 million people cross international I boundaries every year, and this figure is expected to : double by 2010 Tourism is now the world's • biggest industry, and it is growing fast : Unfortunately, few of the profits made in ; tourism benefit local economies - the World I bank estimates that as little as ten per cent of every : tourist pound or dollar spent actually reaches the • pockets of local inhabitants In the studio I have : Steve Culley of the pressure group Action for ; Responsible Tourism Steve, I believe your group is "• working to inject fair trade principles into tourism, ; especially in developing countries • Steve That's right We're very concerned that often l the infrastructure developed for tourism ; impoverishes communities instead of helping • them Quite frequently precious water supplies are : depleted to fill hotel swimming pools or water golf ; courses Local people can lose their traditional I livelihoods by being moved off their agricultural land ; or, in the case of fishermen, denied access to beaches • And frequently food prices become inflated, I thus causing hardship to local people This : ^ development usually takes place wirhour any • consultation with the people whom it will most : affect For example, in Zanzibar several British : companies are involved in an enormous development • scheme, which will include 14 luxury hotels, a cruise; ship harbour, three golf courses and a world trade • centre The area where these are due to be sited is • home to 20,000 people, but no local community ; groups have been consulted about the project I Presenter I understood that several tour operators were now initiating programmes to minimise the negative I impacts of tourism Is this not in fact the case? : Steve On the environmental front, yes Several tour • operators have introduced schemes to review the ; environmental policies of hotels they work with • they audit areas like sewage treatment, water and " energy management and award seals of approval to ; those that meet the required standards A few also » consider the questions of fair trade - such as I are supplies being purchased from local people at fair ; prices - and community relations, but there's • room for a lot of improvement When it comes ; down to it, the most important issue is h o w • local people are treated, not whether a hotel I has a sewage treatment plant Some of the : hotels that w i n awards may be • environmentally sound internally, but have caused enormous problems when they were ; built and may have infringed o n people's civil ; rights The basic problem is h o w to reconcile : sustainable and ethical tourism with • development, and when development actually t means unfettered growth, as in the case of ; Zanzibar that I quoted before, I'm not sure • that it can be done Marking procedure correct answer x point Total points / 27 Scaled score x 20 = Total points = Scaled score = Final mark Marking procedure explained: • Award one point for each correct answer (E.g student A achieves 22 correct answers, i.e 22 points.) • Divide the total number of correct answers by 27 (Eg 22 points/27 = 0.81) • Then multiply by 20 to obtain a final score out of 20 marks (Eg 0.81 x 20 = 16.2) Proficiency Listening and Speaking TeacherTi Boolv Speaking (•••'pw mm i iiiiiijii'iu IIIUJIIIII pj»»»iiu •••wHHuiaiipiimpiiim Photographs Suggested answers Aspects (if contrast that the photogrftphs.show: Photographs I a and l b show ihcuontrast between modern and traditional lift* in Mediterranean societies Photograph shows a contrast between tradiLinti.il and modern styles git architecture Photograph 34depicts die culture dash between tourists and local inhabitants of ihe countries tourists visit Communicative activities Discussion Suggested answers I low people become exceptionally wealthy; • hv inlioritini; wealth • • • • • • by 'i uimbinaliiin of hard work and good lurk through astute imeMinenis by inventing something m> one else has thought of bv exploiting the people who work for them by hating a unique talent oi extreme beamy a combination of somi- of the above What can or should be done to redistribute wraith mow equally: • impose higher taw mi the \er\ rich • nationalise private companies and property • use the money generated by ihc above measures to create new jobs and provide social benefits for the very poor • 'cancel debts incurred by developing countries • apply principles
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