Philips atlas of the universe rev ed p moore (octopus, 2005)

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ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE REVISED EDITION SIR PATRICK MOORE ‘The best introduction to astronomy’ The Journal of the British Astronomical Association 1-7 Atl of Univ Phil'05stp 3/6/05 11:55 am Page ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE REVISED EDITION SIR PATRICK MOORE FOREWORD BY PROFESSOR SIR ARNOLD WOLFENDALE, FRS ASTRONOMER ROYAL 1991-94 Contents Foreword by Professor Sir Arnold Wolfendale, FRS Introduction by Sir Patrick Moore 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 EXPLORING THE UNIVERSE Astronomy through the Ages Telescopes and the Stars Observatories of the World Great Telescopes Invisible Astronomy Rockets into Space Satellites and Space Probes Man in Space Space Stations The Hubble Space Telescope First published in 1994 by Philip’s, a division of Octopus Publishing Group Ltd, 2–4 Heron Quays, London E14 4JP © 1994, 2003, 2005 Philip’s This new edition 2005 A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-13 978-0-540-08791-4 ISBN-10 0-540-08791-2 All rights reserved Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission All enquiries should be addressed to the Publisher Printed in Spain Details of other Philip’s titles and services can be found on our website at: www.philips-maps.co.uk HALF-TITLE PAGE: Star formation is taking place in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946, also known as the ‘Fireworks Galaxy’ OPPOSITE TITLE PAGE: The centre of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun’s Family The Earth in the Solar System The Earth as a Planet The Earth’s Atmosphere and Magnetosphere The Earth–Moon System Features of the Moon Lunar Landscapes The Far Side of the Moon Missions to the Moon Clementine and Prospector The Moon: First Quadrant The Moon: Second Quadrant The Moon: Third Quadrant The Moon: Fourth Quadrant Movements of the Planets Mercury Features of Mercury Map of Mercury Venus Mapping Venus The Magellan Mission 76 78 80 82 84 85 86 88 89 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 137 138 139 140 142 144 146 148 150 Mars Missions to Mars Satellites of Mars Map of Mars Hubble Views of Mars Mars from Global Surveyor The Search for Life on Mars The Pathfinder Mission Spirit and Opportunity Asteroids Exceptional Asteroids Jupiter The Changing Face of Jupiter Missions to Jupiter Impacts on Jupiter Satellites of Jupiter The Galilean Satellites –from Galileo Maps of Jupiter’s Satellites Saturn Rings of Saturn Details of Saturn’s Rings Missions to Saturn Satellites of Saturn Maps of Saturn’s Icy Satellites Titan Uranus Missions to Uranus Satellites of Uranus Maps of the Satellites of Uranus Neptune Satellites of Neptune Pluto The Surface of Pluto Boundaries of the Solar System Comets Short-period Comets Halley’s Comet Great Comets Millennium Comets Meteors Meteorites Meteorite Craters 152 154 156 158 160 162 THE SUN Our Star: the Sun The Surface of the Sun The Solar Spectrum Eclipses of the Sun The Sun in Action 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 THE STARS Introduction to the Stars The Celestial Sphere Distances and Movement of the Stars Different Types of Stars The Lives of the Stars Double Stars Variable Stars Novae Supernovae Black Holes Stellar Clusters Nebulae Views from the Very Large Telescope 234 236 238 240 242 Á Ë˙ Ị · Á Ỵ PISCES Ê ¯ „ „ Ë M2 ı AQUILA ‚ Ï È ı È AQUARIUS CAPRICORNUS ‰ Á È ‚ Â 98 88 NGC 7293 M72 7009 È ‰ 99 · · ‚ 2 Ù ˆ ˆ R M30 ı 36 ˙ 24 PISCIS AUSTRALIS Â „ ˆ · Fomalhaut SCULPTOR ‰ Á ‚ Ù Ì È Á 244 246 248 256 258 260 THE UNIVERSE The Structure of the Universe Our Galaxy The Local Group of Galaxies The Outer Galaxies Quasars The Expanding Universe The Early Universe Life in the Universe Whole Sky Maps Seasonal Charts: North Seasonal Charts: South Ursa Major, Canes Venatici, Leo Minor Ursa Minor, Draco Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Camelopardalis, Lacerta Boötes, Corona Borealis, Coma Berenices Leo, Cancer, Sextans Virgo, Libra Hydra, Corvus, Crater Lyra, Cygnus, Aquila, Scutum, Sagitta, Vulpecula, Delphinus, Equuleus Hercules Ophiuchus, Serpens Scorpius, Sagittarius, Corona Australis Andromeda, Triangulum, Aries, Perseus Pegasus, Pisces Ï 250 252 254 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 STAR MAPS 262 264 266 268 270 280 288 MICROSCOPIUM Capricornus, Aquarius, Piscis Australis Cetus, Eridanus (northern), Fornax Orion, Canis Major, Canis Minor, Monoceros, Lepus, Columba Taurus, Gemini Auriga, Lynx Carina, Vela, Pyxis, Antlia, Pictor, Volans, Puppis Centaurus, Crux Australis, Triangulum Australe, Circinus, Ara, Telescopium, Norma, Lupus Grus, Phoenix, Tucana, Pavo, Indus, Microscopium, Sculptor Eridanus (southern), Horologium, Caelum, Dorado, Reticulum, Hydrus, Mensa, Chamaeleon, Musca, Apus, Octans THE PRACTICAL ASTRONOMER The Beginner’s Guide to the Sky Choosing a Telescope Home Observatories Glossary Index Acknowledgements 1-7 Atl of Univ Phil'05stp 3/6/05 11:56 am Page B Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 31/3/03 3:54 pm Page 10 H Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 7/4/03 6:21 pm Page 274 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Glossary Hour angle: The time which has elapsed since a celestial body crossed the meridian of the observer Hour circle: A great circle on the celestial sphere which passes through both poles of the sky The zero hour circle corresponds to the observer’s meridian Hubble Constant: The relationship between the distance of a galaxy and its recessional velocity Its value is of the order of 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec I Inferior planets: Mercury and Venus, whose orbits lie closer to the Sun than does that of the Earth When their right ascensions are the same as that of the Sun, so that they are approximately between the Sun and the Earth, they reach inferior conjunction If the declination is also the same as that of the Sun, the result will be a transit of the planet Infra-red radiation: Radiation with wavelengths longer than that of red light, but shorter than microwaves Infra-red sources in the sky are studied either from high-altitude observatories (as at Mauna Kea) or with space techniques In 1983 the Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) carried out a full survey of the sky in infra-red Ion: An atom which has lost or gained one or more electrons; it has a corresponding positive or negative electrical charge, since in a complete atom the positive charge of the nucleus is balanced out by the combined negative charge of the electrons The process of producing an ion is termed ionization Ionosphere: The region above the stratosphere, from about 65 up to about 800 kilometres Ionization of the atoms in this region (see ion) produces layers which reflect radio waves, making long-range communication over the Earth possible Solar events have effects upon the ionosphere, and produce ionospheric storms; on occasion, radio communication is interrupted Irradiation: The effect which makes brightly lit or self-luminous bodies appear larger than they really are For example, the Moon’s bright crescent appears larger in diameter than the Earth-lit part of the disk J Julian day: A count of the days, starting from 12 noon on January 4713 BC The system was introduced by Scaliger in 1582 The ‘Julian’ is in honour of Scaliger’s father, and has nothing to with Julius Caesar or the Julian Calendar Julian days are used by variable star observers, and for reckonings of phenomena which extend over very long periods of time K Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion: The three important laws announced by J Kepler between 1609 and 1618 They are: (1) The planets move in elliptical orbits, the Sun being located at one focus of the ellipse, while the other focus is empty (2) The radius vector, or imaginary line joining the centre of the planet to the centre of the Sun, sweeps out equal areas in equal times 274 (3) The squares of the sidereal periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun (Harmonic Law) Kiloparsec: 1000 parsecs, or 3260 light-years Kirkwood gaps: Regions in the belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter in which almost no asteroids move The gravitational influence of Jupiter keeps these zones ‘swept clear’; an asteroid which enters a Kirkwood region will be regularly perturbed by Jupiter until its orbit has been changed They were first noted by the American mathematician Daniel Kirkwood travels at about 1200 kilometres per hour; so Mach would be ϫ 1200 ϭ 2400 kilometres per hour Magnetic storm: A sudden disturbance of the Earth’s magnetic field, shown by interference with radio communication as well as by variations in the compass needle It is due to charged particles sent out from the Sun, often associated with solar flares A magnetic crochet is a sudden change in the Earth’s magnetic field due to changing conditions in the lower ionosphere The crochet is associated with the flash phase of the flare, and commences with it; the storm is associated with the particles, which reach the Earth about 24 hours later L Laser (Light Amplification by the Simulated Emission of Radiation): A device which emits a beam of light made up of rays of the same wavelength (coherent light) and in phase with one another It can be extremely intense Laser beams have already been reflected off the Moon Latitude, celestial: The angular distance of a celestial body from the nearest point on the ecliptic Librations, lunar: Although the Moon’s rotation is captured with respect to the Earth, there are various effects, known as librations, which enable us to examine 59 per cent of the total surface instead of only 50 per cent, although no more than 50 per cent can be seen at any one time There are three librations: in longitude (because the Moon’s orbital velocity is not constant), in latitude (because the Moon’s equator is inclined by degrees to its orbital plane), and diurnal (due to the rotation of the Earth) Light-year: The distance travelled by light in one year It is equal to 9.46 million million million kilometres Limb: The edge of the visible disk of the Sun Moon, a planet, or the Earth (as seen from space) Local Group of galaxies: The group of which our Galaxy is a member There are more than two dozen systems, of which the most important are the Andromeda Spiral, our Galaxy, the Triangulum Spiral and the two Clouds of Magellan Longitude, celestial: The angular distance from the vernal equinox to the foot of a perpendicular drawn from a celestial body to meet the ecliptic It is measured eastwards along the ecliptic from zero degrees to 360 degrees Lunation (synodical month): The interval between successive new moons: 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes See also synodic period Lyot filter (monochromatic filter): A device used for observing the Sun’s prominences and other features of the solar atmosphere, without the necessity of waiting for a total eclipse It was invented by the French astronomer B Lyot Magnetohydrodynamics: The study of the interactions between a magnetic field and an electrically conducting fluid The Swedish scientist H Alfven is regarded as the founder of magnetohydrodynamics Magnetosphere: The region round a body in which that body’s magnetic field is dominant In the Solar System, Jupiter has the largest magnetosphere; the other giants, as well as the Earth and Mercury, have pronounced magnetic fields, but the Moon, Venus and Mars not Magnitude: This is really a term for ‘brightness’, but there are several different types (1) Apparent or visual magnitude: the apparent brightness of a celestial body as seen with the eye The brighter the object, the lower the magnitude The planet Venus is of about magnitude Ϫ41/2 ; Sirius, the brightest star, Ϫ1.4; the Pole Star, ϩ2; stars just visible with the naked eye, ϩ6; the faintest stars that can be recorded with the world’s largest telescopes, below ϩ30 A star’s apparent magnitude is no reliable key to its luminosity (2) Absolute magnitude: the apparent magnitude that a star would have if seen from a standard distance of 10 parsecs (32.6 light-years) (3) Photographic magnitude: the magnitude derived from the size of a star’s image on a photographic plate (4) Bolometric magnitude: this refers to the total radiation sent out by a star, not merely to visible light Main Sequence: The well-defined band from the upper left to lower right of a Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram The Sun is typical Main Sequence star Maser (Microwave Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation): The same basic principle as that of the laser, but applied to radio wavelengths rather than to visible light Mass: The quantity of matter that a body contains It is not the same as weight, which depends upon local gravity; thus on the Moon an Earthman has only one-sixth of his normal weight, but his mass remains unaltered M Meridian, celestial: The great circle on the celestial sphere which passes through the zenith and both celestial poles The meridian cuts the observer’s horizon at the exact north and south points Mach number: The velocity of a vehicle moving in an atmosphere divided by the velocity of sound in the same region Near the surface of the Earth, sound Messier numbers: Numbers given by the 18th-century French astronomer Charles Messier to various nebulous H Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 10/4/03 10:30 am Page 275 GLOSSARY objects including open and globular clusters, gaseous nebulae and galaxies Messier’s catalogue contained slightly over a hundred objects His numbers are still used; thus the Andromeda Spiral is M31, the Orion Nebula M42, the Crab Nebula M1, and so on Meteor: Cometary debris; a small particle which enters the Earth’s upper atmosphere and burns away, producing the effect known as a shooting star to travel from one perigee to the next (3) Sidereal month: the time taken for the Moon to complete one journey around the barycentre, with reference to the stars Multiple star: A star made up of more than two components physically associated, which orbit their mutual centre of gravity N Meteorite: A larger body, which is able to reach ground-level without being destroyed There is a fundamental difference between meteorites and meteors; a meteorite seems to be more nearly related to an asteroid or minor planet Meteorites may be stony (aerolites), iron (siderites) or of intermediate type In a few cases meteorites have produced craters; the most famous example is the large crater in Arizona, which is almost 1.5 kilometres in diameter and was formed in prehistoric times Meteoroids: The collective term for meteoritic bodies It was once thought that they would present a serious hazard to spacecraft travelling outside the Earth’s atmosphere, but it now seems that the danger is very much less than was feared, even though it cannot be regarded as entirely negligible Micrometeorite: An extremely small particle, less than 0.01016 centimetres in diameter, moving around the Sun When a micrometeorite enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it cannot produce a shooting-star effect, as its mass is too slight Since 1957, micrometeorites have been closely studied from space probes and artificial satellites Micron: A unit of length equal to one thousandth of a millimetre There are 10,000 Ångströms to one micron The usual symbol is Ì Midnight Sun: The Sun seen above the horizon at midnight This can occur for some part of the year anywhere inside the Arctic and Antarctic Circles Milky Way: The luminous band stretching across the night sky It is due to a line-of-sight effect; when we look along the main plane of the Galaxy (that is, directly towards or away from the galactic centre) we see many stars in roughly the same direction Despite appearances, the stars in the Milky Way are not closely crowded together The term used to be applied to the Galaxy itself, but is now restricted to the appearance as seen in the night sky Millibar: The unit which is used as a measure of atmospheric pressure It is equal to 1000 dynes per square centimetre The standard atmospheric pressure is 1013.25 millibars (75.97 centimetres of mercury) Minor planets: See asteroids Molecule: A stable association of atoms; a group of atoms linked together For example, a water molecule (H20) is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one atom of oxygen Month: (1) Calendar month: the month in everyday use (2) Anomalistic month: the time taken for the Moon Nadir: The point on the celestial sphere immediately below the observer It is directly opposite to the overhead point or zenith Nebula: A mass of tenuous gas in space together with what is loosely termed ‘dust’ If there are stars in or very near the nebula, the gas and dust will become visible, either because of straightforward reflection or because the stellar radiation excites the material to self-luminosity If there are no suitable stars, the nebula will remain dark, and will betray its presence only because it will blot out the light of stars lying beyond it Nebulae are regarded as regions in which fresh stars are being formed out of the interstellar material Neutrino: A fundamental particle which has no mass and no electric charge – which makes them extremely difficult to detect Neutron: A fundamental particle whose mass is equal to that of a proton, but which has no electric charge Neutrons exist in the nuclei of all atoms apart from that of hydrogen Neutron star: A star made up principally or completely of neutrons, so that it will be of low luminosity but almost incredibly high density Theoretically, a neutron star should represent the final stage in a star’s career It is now thought probable that the remarkable radio sources known as pulsars are in fact neutron stars Newtonian reflector: The common form of astronomical reflector Incoming light is collected by a mirror, and directed on to a smaller flat mirror placed at 45 degrees The light is then sent to the side of the tube, where it is brought to a focus and the eyepiece is placed Most small and many large reflectors are of Newtonian type binary system in which one component is a white dwarf; it is the white dwarf which is responsible for the outbursts Nutation: A slight, slow ‘nodding’ of the Earth’s axis, due to the fact that the Moon is sometimes above and sometimes below the ecliptic, and therefore does not always pull on the Earth’s equatorial bulge in the same direction as the Sun The result is that the position of the celestial pole seems to ‘nod’ by about seconds of arc to either side of its mean position with a period of 18 years 220 days Nutation is superimposed on the more regular shift of the celestial pole caused by precession O Object-glass (objective): The main lens of a refracting telescope (see refractor) Obliquity of the ecliptic: The angle between the ecliptic and the celestial equator Its value is 23 degrees 26 minutes 54 seconds It may also be defined as the angle by which the Earth’s axis is tilted from the perpendicular to the orbital plane Occultation: The covering up of one celestial body by another Thus the Moon may pass in front of a star or (occasionally) a planet; a planet may occult a star; and there have been cases when one planet has occulted another – for instance, Venus occulted Mars in 1590 Strictly speaking, solar eclipses are occultations of the Sun by the Moon Opposition: The position of a planet when it is exactly opposite the Sun in the sky, and so lies due south at midnight At opposition, the Sun, the Earth and the planet are approximately aligned, with the Earth in the mid position Obviously, the inferior planets (Mercury and Venus) can never come to opposition Orbit: The path of an artificial or natural celestial body See also transfer orbit Ozone: Triatomic oxygen (03) The ozone layer in the Earth’s upper atmosphere absorbs many of the lethal short-wavelength radiations coming from space Were there no ozone layer, it is unlikely that life on Earth could ever have developed P Noctilucent clouds: Rare, strange clouds in the ionosphere, best seen at night when they continue to catch the rays of the Sun, after it has set They lie at altitudes of greater than 80 kilometres, and are noticeably different from normal clouds It is possible that they are produced by meteoritic dust in the upper atmosphere Nodes: The points at which the orbit of a planet, a comet or the Moon cuts the plane of the ecliptic, either as the body is moving from south to north (ascending node) or from north to south (descending node) The line joining these two points is known as the line of nodes Nova: A star which undergoes a sudden outburst, flaring up to many times its normal brilliancy for a while before fading back to obscurity A nova is a Parallax, trigonometrical: The apparent shift of a body when observed from two different directions The separation of the two observing sites is called the baseline The Earth’s orbit provides a baseline 300 million kilometres long (since the radius of the orbit is 150 million kilometres); therefore, a nearby star observed at a six-monthly interval will show a definite parallax shift relative to the more distant stars It was in this way that Bessel, in 1838, made the first measurement of the distance of a star (61 Cygni) The method is useful out to about 300 light-years, beyond which the parallax shifts become too small to detect Parsec: The distance at which a star would show a parallax of one second of arc It is equal to 3.26 light-years, 206,265 astronomical units, or 30.8 million million million kilometres (Apart from the Sun, no star lies within one parsec of us.) 275 H Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 7/4/03 6:21 pm Page 276 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Glossary Penumbra: (1) The comparatively light surrounding parts of a sunspot (2) The area of partial shadow lying to either side of the main cone of shadow cast by the Earth During lunar eclipses, the Moon must move through the penumbra before reaching the main shadow (or umbra) Some lunar eclipses are penumbral only Periastron: The point of the orbit of a member of a binary system in which the stars are at their closest to each other The most distant point is termed apastron Perigee: The point in the orbit of the Moon or an artificial satellite at which the body is closest to the Earth The most distant point is the apogee Perihelion: The point in the orbit of a member of the Solar System in which the body is at its closest to the Sun The most distant point is the aphelion The Earth reaches perihelion in early January Periodic times: See sidereal period Perturbations: The disturbances in the orbit of a celestial body produced by the gravitational pulls of others Phases: The apparent changes in shape of the Moon and some planets depending upon the amount of the sunlit hemisphere turned towards us The Moon, Mercury and Venus show complete phases, from new (invisible) to full Mars can show an appreciable phase, since at times less than 90 per cent of its sunlit face is turned in our direction The phases of the outer planets are insignificant Photometry: The measurement of the intensity of light The device now used for accurate determinations of star magnitudes is the photoelectric photometer, which consists of a photoelectric cell used together with a telescope (A photoelectric cell is an electronic device Light falls upon the cell and produces an electric current; the strength of the current depends on the intensity of the light.) Photosphere: The bright surface of the Sun Planet: A non-luminous body moving round a star It is likely that other stars have planetary systems similar to that of the Sun, but as yet there is no definite proof Planetarium: An instrument used to show an artificial sky on the inner surface of a large dome, and to reproduce celestial phenomena of all kinds A planetarium projector is extremely complicated, and is very accurate The planetarium is an educational device, and has become very popular in recent years Planetaria have been set up in many large cities all over the world, and are also used in schools and colleges Planetary nebula: A faint star surrounded by an immense ‘shell’ of tenuous gas More than 300 are known in our Galaxy They are so called because their telescopic appearance under low magnification is similar to that of a planet Plasma: A gas consisting of ionized atoms (see ion) and free electrons, together with some neutral particles 276 Taken as a whole, it is electrically neutral, and is a good conductor of electricity Poles, celestial: The north and south points of the celestial sphere Populations, stellar: There are two main types of star regions Population I areas contain a great deal of interstellar material, and the brightest stars are hot and white; it is assumed that star formation is still in progress The brightest stars in Population II areas are red giants, well advanced in their evolutionary cycle; there are almost no hot, white giant stars, and there is little interstellar material, so that star formation has apparently ceased Although no rigid boundaries can be laid down, it may be said that the arms of spiral galaxies are mainly of Population I; the central parts of spirals, as well as elliptical galaxies and globular clusters, are mainly of Population II Position angle: The apparent direction of one object with reference to another measured from the north point of the main object through east (90 degrees), south (180 degrees) and west (270 degrees) Precession: The apparent slow movement of the celestial poles It is caused by the pull of the Moon and the Sun upon the Earth’s equatorial bulge The Earth behaves rather in the manner of a top which is running down and starting to topple, but the movement is very gradual; the pole describes a circle on the celestial sphere, centred on the pole of the ecliptic, which is 47 degrees in diameter and takes 25,800 years to complete Because of precession, the celestial equator also moves, and this in turn affects the position of the First Point of Aries (vernal equinox), which shifts westwards along the ecliptic by 50 seconds of arc each year Since ancient times, this motion has taken the vernal equinox out of Aries into the adjacent constellation of Pisces (the Fishes) Our present Pole Star will not retain its title indefinitely In AD 12,000, the north polar star will be the brilliant Vega, in Lyra Prism: A glass block having flat surfaces inclined to one another Light passing through a prism will be split up, since different colours are refracted by different amounts Prominences: Masses of glowing gas, chiefly hydrogen, above the Sun’s bright surface They are visible with the naked eye only during total solar eclipses, but modern equipment allows them to be studied at any time They are of two main types, eruptive and quiescent Proper motion: The individual motion of a star on the celestial sphere Because the stars are so remote, their proper motions are slight The greatest known is that of Barnard’s Star (a red dwarf at a distance of light-years); this amounts to one minute of arc every six years, so that it will take 180 years to move by an amount equal to the apparent diameter of the Moon The proper motions of remote stars are too slight to be measured at all Proton: A fundamental particle with unit positive electrical charge The nucleus of a hydrogen atom consists of one proton See also neutron Pulsar: A neutron star radio source which does not emit continuously, but in rapid, very regular pulses Their periods are short (often much less than one second) Purkinje effect: An effect inherent in the human eye, which makes it less sensitive to light of longer wavelength when the general level of intensity is low Consider two lights, one red and one blue, which are of equal intensity If the intensity of both are reduced by equal amounts, the blue light will appear to be the brighter of the two Q Quadrature: The position of the Moon or a planet when at right angles to the Sun as seen from Earth Thus the Moon is in quadrature when it is seen at half-phase Quantum: The smallest amount of light-energy which can be transmitted at any given wavelength Quasar: A very remote immensely luminous object, now known to be the core of a very active galaxy – possibly powered by a massive black hole inside it Quasars are also known as QSOs (Quasi-Stellar Objects) BL Lacertae objects are of the same type, though less important R Radar astronomy: The technique of using radar pulses to study astronomical objects Most planets and some asteroids have been contacted by radar, and the radar equipment carried in space probes such as Magellan has provided us with detailed maps of the surface of Venus Radial velocity: The towards-or-away movement of a celestial body, measured by the Doppler effect in its spectrum If the spectral lines are red-shifted, the object is receding; if the shift is to the blue, the object is approaching Conventionally, radial velocity is said to be positive with a receding body, negative with an approaching body Radiant: The point in the sky from which the meteors of any particular shower appear to radiate (for example, the August shower has its radiant in Perseus, so that the meteors are known as the Perseids) The meteors in a shower are really moving through space in parallel paths, so that the radiant effect is due merely to perspective Radio astronomy: Astronomical studies carried out in the long-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum The main instruments used are known as radio telescopes; they are of many kinds, ranging from ‘dishes’, such as the 76-metre (250-foot) paraboloid at Jodrell Bank (Cheshire), to long lines of aerials Radio galaxies: Galaxies which are extremely powerful emitters of radio radiation Red shift: The Doppler displacement of spectral lines towards the red or long-wave end of the spectrum, indicating a velocity of recession Apart from the members of the Local Group, all galaxies show red shifts in their spectra H Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 9/4/03 5:55 pm Page 277 GLOSSARY Reflector: A telescope in which the light is collected by means of a mirror Refraction: The change in direction of a ray of light when passing from one transparent substance into another Refractor: A telescope which collects its light by means of a lens The light passes through this lens (object-glass) and is brought to focus; the image is then magnified by an eyepiece Resolving power: The ability of a telescope to separate objects which are close together; the larger the telescope the greater its resolving power Radio telescopes (see radio astronomy) have poor resolving power compared with optical telescopes Retardation: The difference in the time of moonrise between one night and the next It may exceed one hour, or it may be as little as a quarter of an hour Retrograde motion: In the Solar System, movement in a sense opposite to that of the Earth in its orbit; some comets, notably Halley’s, have retrograde motion The term is also used with regard to the apparent movements of planets in the sky; when the apparent motion is from east to west, relative to the fixed stars, the direction is retrograde The term may be applied to the rotations of planets Since Uranus has an axial inclination of more than a right angle, its rotation is technically retrograde; Venus also has retrograde axial rotation Reversing layer: The gaseous layer above the bright surface or photosphere of the Sun Shining on its own, the gases would yield bright spectral lines; but as the photosphere makes up the background, the lines are reversed, and appear as dark absorption or Fraunhofer lines Strictly speaking, the whole of the Sun’s chromosphere is a reversing layer Right ascension: The right ascension of a celestial body is the time which elapses between the culmination of the First Point of Aries and the culmination of the body concerned For example, Aldebaran in Taurus culminates 4h 33m after the First Point of Aries has done so; therefore the right ascension of Aldebaran is 4h 33m The right ascensions of bodies in the Solar System change quickly However, the right ascensions of stars not change, apart from the slow cumulative effect of precession Roche limit: The distance from the centre of a planet, or other body, within which a second body would be broken up by gravitational distortion This applies only to an orbiting body which has no appreciable structural cohesion, so that strong, solid objects, such as artificial satellites, may move safely well within the Roche limit for the Earth The Roche limit lies at 2.44 times the radius of the planet from the centre of the globe, so that for the Earth it is about 9170 kilometres above ground-level Saturn’s ring system lies within the Roche limit for Saturn RR Lyrae variables: Regular variable stars whose periods are very short (between about 11/4 hours and about 30 hours) They seem to be fairly uniform in luminosity; each is around 100 times as luminous as the Sun They can therefore be used for distance measures, in the same way as Cepheids Many of them are found in star clusters, and they were formerly known as cluster-Cepheids No RR Lyrae variable appears bright enough to be seen with the naked eye S Saros: A period of 18 years 11.3 days, after which the Earth, Moon and Sun return to almost the same relative positions Therefore, an eclipse of the Sun or Moon is liable to be followed by a similar eclipse 18 years 11.3 days later The period is not exact, but is good enough for predictions to be made – as was done in ancient times by Greek philosophers Satellite: A secondary body orbiting a primary The Earth has one satellite (the Moon); Jupiter has 53, Saturn 30, Uranus 23, Neptune 11 and Pluto one, while Mercury and Venus are unattended Schmidt telescope (or Schmidt camera): A type of telescope which uses a spherical mirror and a special glass correcting plate With it, relatively wide areas of the sky may be photographed with a single exposure; definition is good all over the plate In its original form, the Schmidt telescope can be used only photographically The largest Schmidt in use is the 122-centimetre instrument at Palomar Scintillation: Twinkling of stars It is due entirely to the effects of the Earth’s atmosphere; a star will scintillate most violently when it is low over the horizon, so that its light is passing through a thick layer of atmosphere A planet, which shows up as a small disk rather than a point, will generally twinkle much less than a star Seasons: Effects on the climate due to the inclination of the Earth’s axis The fact that the Earth’s distance from the Sun is not constant has only a minor effect upon our seasons Sextant: An instrument used for measuring the altitude of a celestial body above the horizon Seyfert galaxies: Galaxies with small, bright nuclei Many of them are radio sources, and show evidence of violent disturbances in their nuclei Shooting-star: The luminous appearance caused by a meteor falling through the Earth’s atmosphere Sidereal period: The time taken for a planet or other body to make one journey around the Sun (365.2 days in the case of the Earth) The term is also used for a satellite in orbit around a planet Also known as periodic time Sidereal time: The local time reckoned according to the apparent rotation of the celestial sphere It is zero hours when the First Point of Aries crosses the observer’s meridian The sidereal time for any observer is equal to the right ascension of an object which lies on the meridian at that time Greenwich sidereal time is used as the world standard (this is, of course, merely the local sidereal time at Greenwich Observatory) Solar apex: The point on the celestial sphere towards which the Sun is apparently travelling It lies in the constellation Hercules; the Sun’s velocity towards the apex is 19 kilometres per second The point directly opposite in the sky to the solar apex is termed the solar antapex This motion is distinct from the Sun’s rotation around the centre of the Galaxy, which amounts to about 320 kilometres per second Solar constant: The unit for measuring the amount of energy received on the Earth’s surface by solar radiation It is equal to 1.94 calories per minute per square centimetre (A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of gram of water by degree C.) Solar flares: See flares, solar Second of arc: One 360th of a degree See arc minute, arc second Solar parallax: The trigonometrical parallax of the Sun It is equal to 8.79 seconds of arc Secular acceleration: Because of friction produced by the tides, the Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing down; the ‘day’ is becoming longer The average daily lengthening is only 0.00000002 seconds, but over a sufficiently long period the effect becomes detectable The lengthening of terrestrial time periods gives rise to an apparent speeding-up of the periods of the Sun, Moon and planets Another result of these tidal phenomena is that the Moon is receding from the Earth slowly Solar System: The system made up of the Sun, the planets, satellites, comets, asteroids, meteoroids and interplanetary dust and gas Seeing: The quality of the steadiness and clarity of a star’s image It depends upon conditions in the Earth’s atmosphere From the Moon, or from space, the ‘seeing’ is always perfect Seismometer: An earthquake recorder Very sensitive seismometers were taken to the Moon by the Apollo astronauts, and provided interesting information about seismic conditions there Selenography: The study of the Moon’s surface Solar time, apparent: The local time reckoned according to the Sun Noon occurs when the Sun crosses the observer’s meridian, and is therefore at its highest in the sky Solar wind: A steady flow of atomic particles streaming out from the Sun in all directions It was detected by means of space probes, many of which carry instruments to study it Its velocity in the neighbourhood of the Earth exceeds 965 kilometres per second The intensity of solar wind is enhanced during solar storms Solstices: Times when the Sun is at its northernmost point in the sky (declination 23 1/2 °N, around 22 June), or at its southernmost point (23 1/2 °S, around 22 December) The dates of the solstices vary somewhat, because of the calendar irregularities due to leap years 277 H Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 7/4/03 6:21 pm Page 278 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Glossary Spacesuit: Equipment designed to allow an astronaut to operate outside the atmosphere Specific gravity: The density of any substance compared with that of an equal volume of water Spectroheliograph: An instrument used for photographing the Sun in the light of one particular wavelength only If adapted for visual use, it is known as a spectrohelioscope Spectroscope: An instrument used to analyse the light on a star or other luminous object Astronomical spectroscopes are used in conjunction with telescopes Without them our knowledge of the nature of the universe would still be very rudimentary Spectroscopic binary: A binary star whose components are too close together to be seen separately, but whose relative motions cause opposite Doppler shifts which are detectable spectroscopically Speculum: The main mirror of reflecting telescope (see reflector) Older mirrors were made of speculum metal; modern ones are generally of glass Spherical aberration: The blurred appearance of an image as seen in a telescope, due to the fact that the lens or mirror does not bring the rays falling on its edge and on its centre to exactly the same focus If the spherical aberration is noticeable, the lens or mirror is of poor quality, and should be corrected Spicules: Jets up to 16,000 kilometres in diameter, in the solar chromosphere Each lasts for 4–5 minutes Spiral nebula: A now obsolete term for a spiral galaxy Star: A self-luminous gaseous body The Sun is a typical star Steady-state theory: A theory according to which the universe has always existed, and will exist for ever The theory has now been abandoned by almost all astronomers Stratosphere: The layer in the Earth’s atmosphere lying above the troposphere It extends from about 11 to about 64 kilometres above sea-level Sublimation: The change of a solid body to the gaseous state without passing through a liquid condition (This may well apply to the polar caps on Mars.) Sundial: An instrument used to show the time, by using an inclined style, or gnomon, to cast a shadow on to a graduated dial The gnomon points to the celestial pole A sundial gives apparent time; to obtain mean time, the value shown on the dial must be corrected by applying the equation of time Sun-grazers: Comets which at perihelion make very close approaches to the Sun All the sun-grazers are brilliant comets with extremely long periods Sunspots: Darker patches on the solar photosphere; their temperature is about 4000 degrees C (as against 278 about 6000 degrees C for the general photosphere), so that they are dark only by contrast; if they could be seen shining on their own, their surface brilliance would be greater than that of an arc-light A large sunspot consists of a central darkish area or umbra, surrounded by a lighter area or penumbra, which may be very extensive and irregular Sunspots tend to appear in groups, and are associated with strong magnetic fields; they are also associated with faculae and with solar flares They are most common at the time of solar maximum (approximately every 11 years) No sunspot lasts for more than a few months at most Supergiant stars: Stars of exceptionally low density and great luminosity Betelgeux in Orion is a typical supergiant Superior conjunction: The position of a planet when it is on the far side of the Sun as seen from Earth Superior planets: The planets beyond the orbit of the Earth in the Solar System: that is to say, all the principal planets apart from Mercury and Venus Supernova: A colossal stellar outburst A Type I supernova involves the total destruction of the white dwarf component of a binary system; a Type II supernova is produced by the collapse of a very massive star At its peak, a supernova may exceed the combined luminosity of all the other stars of an average galaxy Synchronous satellite: An artificial satellite moving in a west-to-east equatorial orbit in a period equal to that of the Earth’s axial rotation (approximately 24 hours): as seen from Earth the satellite appears to remain stationary, and is of great value as a communications relay Many synchronous satellites are now in orbit Synchrotron radiation: Radiation emitted by charged particles moving at relativistic velocities in a strong magnetic field Much of the radio radiation coming from the Crab Nebula is of this type Synodic period: The interval between successive oppositions of a superior planet For an inferior planet, the term is taken to mean the interval between successive conjunctions with the Sun Syzygy: The position of the Moon in its orbit when at new or full phase T Tektites: Small, glassy objects which are aerodynamically shaped, and seem to have been heated twice It has been suggested that they are meteorite, but it is now generally believed that they are of terrestrial origin Telemetry: The technique of transmitting the results of measurements and observations made on instruments in inaccessible positions (such as unmanned probes in orbit) to a point where they can be used and analysed Telescope: The main instrument used to collect the light from celestial bodies, thereby producing an image which can be magnified There are two main types: the reflector and the refractor All the world’s largest telescopes are reflectors, because a mirror can be supported by its back, whereas a lens has to be supported around its edge – and if it is extremely large, it will inevitably sag and distort under its own weight, thereby rendering itself useless Terminator: The boundary between the day and night hemispheres of the Moon or a planet Since the lunar surface is mountainous, the terminator is rough and jagged, and isolated peaks may even appear to be detached from the main body of the Moon Mercury and Venus, which also show lunar-type phases, seem to have almost smooth terminators, but this is probably because we cannot see them in such detail (at least in the case of Mercury, whose surface is likely to be as mountainous as that of the Moon) Mars also shows a smooth terminator, although it is now known that the surface of the planet is far from being smooth and level Photographs of the Earth taken from space or from the Moon show a smooth terminator which appears much ‘softer’ than that of the Moon, because of the presence of atmosphere Thermocouple: An instrument used for measuring very small quantities of heat When used in conjunction with a large telescope, it is capable of detecting remarkably feeble heat-sources Tides: The regular rise and fall of the ocean waters, due to the gravitational pulls of the Moon and (to a lesser extent) the Sun Time dilation effect: According to relatively theory, the ‘time’ experienced by two observers in motion compared with each other will not be the same To an observer moving at near the velocity of light, time will slow down; also, the observer’s mass will increase until at the actual velocity-of-light time will stand still and mass will become infinite! The time and mass effects are entirely negligible except for very high velocities, and at the speeds of modern rockets they may be ignored completely Transfer orbit (or Hohmann orbit): The most economical orbit for a spacecraft which is sent to another planet To carry out the journey by the shortest possible route would mean continuous expenditure of fuel, which is a practical impossibility What has to be done is to put the probe into an orbit which will swing it inwards or outwards to the orbit of the target planet To reach Mars, the probe is speeded up relative to the Earth, so that it moves outwards in an elliptical orbit; calculations are made so that the probe will reach the orbit of Mars and rendezvous with the planet To reach Venus, the probe must initially be slowed down relative to the Earth, so that it will swing inwards towards the orbit of Venus With a probe moving in a transfer orbit, almost all the journey is carried out in free fall, so that no propellant is being used On the other hand, it means that the distances covered are increased, so that the time taken for the journey is also increased Transit: (1) The passage of a celestial body, or a point on the celestial sphere, across the observer’s meridian; thus the First Point of Aries must transit at hours sidereal time (2) Mercury and Venus are said to be in transit when they are seen against the disk of the H Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 7/4/03 6:21 pm Page 279 GLOSSARY Sun at inferior conjunction Transits of Mercury are quite frequent (e.g one in 1973 and the next in 1986), but the next transit of Venus will not occur until 2004; the last took place in 1882 Similarly, a satellite of a planet is said to be in transit when it is seen against the planet’s disk Transits of the four large satellites of Jupiter may be seen with small telescopes; also visible are shadow transits of these satellites, when the shadows cast by the satellites are seen as black spots on the face of Jupiter Transit instrument: A telescope which is specially mounted; it can move only in elevation, and always points to the meridian Its sole use is to time the moments when stars cross the meridian, so providing a means of checking the time The transit instrument set up at Greenwich Observatory by Sir George Airy, in the 19th century, is taken to mark the Earth’s prime meridian (longitude zero degrees) Although still in common use it is likely that they will become obsolete before long is very variable, since it is strongly affected by events taking place in the Sun; the inner zone, composed chiefly of protons, is more stable On the other hand, it may be misleading to talk of two separate zones; it may be that there is one general belt whose characteristics vary according to distance from the Earth The Van Allen radiation is of great importance in all geophysical research, and probably represents the major discovery of the first years of practical astronautics Y Variable stars: Stars which fluctuate in brightness over short periods of time Variation: (1) An inequality in the motion of the Moon, due to the fact that the Sun’s pull on it throughout its orbit is not constant in strength (2) Magnetic variation: the difference, in degrees, between magnetic north and true north It is not the same for all places on the Earth’s surface, and it changes slightly from year to year because of the wandering of the magnetic pole Vernal Equinox: See First Point of Aries Trojans: Asteroids which move around the Sun at a mean distance equal to that of Jupiter One group of Trojans keeps well ahead of Jupiter and the other group well behind, so that there is no danger of collision Hundreds of Trojans are now known Troposphere: The lowest part of the Earth’s atmosphere, reaching to an average height of about 11 kilometres above sea-level It includes most of the mass of the atmosphere, and all the normal clouds lie within it Above, separating the troposphere from the stratosphere, is the tropopause Twilight, astronomical: The state of illumination of the sky when the Sun is below the horizon, but by less than 18 degrees Vulcan: The name given to a hypothetical planet once believed to move around the Sun at a distance less than that of Mercury It is now certain that Vulcan does not exist W White dwarf: A very small, extremely dense star The atoms in it have been broken up and the various parts packed tightly together with almost no waste space, so that the density rises to millions of times that of water; a spoonful of white dwarf material would weigh many tonnes Evidently a white dwarf has used up all its nuclear ‘fuel’; it is in the last stages of its active career, and has been aptly described as a bankrupt star Neutron stars are even smaller and denser than white dwarfs Twinkling: Common term for scintillation U Ultra-violet radiation: Electromagnetic radiation which has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light, and so cannot be seen with the naked eye The ultra-violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies between visible light and X-radiation The Sun is a very powerful source of ultra-violet, but most of this radiation is blocked out by layers in the Earth’s upper atmosphere – which is fortunate for us, since in large quantities ultra-violet radiation is lethal Studies of the ultra-violet radiations emitted by the stars have to be carried out by means of instruments sent up in rockets or artificial satellites Umbra: (1) The dark inner portion of a sunspot (2) The main cone of shadow cast by a planet or the Moon Widmanstätten patterns: If an iron meteorite is cut, polished and then etched with acid, characteristic figures of the iron crystals appear These are known as Widmanstätten patterns They are never found except in meteorites Wolf-Rayet stars: Exceptionally hot, greenish-white stars whose spectra contain bright emission lines as well as the usual dark absorption lines Their surface temperature may approach 100,000 degrees C, and they seem to be surrounded by rapidly expanding envelopes of gas Attention was first drawn to them in 1867 by the astronomers Wolf and Rayet, after whom the class is named Recently, it has been found that many of the Wolf-Rayet stars are spectroscopic binaries X V X-rays: Electromagnetic radiations of very short wavelength There are many X-ray sources in the sky; studies of them must be undertaken by space research methods Van Allen Zones (or Van Allen Belts): Zones around the Earth in which electrically charged particles are trapped and accelerated by the Earth’s magnetic field They were detected by J Van Allen and his colleagues in 1958, from results obtained with the first successful US artificial satellite, Explorer Apparently there are two main belts The outer, made up mainly of electrons, X-ray astronomy: X-rays are very short electromagnetic radiations, with wavelengths of from 0.1 to 100 Ångströms Since X-rays from space are blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere, astronomical researches have to be carried out by means of instruments taken up in rockets The Sun is a source Universal time: The same as Greenwich Mean Time of X-rays; the intensity of the X-radiation is greatly enhanced by solar flares Sources of X-rays outside the Solar System were first found in 1962 by American astronomers, who located two sources, one in Scorpius and the other in Taurus; the latter has now been identified with the Crab Nebula Since then, various other X-ray sources have been discovered, some of which are variable Year: The time taken for the Earth to go once around the Sun; in everyday life it is taken to be 365 days (366 days in Leap Year) (1) Sidereal year: The true revolution period of the Earth: 365.26 days, or 365 days hours minutes 10 seconds (2) Tropical year: The interval between successive passages of the Sun across the First Point of Aries It is equal to 365.24 days, or 365 days hours 48 minutes 45 seconds The tropical year is about 20 minutes shorter than the sidereal year because of the effects of precession, which cause a shift in the position of the First Point of Aries (3) Anomalistic year: The interval between successive perihelion passages of the Earth It is equal to 365.26 days, or 365 days hours 13 minutes 53 seconds It is slightly longer than the sidereal year because the position of the perihelion point moves by about 11 seconds of arc annually (4) Calendar year: The mean length of the year according to the Gregorian calendar It is equal to 365.24 days, or 365 days hours 49 minutes 12 seconds Z Zenith: The observer’s overhead point (altitude 90 degrees) Zenith distance: The angular distance of celestial body from the observer’s zenith Zodiac: A belt stretching right round the sky, degrees to either side of the ecliptic, in which the Sun, Moon and bright planets are always to be found It passes through 13 constellations, the 12 commonly known as the Zodiacal groups plus a small part of Ophiuchus (the Serpent-bearer) Zodiacal constellations: The 12 constellations used in astrology They are Aquarius, Aries, Cancer, Capricornus, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Pisces, Sagittarius, Scorpius, Taurus and Virgo Zodiacal light: A cone of light rising from the horizon and stretching along the ecliptic It is visible only when the Sun is a little way below the horizon, and is best seen on clear, moonless evenings or mornings It is thought to be due to small particles scattered near the main plane of the Solar System A fainter extension along the ecliptic is known as the Zodiacal band 279 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:29 pm Page 280 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Index A Aberration of light 220 Absolute magnitude 170 Acamar (star) 260 Achernar (star) 260 Acrux (star) 169 Adams, J C 130 Adhara (star) 248 AE Aurigae (‘runaway star’) 252, 253 Agena (B-type star) 256 Airy Transit Circle 168 Al Dhanab (star) 258 Al Ma’mun 12 Al-Sûfi 240 Albireo (Beta Cygni) (star) 177 Alcock, George 181, 234 Alcor (star) 176, 218 Alcyone (star) 250 Aldebaran (type K A giant star) 173, 250 Aldrin, Buzz 50, 51 Algenib (star) 242 Algol (Beta Persei; Demon Star) (eclipsing binary star) 178, 241 Alkaid 200, 218 Allen, D A 122 Almaak (Gamma Andromedae) (double star) 176, 240 Almagest (Ptolemy of Alexandria) 12, 212 Alnair (star) 258 Alnilam (star) 248 Alnitak (Zeta Orionis) (star) 189, 248 Alpha Capricorni (star) 176 Alpha Centauri group 171 Alpha Centauri (Rigel Kent[aurus]; Toliman) (binary star) 167, 177, 216, 217, 256 Alphard (Solitary One) (star) 230 Alpheratz (star) 240, 242 ALSEP see (Apollo Lunar Surface Experimental Package) Altair (star) 217, 232 Aludra (star) 248 Amalthea (satellite of Jupiter) 102, 103 Amateur astronomy 126, 166, 224, 255, 264–5 choosing a telescope 266–7 discoveries 234–5, 256 comets 138 nova 181 equipment needed 264–7 extinction table 243 Galileans 103 and Halley’s Comet 140 home observatories 268–9 Palitzsch 140 photography 219 supernovae 201 using small telescopes 96 value of 96–7, 179, 181, 201, 264 variable star work 179, 226 Andromeda (constellation) 240 Andromeda Spiral (galaxy) see M31 Ångström, Anders 20, 159 Ankaa (star) 258 Antares (red supergiant) 177, 217, 238 Antlia (constellation) 254 Antoniadi, E M 64, 68, 112 maps of Mars 77 Apollo Lunar Surface Experimental Package (ALSEP) 50–1 280 Apollo space missions 50–1 Apollo 50 Apollo 50 Apollo 10 50 Apollo 11 27, 50, 54 Apollo 12 50 Apollo 13 50 Apollo 14 26, 50–1 Apollo 15 50 Apollo 16 50 Apollo 17 43, 50–1, 54 Apus (constellation) 261 Aquarius (constellation) 244–5 Aquila (constellation) 234 Ara (constellation) 256–7 Arbour, R W 269 Arcturus (star) 169, 217, 224 Arich (Porrima; Postvarta) (binary star) 228 Ariel (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127, 128 Aries (constellation) 168, 240–1 Aristarchus of Samos 12 Aristotle 12 Armstrong, Neil 26, 50 Arneb (supergiant star) 249 Arp, Halton 202 Artificial satellites 24–5 communication 24 military 24 orbits 24 photography 264 Explorer 23 International Ultra-violet Explorer (IUE) 24–5 ROSAT 24 Sputnik 23, 24 Telstar 24 Asteroid belt 34, 90, 139 Asteroids 34, 90–93, 148 Amor type 92 Apollo type 92 Aten type 92 captured 103, 116 Centaurs 137 collision with Earth 92 colour 137 and comets 92 contact binary 92, 93 Cubewanos 137 Damocloid 92, 137 and dinosaur extinction 36 discovery 90 Earth’s climate 36 from Kuiper Belt 137 as Martian satellites 81 and meteroids 92 number discovered 90 orbits 92–93 organic compounds on 90 planetary satellites 132 Plutinos 137 Pluto as possible 135 positions illustrated 93 retrograde motion 132 shape and size 90 spectroscopic study 90 surveyed from close range 81 Trojans 92–3, 117 Asbolus 137 Astraea 90 Ceres 90, 137 Chiron 119, 137 Eros 90, 92, 93 Geographos 52 Icarus 92 Ida 81 Jovian satellites 103 Juno 90 Mathilde 90 Nessus 137 Pallas 90, 137 Pholus 137 588 Achilles 92 446 Aeternitas 90 95 Arethusa 90 246 Asporina 90 5335 Damocles 92 7968 Elst–Pizarro 92 5261 Eureka 92 951 Gaspra 81, 90 2340 Hathor 92 624 Hektor 92 944 Hidalgo 92 243 Ida 81, 91 878 Mildred 90 3200 Phaethon 90, 92, 139 5145 Pholus 137 16 Psyche 90 1992 QB1 137 1996 TL66 137 279 Thule 90 4179 Toutatis 92, 93 Vesta 90, 91 No 4015 (previously comet) 92, 93, 139 Astraea (asteroid) 90 Astrology 12 Astronomer Royal 140, 219, 220 Astronomical instruments orrery 12 Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) 172 Astronomy 264–5 X-ray 21 amateur see Amateur astronomy ancient 168, 199 Arab 166, 218, 240 Baghdad school 12 Chinese 102, 140, 166, 188, 212, 227 distances observable 202 Egyptian 166, 168, 169, 212 extinction table 242 gamma-ray 21 Greek 12, 166, 169, 212, 220, 227, 250 history of 12–13 infra-red 21, 238 International Astronomical Union 208 interstellar code 209 invisible 20–1 ‘missing mass’ problem 196, 207 as profession 264 radio 21, 196, 202, 229 Virgo A (3C-274) 229 SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) 208 Atlas (satellite of Saturn) 112 Auriga (constellation) 252–3 Auriga (star) 252 Aurorae 40–1, 162, 163 auroral ovals 41 cause 41 colour 41 forms 40 Jupiter 98 Neptune 131 observation of 264 Uranus 124 Autumnal Equinox (First Point of Libra) 168 B B Lyrae (Sheliak) eclipsing binary star 232 Baade, Walter 194 Babcock, H 157 Barnard, Edward Emerson 103, 236 Barnard 68 190 Barnard’s Star (Munich 15040) 170, 171, 236 Baxendell, Joseph 224 Bayer, Johann 166, 218, 221, 226, 259, 261 Bean, Alan (astronaut) 50 Becklin–Neugebauer Object (BN) 189 Beer, Wilhelm 76 Bellatrix (star) 248 Bellissima (star) 228 Bessel, Friedrich 170, 171 Beta Centauri (star) 167, 216, 217 Beta Lyrae (eclipsing binary star) 178 Beta Pictoris (star) 208 Betelgeux (type M A red supergiant) 166, 167, 168, 172, 173, 179, 216, 238, 248, 250 HR Diagram 173 right ascension 168 Bevis, John 182 Biela, Wilhelm von 139 ‘Big Bang’ 206–7 ‘Big Crunch’ 207 Binocular observation 252, 265 comet discovery 181 globular clusters 187, 237, 256 Hyades cluster 250 M33 Triangulum Spiral 240 Milky Way 197 Neptune 130 nova discovery 181 R Scuti variable star 234 stellar clusters 186 stellar colour contrasts 250, 258 supergiant star 222 Titan 117 Triangulum Spiral 198–9 variable stars 225 Binoculars choosing 264–5 BL Lacertae 223 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) 202, 223 Black dwarf 155, 175 Black holes 175, 184–5, 202 at galactic centre 184–5, 196 detection 184 formation 184 Hubble Space Telescope image 185 interior 185 in M87 185, 229 powering galaxies 200–1 Schwarzschild radius 184 Blaze Star see T Coronae Blue stragglers 187, 258 Bode, Johann 224 Bok, Bart J 174, 190 Bok globules 174, 190 Boötes (constellation) 224 Bopp, Thomas 145 Bradley, James 220 Brahe, Tycho see Tycho Brahe Braun, Wernher von 22, 23, 28 British Aerospace 30 brown dwarf 172 Bubble Nebula 31 Bunker, Anne 114 Bunsen, Robert 158 Burbridge, Dr Geoffrey 202 Butterfly Nebula 190 Bykovsky, Valery 26 C Caelum (constellation) 260 Caesar, Julius 208 Caldwell Catalogue (C) 186 Calendars 12 Caliban (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127 Callirrhoe (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Callisto (satellite of Jupiter) 99, 103, 104 composition 102 craters 107 illustrated 99, 102, 107 orbit 103 structure 102 transits 102 Calypso (satellite of Saturn) 117 Camelopardalis (constellation) 223 Cameras see Photography Cancer (constellation) 227 Canes Venatici (constellation) 218 Canis Major (constellation) 167, 248 Canis Minor (constellation) 248–9 Canopus (star) 166, 169, 215, 216, 217, 254 brightness 108, 167 Capella (type G8 star) 172, 214–5, 252 HR Diagram 173 Capricornus (constellation) 244 Carbon in stars 175 Carina (constellation) 254 Cartwheel Galaxy A0035 31, 201 Cassini, G D 110 Cassini Division see Saturn (ring system) Cassini probe 32–3, 95, 97, 113, 114–5, 120–1 Cassiopeia (constellation) 199, 217, 222 Castor (binary star) 177, 251 Celestial equator 168 ‘Celestial Police’ 90 Celestial sphere 168–9 Centaurus A (NGC5128) (galaxy) 201, 256 Centaurus (constellation) 256 Cepheids 194, 199, 223 Delta Cephei 178 dwarf 258 types 194 variable 173, 178, 179, 234 ZZ Carinae 254 Cepheus (constellation) 222–3 Ceres (asteroid) 90 Cernan, Eugene 51 Cetus (constellation) 217, 246 Chaldene (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Chamaeleon (constellation) 261 Chandra 25 Chandrasekhar limit 182 Charge-coupled device (CCD) 18 Chi Cygni 179 Mira type star 179 Chiron (asteroid) 119 Circinus (constellation) 256 Clementine lunar probe 52–3 Clusters see Stellar clusters Coal Sack (dark nebula) 167, 189, 257 Collins, Michael 50 Colour asteroids 137 aurorae 41 colour-coded images 72, 74 false 14 Halley Multi-colour Camera 141 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:29 pm Page 281 INDEX Jupiter 114 Mars 63, 84 Neptune 130 photography 79, 98, 113 reconstruction of images 109 Saturn 114 stellar spectra 173, 177, 218, 258 Triton 132 Uranus 122, 124 Venus 70 see also Spectroscopy Columba (constellation) 249 Columbus, Christopher 12 Coma cluster 195 Coma Berenices (constellation) 225 Comets 34, 138, 139, 140, 142, 144–5, 162, 250 annual shower 138 and asteroids 92, 139 collisions 137, 142 companion 139 ‘dead’ 92 discoveries 138, 139, 181 epidemics caused by 142 first photograph 142 Jupiter’s effect 137, 139 life span 138 listed 139, 143 magnitude, estimation 139 and meteor showers 138 ‘mislaid’ 139 near-circular paths, with 139 nomenclature 138 Oort Cloud 137, 139 orbits 34, 138 calculation 143 changed by Jupiter 139 periodical listed 139 and planetesimals 137 predicting 34 short-period 139 splitting 139 Sun, drawn into 137 tails 138, 142 variable brightness 139 Biela’s 139 Borrelly 25, 145 Brooks 139 Comet P/Grigg–Skjellerup 140 Comet P/Swift–Tuttle 138 de Chéseaux, Comet of 1744 142 Encke’s see Encke’s Comet Giacobini–Zinner 146 Great 142–3 Comet Arend-Roland 142 Daylight Comet of 1910 142, 145 Donati’s Comet 142, 143 Great Comet of 1811 138 Great Comet of 1843 142, 143 Great Southern Comet of 1882 142 Hale–Bopp 34, 143, 144–5, 145, 265 Hyakutake 143, 144, 265 Ikeya–Seki 143 Kohoutek’s 143 listed 143 Skjellerup–Maristany of 1927 143 Tebbutt’s Comet 142 Halley’s see Halley’s Comet Holmes’ 139 Lexell’s 138 Neat’s 138 P/Grigg–Skjellerup 141 Schwassmann–Wachmann 139 Shoemaker–Levy 139 Swift–Tuttle 138, 146, 147 Tempel–Tuttle 146 Thatcher’s 146 West’s 138 Wild 145 Wilson–Harrington 92, 139 Cone Nebula 31, 249 Conjunctions 62, 94 Conrad, Charles ‘Pete’ 50 Constellations 12 changing patterns 167, 171 Chinese 166 classes of magnitude 166–7 depicted by de Vecchi and da Reggio 211 Egyptian 166 finding 264 Greek 166 Herschel’s opinion 166 identification systems 166 map of northern 212 map of southern 213 new groups 166 nomenclature 166, 212, 213 rejected 146, 166, 213, 219, 224, 231, 236–7 seasonal maps north 214–5 seasonal maps south 216–7 sizes compared 230 Andromeda 240 Antlia 254 Apus 261 Aquarius 244–5 Aquila 234 Ara 256–7 Aries 168, 240–1 Auriga 252–3 Boötes 224 Caelum 260 Camelopardalis 223 Cancer 227 Canis Major 167, 248 Canis Minor 248–9 Capricornus 244 Carina 254 Cassiopeia 199, 217, 222 Centaurus 256 Cepheus 222–3 Cetus 217, 246 Chamaeleon 261 Circinus 256 Columba 249 Coma Berenices 225 Corona Australis 239 Corona Borealis 224–5 Corvus 231 Crater 231 Crux Australis (Southern Cross) 164–5, 166, 167, 169, 177, 186, 216, 254, 256 Cygnus 166, 170, 232 Delphinus 234 Dorado 260 Draco 36, 168, 220–1 Equuleus 234 Eridanus (northern) 246–7 Eridanus (southern) 217, 260 Fornax 247 Gemini 177, 251 Grus 258 Hercules 234–5 Horologium 260 Hydra 230–1 Hydrus 260–1 Indus 259 Lacerta 223 Leo 167, 215, 226–7 Leo Minor 219 Lepus 249 Libra 229 Lupus 256–7 Lynx 252–3 Lyra 36, 168, 232 Mensa 261 Microscopium 259 Monoceros 172, 249 Musca 261 Norma 256–7 Octans 261 Ophiuchus 62, 168, 236–7 Orion 166, 170, 215, 248, 264, 265 Pavo 259 Pegasus 215, 217, 242–3 Perseus 166, 241 Phoenix 258 Pictor 254–5 Pisces 168, 242–3 Piscis Australis 245 Puppis 215, 255 Pyxis 254 Reticulum 260 Sagitta 234 Sagittarius 166, 196, 238–9 Scorpius 217, 238 Sculptor 31, 259 Scutum 234 Serpens 174, 237 Sextans 227 Southern Cross 166, 167 Taurus 250–1 Telescopium 166, 256–7 Triangulum 166, 240 Triangulum Australe 256 Tucana 258–9 Ursa Major 166, 169, 171, 215, 217, 218–9 Ursa Minor 36, 168, 220–1 Vela 254 Virgo 228, 231 Volans 255 Vulpecula 234 Copernicus (Mikolaj Kopernik) 12, 14 Corona Australis (constellation) 239 Corona Borealis (constellation) 224–5 ‘Coronae’ on Miranda 127 Corvus (constellation) 231 Cosmic cannibalism 201 Cosmic rays 20 cosmological constant 207 Crab Nebula 182, 183, 188, 191, 250 Crater (constellation) 231 Craters on asteroids 93 Callisto 104, 107 Ganymede 104, 107 Halley’s Comet 141 impact 78 Mars 72, 78–9 Mercury 65, 66–7, 72 morphology 66–7 ray-centres 107 Saturn, satellites of 118–9 Uranus, satellites of 127 Venus 72 see also Meteorite craters Crux Australis (Southern Cross) (constellation) 164–5, 166, 167, 169, 177, 186, 216, 254, 256 Culmination 168 Cygnus X-1 184, 189 Cygnus (constellation) 166, 170, 232 D Damoiseau, Charles 139 Danielson, E 141 dark energy 207 D’Arrest, Heinrich 80, 130 Davis, John 172 Davis, Ray 155 De Chéseaux 142, 251 De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Copernicus) 12 Declination 168, 214–5 Deimos (satellite of Mars) 80–1 origin 81 size 81 surface 81 transits 81 Delphinus (constellation) 234 Delta Cephei (pulsating variable star) 178 Delta Librae (eclipsing binary star) 178 Deneb (supergiant star) 189, 217, 232 Digges, Leonard 14 Dione (satellite of Saturn) 116, 117, 118, 119 Diphda (K-type star) 246 Dollfus, A 60 Doppler shifts 171, 195, 202 Dorado (constellation) 260 Draco (constellation) 36, 168, 220–1 Draconis (Thuban) (star) 220–1 Dreyer, J L E 186 Dubhe (star) 166, 218 Duke, Charles (astronaut) 50 Dumbbell Nebula see M27 Dunlop, J 259 E Eagle lunar module 50 Eagle Nebula 174 Earth 34, 35 asteroids 92 atmosphere 36 composition 40 layers 40, 41 noctilucent clouds 40, 41 ozone 40 temperature 40 aurorae 40–1 axis 168 comet, collision with 142 core 38 crust 38 dinosaurs, extinction of 36 early theories 12 earthquakes 38–9 end of 36 equator 168 geocorona 40 geological record 36 history 36, 37 Ice Ages 36 life on conditions for 36 extinction 36 oldest examples 37 origins 36, 208 magnetosphere 41, 98 man’s treatment of 208 Mars compared 76 distance from 76 Moon lunar eclipse 43 relationship to 42–3 view from 40 viewed from Earth 48, 51 orbit 12, 36 star distance, calculation of 170 planetary data listed 35 plate tectonics 38 precession 36, 168 relation to universe 195 seasons 37 seismic-wave types 38, 39 shape 169, 255 size measured 12 speed of movement 196 tectonic plates 38 temperature 38 tides 42–3 vulcanism 38, 39 Eclipses 160 lunar 43 photography 161 solar 160–1 dates of future 160 stars 178 Ecliptic 168 Edgeworth, K 137 Einstein, Albert 202 Einstein Cross 202, 203 Electrical flux tube 102 Electroglow 124 Electromagnetic spectrum 20, 21 telescopes 20 Elements most common 159 spectra of 159 Emission spectrum 159 Enceladus (satellite of Saturn) 111, 113, 116, 118 Encke, J F 139 Encke Division see Saturn (ring system) Encke’s Comet 139, 146 discovery 139 future of 139 orbit 139 Epimetheus (satellite of Saturn) 116 Epsilon Eridani 208 Equinoxes 37, 168 Equuleus (constellation) 234 Eratosthenes of Cyrene 12 Eridanus, northern (constellation) 246–7 Eridanus, southern (constellation) 217, 260 Erinome (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Eros (asteroid) 90, 92, 93 Eskimo Nebula 251 Eta Carinae (star) 172, 179, 193 Eta Carinae Nebula 192–3 Eta Cygni (star) 184 Europa (satellite of Jupiter) 99, 104, 105 amateur observation 103 composition 102 illustrated 99, 105 orbit 103 structure 102, 104, 105 surface features 104, 105, 106 European Space Agency 30, 136 Evans, Rev Robert 256 Exhalation of Piled-up Corpses see M44 Extinction 248 Extinction table 243 Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (ETI) 208–9 extra-solar planets 208 F 51 Pegasi 208, 242 False Cross 254 First Point of Aries (Vernal Equinox) 168 First Point of Libra (Autumnal Equinox) 168 Flame Nebula 189 281 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:30 pm Page 282 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Index Flaming Star Nebula 252, 253 Flammarion, Camille 227 Flamsteed, John 122 Flaugergues, Honoré 142 Fomalhaut (star) 208, 215, 245 Fornax (constellation) 247 Fournier, G 111 Fraunhofer, Josef 15, 158 Fraunhofer lines 158–9, 171 Fundamental particles 206 G Gagarin, Major Yuri 26 Galactic cluster 174, 195 Galactic halo 196 Galactic supernova 236 Galaxies binary 198 black holes 184, 185, 196, 200–1 ‘bridges’ between 202 classification 200 clusters 195, 205, 229 collisions between 201 discovery 15 distance from Earth 202 distribution 195, 204 elliptical 200, 204 giant 199, 201, 204, 229 evolution 201 Hubble’s Tuning Fork diagram 200 irregular 200 Local Group 195, 198–9, 204, 229 composition 198–9 data listed 198 members 198–9 structure 198 movement, direction 195 quasars, connected to 202 spectral analysis 195 speed of recession 204 spiral 200, 219, 240, 246 Andromeda see M31 barred 200 cause 200 Great see M31 NGC55 259 NGC253 259 Whirlpool see M51 types listed 200–1 velocity as distance guide 202 Black-Eye Galaxy see M64 M74 243 Maffei and 198, 199, 222 NGC5128 (Centaurus A) 201, 256 Seyfert 185, 200, 201, 204, 229, 246 Sombrero Hat Galaxy see M104 Galaxy, the 194, 195, 198 appearance 194 centre 196 composition 196 early observations 194 galactic halo 196 globular clusters 187, 196, 199, 219 infra-red image of centre 197 missing mass problem 196 Populations I and II 196, 224 rotation 196 size 196 structure 196 Sun, position of 196 Galileans 102–5 Galileo Galilei 12, 14, 102, 194 Galileo probe 51, 90, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104–5 Galle, Johann 130 282 Gamma Crucis (star) 167 Gamma-rays 20, 21 Gan De (astronomer) 102 Ganymede (satellite of Jupiter) 104 amateur observation of 103 composition 102 orbit 103 magnetic field 104 structure 102 surface features 107 Gaspra (asteroid) 81 Gegenschein (counterglow) 34 Gemini (constellation) 177, 251 Gemini spacecraft 27 Geminid meteor stream 92 Geographos (asteroid) 52 Gernhardt, Michael 11 Ghost of Jupiter Nebula (NGC3242) 231 Gill, Sir David 142 Giotto di Bondone 141 Giotto probe 25, 140, 141 Gladman, B J 116 Glenn, Colonel John 26 Globular clusters see Stellar clusters Goddard, Robert Hutchings 22–3 Goodricke, John 223 Gravitational contraction 94 Gravitational lensing effect 202, 203 Gravity and star formation 174 Gravity-assist technique 25, 64, 162 Great Nebula see M42 Great Pyramid of Cheops 37 Great Spiral (galaxy) see M31 Great Wall (galaxies) 204 Great Wall of China 32 Greek alphabet listed 166 Gruithuisen, Franz von Paula 70 Grus (constellation) 258 Gulliver’s Travels (Swift) 80 Gum, Colin 188 Gum Nebula 188 Guzman Prize 76 H Hadar (B-type star) 256 Hale, Alan 145 Hale, George Ellery 15, 18 Hall, Asaph 80 Halley, Edmond 140, 219, 224, 235 Halley’s Comet 72, 138, 140–1, 146 age and future 141 Battle of Hastings 141 condemned by Pope 141 constituents 141 craters 141 earliest record 140 first photograph 141 Halley Multi-colour Camera 141 jet activity 141 nucleus 141 orbit 140 probes to 25, 141 returns 141 brightest recorded 140 first predicted 140 future 141 tail 140, 141 Hansen, Andreas 48 Harpalke (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Harriot, Thomas 14 Hawking, Stephen 185 Hawkins, M H 172 Hay, W T 114 Helin, Eleanor 93 Helium, stellar evolution 175 Helix Nebula 245 Hen Nebula 188 Henize, Karl 188 Hercules (constellation) 234–5 Herschel, Caroline 139 Herschel, Sir John 127, 139, 213, 230, 243 Herschel, William 14–15, 80, 90, 122, 126, 139, 162, 188, 189, 194, 196, 220, 221, 223, 234, 235, 249 Hertzsprung, Ejner 172 Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagrams 172, 173 Hesiod 250 Hevelius, Johannes 219, 223, 227, 252 Himalia (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Himeros (on Eros) 92 Hipparchus 227 Hipparcos (astrometric satellite) 170, 204 Hipparcos catalogue 204 Hiten probe 51 Holman, M 132 Homer 250 Horologium (constellation) 260 Horse’s Head Nebula 189 Hoyle, Sir Fred 142, 202 Hubble, Edwin 30–1, 194, 195, 200, 202 Andromeda Galaxy distance estimated 228 Tuning Fork diagram 200 Hubble Constant 204 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 11, 25, 30–1, 31, 84, 90, 91, 100, 101, 102, 114, 121, 123, 125, 131, 136, 185, 195, 204–5, 208, 258 instruments carried 30 observations black hole 185 Comet Shoemaker–Levy 100, 101 deep field 204–5 galaxies 185, 195, 200 Hen Nebula 1357 188 Jupiter’s satellites 106 M87 185 nova 181 Pluto 135, 136 Wide Field and Planetary Camera 30, 109, 179 Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) 31, 125, 131, 185, 205 Huggins, Sir William 188, 221 Hulst, H C van de 196 Huygens, Christiaan 76, 110, 120 Huygens probe 120–1 Hyades (open cluster) 186, 187, 250 Hyakutake, Yuji 144 Hydra (constellation) 230–1 Hydrogen Earth’s geocorona 40 Magellanic Stream 198 and origin of universe 206 stars 175 Sun 159 Hydrus (constellation) 260–1 hypergiant 222 Hyperion (satellite of Saturn) 116, 117, 119 I Iapetus (satellite of Saturn) 116, 117, 119 IC2602 (stellar cluster) 254 Ida (asteroid) 81, 91 Ihle, Abraham 239 Indus (constellation) 259 Infra-red 20, 201, 238 astronomy 21 observations and images 106 centre of the Galaxy 197 rings of Uranus 122 Saturn 108 planet-forming material 208 telescopes 18 United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) 18, 21 Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 196, 197, 208, 232, 245, 246 Intergalactic tramp 199, 253 International Astronomical Union 122, 123, 127, 146, 208, 213 International Space Station (ISS) 28–9 Interstellar code 209 Io (satellite of Jupiter) 99, 102–3, 104–5, 106 amateur observation 103 composition 102 effect on Jupiter 94 electrical flux tube 102 orbit 103 other Galileans compared 103, 104 structure 102 surface features 104, 105, 106 vulcanism 94, 102–3, 104, 105, 106 Iocaste (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Isidorus, Bishop of Seville 12 Isonoe (satellite of Jupiter) 103 J James Webb Space Telescope 30 Jansky, Karl 20 Janus (satellite of Saturn) 116 Jewel Box (open stellar cluster) 167, 186, 242, 257 Jewitt, David 137, 141 Julius Caesar 167 Juno (asteroid) 90 Jupiter 34, 94–101 age 94 asteroid belt, effect on 90 atmosphere 94 belts and zones 94, 96 brightness 63 colour 94, 96, 114 Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, collision with 100–1, 137 comets, effect on 139 core 94 decametric radiation 94 electrical flux tube 102 first telescopic observation 96 Galileans 102–5 gravitation 90, 94 Great Red Spot 95, 96, 114 layers 94 lightning 98 magnetosphere 98, 99 meteors, effect on 146 observed from Earth 94, 96 planetary data listed 35, 95 probes to 98–9 radiation zones 103 radio emissions 94, 103 ring system 98, 99, 110 satellites 99, 102–5, 116 listed 103 motion of 103 see also individual satellites Saturn compared 108, 114 South Tropical Disturbance 96 spectroscopic analysis 94 Sun compared 94 surface composition 94 synodic period 63 Systems and 96 temperature 94 Trojan asteroids 92, 93, 117 visual identification 264 Voyager mission 25 K Kalyke (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Kappa Crucis 242 Kappa Pavonis (W Virginis type star) 178, 259 Kavelaars, J J 132 Kepler, Johannes 13, 22, 183 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 13, 112, 196 Kepler’s Star (galactic supernova) 236 Kirch, Gotfried 237 Kirchhoff, Gustav 158 Kitt Peak Solar Telescope, Arizona 159 Kohoutek, Lubos 143 Kowal, C 137 Kuiper, G 34, 120, 137 Kuiper Belt 34, 135, 137, 139 Halley’s Comet 140 Kursa (star) 246 KW Saggitarii 172 KY Cygni 172 L La Paz, Lincoln 149 Lacaille, Nicolas-Louis de 247, 254, 256, 260, 261 Lacerta (constellation) 223 Lagrange, Joseph 92 Lagrangian points 92, 116, 117 Lambda Tauri (eclipsing binary star) 178 Lassell, William 126, 132 Latitude 168 Le Verrier, U J J 130 Leavitt, Henrietta 258 Leda (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Legentil, Guillaume 252 Leo (constellation) 167, 215, 226–7 Leo Minor (constellation) 219 Leonid Meteor Storm 146, 147 Lepus (constellation) 249 Lesath (star) 238 Levy, David 100 Libra (constellation) 229 Librations, lunar 48 Life beyond Solar System 25 on Earth 36 man 36 origins 36 extinction on Earth 36 ingredients needed for 120 oldest examples 37 on other worlds 208–9, 246 on Titan 120–1 Light aberration 220 pollution 16, 264 wavelengths of visible 20 Light-years 167 ‘Linea’ 106 Local Group see Galaxies Lockyer, Sir N 159 Longitude 168 Lovell, Sir Bernard 20 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:30 pm Page 283 INDEX Lowell, Percival 76, 77, 134 Lucian of Samosata 22 Ludwig V, Emperor 218 Ludwig’s Star 218 Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) 50 Lunik (Lunar) probes 24, 43, 48, 50 Lunokhod 57 Lupus (constellation) 256–7 Luu, Jane 137 Lynx (constellation) 252–3 Lyra (constellation) 36, 168, 232 M M1 Crab Nebula 182, 183, 188, 191, 250 M2 244, 245 M4 191, 238 M6 Butterfly (open stellar cluster) 238 M7 (open stellar cluster) 238 M8 Lagoon Nebula (NGC6253) 239 M13 (NGC6205, in Hercules) 187, 235, 237 M15 (globular cluster) 243 M17 Omega Nebula (Swan; Horseshoe) (NGC6618) 188, 239 M18 239 M20 Trifid Nebula (NGC6514) 239 M21 239 M22 (globular cluster) 239 M27 Dumbbell Nebula 174, 188, 234 M30 (globular cluster) 244 M31 Andromeda Spiral (Great Spiral; NGC224) (galaxy) 188, 194, 198, 199, 200, 228, 240 M32 (in Andromeda) 198 M33 Triangulum Spiral (Pinwheel; NGC5981) 199, 201, 240 M35 (open stellar cluster) 251 M37 (open stellar cluster) 252 M38 (open stellar cluster) 252 M41 (in Canis Major, open stellar cluster) 248 M42 Great Nebula (Orion Nebula) 188, 189, 194, 199, 248 M44 Praesepe (Manger; Beehive; Exhalation of Piled-up Corpses) 186, 227 M45 Pleiades (Seven Sisters) 186–7, 215, 250, 251 M51 Whirlpool Galaxy (spiral galaxy) 200, 219 M57 Ring Nebula 188, 232 M64 Black-Eye Galaxy 225 M67 (in Cancer) 187, 227 M68 (globular cluster) 230 M72 244 M74 (galaxy) 243 M77 (Seyfert spiral galaxy) 246, 247 M79 (globular cluster) 249 M81 (NGC3031) (barred spiral galaxy) 201 M87 (Virgo A) (Seyfert galaxy, in Virgo) 185, 200, 201, 204, 229 M92 (globular cluster, in Hercules) 234–5 M97 Owl Nebula 188 M100 (spiral galaxy) 195 M104 Sombrero Hat Galaxy 229 Maanen, Adriaan van 243 ‘Maculae’ 106 Maffei and (galaxies) 198, 199, 222 Maffei, Paolo 199 Magellan probe 72–5 Magellanic Clouds 198–9, 200, 203, 216 Large 183, 203, 258, 260 Small 258, 260 Magellanic Stream 198 Magnetic phenomena aurorae 162 electromagnetism 20, 21 Jupiter 98, 99 lunar magnetism 48 Mars 78 Mercury 64 Neptune 131 Saturn ring system 112 solar 162 Sun 157 Van Allen zones 98 Magnetopause 40 ‘Magnetosheath’ 99 Magnetosphere Earth 41 Jupiter 98, 99 Mars 41 Mercury 41 Saturn 108 ‘South Atlantic Anomaly’ 41 Uranus 124 Van Allen zones 41 ‘Magnetotail’ 98 Main Sequence 172, 174, 175, 178, 179, 189, 216 Manger see M44 Maraldi (astronomer) 242, 244 Mariner probes Mariner 24, 70 Mariner 24, 76, 78 Mariner 78, 86 Mariner 10 24–5, 64, 65, 66, 71 Marius, Simon 102 Mars 76–89, 229 Amor asteroids 92 atmosphere 76, 78 axial tilt 76 basins 82 ‘canals’ 76–7 climate 76, 78, 86, 88 colour 63, 76, 84, 86 craters 72, 78, 79 dust storms 76, 84 Earth brightness from 63 compared 76 distance from 76 observation from 85 future exploration 87 life on, possible 76, 86–7, 88 magnetic field 41, 78 main features listed 83 maps of 76, 77, 82–3 measured by Tycho Brahe 14 missions to 78–9, 81, 84, 85, 86–9 Beagle 89 manned 27 Mariner probes 24–5, 76, 78 Mars Express 89 Mars Global Surveyor orbiter 85, 88 Mars Observer probe 81 Mars Odyssey probe 87 Mars Pathfinder probe 84, 88 Phobos probes 81 Sojourner rover 88 Spirit and Opportunity rovers 89 Viking 79 Viking 79 Viking Lander 78, 79 Moon compared 76 movement 62–3 nomenclature 76, 82 oceans 76 oppositions 63 organic compounds on 86 phase 62 photographs of 76–9, 84–9 planetary data listed 35, 77 polar ice-caps 76, 77, 78, 79, 84, 85 satellites (Phobos and Deimos) 80–1 seasons 76, 78 soil analyses 86, 88 speed of movement 196 structure layers 78 surface 78, 88–9 synodic period 63 telescope observation 76 topography 82, 88–9 Trojan asteroids 92, 93 vegetation 76 visual identification 264 volcanoes 78, 79, 84, 85 vulcanism 78 water, evidence of 86, 87 wind-speeds 76 Mars Express 89 Mars Global Surveyor orbiter 85, 88 Mars Observer probe 81 Mars Odyssey probe 87 Mars Pathfinder probe 84, 88 Mass ‘missing’ 196, 207 neutron star 183 Mass transfer 178, 241 Mathilde (asteroid) 90 Maunder, E W 157 Maunder Minimum 156, 157 Maxwell, James Clerk 72 Mayor, Michel 208 Measurement of distance 170, 202 units 159 Méchain, Pierre 139, 218, 230, 243, 244, 249 Megaclite (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Mensa (constellation) 261 Mercury 34, 64–9 age 66 asteroids 92 atmosphere 64 bow-shock 65 brightness 63 climate 64 composition 64 core 64 craters 65, 66–7, 72 ejecta deposits 66 magnetosphere 41, 64, 65 main features listed 69 maps 64, 68–9 by Antoniadi 64, 68 by Mariner 10 64 by Schiaparelli 68 Mariner 10 probe 64, 65, 66 Messenger 64, 66 movement, speed 196 observation from Earth 62 phases of 62 planetary data listed 35, 64 poles 64, 66, 68 radar observations 66 ray-centres 65, 68 solar wind 64 structure 64 surface 65, 66–8 Moon’s surface compared 68 temperature 64 transits 62 vulcanism 66 Mercury programme 26 Messier, Charles 182, 186, 194, 199, 219, 222, 229, 244, 250, 252 Messier Catalogue of Clusters and Nebulae 186, 188, 194, 225, 238, 243, 250 see also M numbers Messier objects 218, 229, 230 Messier open clusters 222 Meteorite craters 150–1 Gosse’s Bluff, Northern Territory, Australia 150, 151 Meteor Crater, Arizona, USA 150, 151 ‘Saltpan’, Pretoria, South Africa 150 Wolf Creek Crater (Kandimalal), Western Australia 150 Meteorites 34, 148–9 age 149 British Isles 148 classes 148 composition 148 Earth, effects of impact on 151 listed 149 Moon, bombardment of 45 size 148, 149 ‘Widmanstätten patterns’ 148 ALH 84001 149 Ahnighito (‘Tent’) 148 Barwell Meteorite 149 Glatton 148 Hoba West, Grootfontein 148, 149, 151 Norton-Furnas Aerolite 149 Orgueil Meteorite 148 Sacred Stone at Mecca 148 Siberian 148, 150 SNC group 148–9 Meteoritic particles, noctilucent clouds 40 Meteorology 40 Meteors 146–7 frequency 146 photography of 264 showers 138, 139 annual showers listed 147 size 146 Zenithal Hourly Rate (ZHR) 146 Great Meteor of 1868 146 Leonid Meteor Storm 146, 147 Quadrantids 224 Meteroids 92 Miaplacidus (star) 254 Microscopium (constellation) 259 Microwaves 20 Milky Way 194, 252, 253 novae 181 Mimas (satellite of Saturn) 110, 111, 116, 118 Mintaka (eclipsing binary star) 248 Mir space station 23, 28 Mira Ceti (long-period variable star) 246, 247 Mirach (star) 240 Miranda (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127, 128 Mitchell (astronaut) 50 Mizar (star) 218 Molecular clouds 196 Monoceros (constellation) 172, 249 Montaigne 139 Moon 34, 42–61 age 42 Aristarchus 53 binocular observation 265 craters 44, 45, 72 cause 45 Furnerius 51 listed 54, 56, 59, 60 Mercurian compared 67 nomenclature 44 data listed 43 and discovery of quasars 202 earliest telescopic map 14 Earth axis, Moon’s effect on 168 distance from 42 viewed from the Moon 40 eclipse 43 far side 43, 48–9 features listed 49 first pictures of 48–9 First Quadrant (North-east) 54–5 Fourth Quadrant (South-east) 60–1 layers 43 librations 48 magnetism 48 maria (seas) 44 Crisium 44 distribution 48 Imbrium 44, 57 listed 46 Mare Orientale 48, 52 Mare Tranquillitatis 50, 54 Nubium 45, 59 Oceanus Procellarum 44, 50 Sinus Iridum 44 Mars compared 76 Mendel-Rydberg Basin 52 Mercury compared 65 missions to 24, 50–1, 54 Apollo 26, 27, 40–1, 54 Apollo landing sites 54 Clementine 52–3 lunar astronauts 50–1 Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) 50 Lunik (Lunar) 24, 43, 48, 50 Lunokhod 57 manned 26, 50–1 Orbiter 24, 50 Prospector 52–3 Ranger 50 Surveyor 50 mountain ranges listed 47 origin 42 phases 42 polar areas 51 ray-centres 44, 45, 54 rill (cleft; rille) systems 46, 54, 57 Second Quadrant (North-west) 56–7 South Pole–Aitken Basin 52 Straight Wall 45, 47, 59 surface 44–5, 51 telescopic observation 266–7 Third Quadrant (South-west) 58–9 Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP) 45, 60 Tsiolkovskii 48–9 valleys 48 Moore, Patrick observatory 265–3, 268 Mount Wilson Observatory, California 16, 18, 141, 194, 202 Mu Cephei 172 Musca (Southern Fly) (constellation) 261 283 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:31 pm Page 284 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Index N NASA 30, 52, 84 Nebulae 167, 174, 188–9, 221 composition 188 dark 167, 188, 189, 234, 257 HII regions 188 listed 189 Messier’s types 194 nomenclature 186 planetary 175, 188, 190, 245 size 189 star formation 174 Bubble 31 Butterfly 190 Coal Sack 167, 189, 257 Cone 31, 249 Crab (M1) 182, 183, 188, 191, 250 Dumbbell (M27) 188, 234 Eagle 174 Eskimo (NGC2392) 251 Flame 189 Flaming Star 252, 253 Ghost of Jupiter (NGC3242) 231 Great see M42 Gum 188 Helix (NGC7293) 245 Hen 1357 188 Horse’s Head 189 Horseshoe see M17 Lagoon (M8) 239 North America (NGC7000) 232 Omega see M17 Orion see M42 Owl (M97) 188 Ring (M57) 188, 232 Rosette (NGC2237) 249 Saturn (NGC7009) 245 Swan see M17 Tarantula 193, 199, 260 Trifid (M20) 239 Neptune 124, 130–33 atmosphere 131 aurorae 131 brightness 63 clouds 130, 131 colour 130, 131 Dark Spot 130 discovery 122 future probes 133 Great Dark Spot 130, 131 layer structure 131 magnetic field 131 nomenclature 130, 131 planetary data listed 130 probes to 131 ring system 110, 131 satellites 132–3 the ‘Scooter’ 130, 131 synodic period 63 Trojan asteroid 93 and Uranus 122, 130, 131 Voyager probes 25, 104,112, 114, 132 wind velocity 131 Nereid (satellite of Neptune) 132–3 Neutrinos, from Sun 155 Neutron stars see Pulsars New General Catalogue see NGC numbers Newton, Isaac 12, 13, 142 first reflector telescope 14–15 Principia 13 principle of reaction 22 spectroscope 158 Next Generation Space Telescope see James Webb Space Telescope NGC55 (spiral galaxy) 259 284 NGC104 47 Tucanae (globular cluster) 258 NGC147 (dwarf galaxy) 200 NGC205 (eliptical galaxy) 198, 200 NGC224 see M31 NGC253 (spiral galaxy) 259 NGC362 (globular cluster) 258–9 NGC4755 242 NGC869 and 885 Sword-Handle 241 NGC2237 Rosette Nebula 249 NGC2244 (open stellar cluster) 249 NGC2391 (open stellar cluster) 254 NGC2392 Eskimo Nebula 251 NGC2419 (globular cluster) 253 NGC2516 (stellar cluster) 254 NGC3031 (barred spiral galaxy) 201 NGC3242 Ghost of Jupiter 231 NGC3504 (barred spiral galaxy) 201 NGC4881 195 NGC5128 Centaurus A (galaxy) 201, 256 NGC5694 199 NGC5981 see M33 NGC6025 (globular cluster) 256 NGC6067 (open stellar cluster) 256 NGC6087 (open stellar cluster) 256 NGC6205 see M13 NGC6253 see M8 NGC6352 (globular cluster) 256 NGC6397 (globular cluster) 256 NGC6514 see M20 NGC6611 see M16 NGC6752 (globular cluster) 259 NGC7000 North America Nebula 232 NGC7009 Saturn Nebula 245 NGC7217 (spiral galaxy) 201 NGC7293 Helix Nebula 245 NGC7479 (barred spiral galaxy) 201 Nitrogen geysers 132–3 Nomenclature comets 138 constellations 166 Messier Catalogue 186 nebulae 186 NGC (New General Catalogue) 186 novae 181 stars 166, 259 stellar clusters 186 Norma (constellation) 256–7 North America Nebula 232 Northern Cross 232 Novae 180–1, 239 and cataclysmic variables 181 bright listed 181 dwarf 180, 251 light curve 181 nuclear reactions 180 origin 180 recurrent 181 spectroscopy 180 supernovae see Supernovae Blaze Star (T Coronae Borealis) 181, 225, 236 BQ Herculis 180 GK Persei 180, 181 HR Delphini 180, 181 Nova Aquilae 180, 235 RR Pictoris 255 U Geminorum 251 V1500 Cygni 1975 180, 181 Nuclear reactions novae 180 stellar 94, 175 O Oberon (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127, 128–9 Observatories distance, operation from 17 facilities in modern 17 high altitude 16 light pollution 16 sites 16 Anglo-Australian (AAT), Siding Spring, Australia 16, 122 Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) 17 Auckland, New Zealand 269 Berlin 130 Birr Castle, Ireland 194 Cerro Tololo, Chile 17 European Southern 18 Flagstaff, Arizona 76–7 Geneva 208 Greenwich 168 Hamburg 143 home 268–9 domes 268–9 planning permission 269 run-off shed 268 siting 269 Jodrell Bank 20 Kitt Peak, Arizona 17, 137 Kuiper Airborne 123 La Palma 16, 17, 201 La Silla, Chile 17, 18, 141 Las Campanas, Chile 17 Lilienthal 90 Lowell, Arizona 77, 94, 134, 135, 142, 195 Mauna Kea, Hawaii 16, 17, 38, 137 Mount Pastukhov 16–17 Mount Wilson, California 16, 18, 141, 194, 202 Palermo 90 Palomar 17, 123, 141, 202 Parkes radio astronomy, New South Wales 202 Polar 17 Royal, Edinburgh 172 Samarkand 12 Steward, Arizona 182 Washington 80 Occultation 63, 122, 226, 228 discoveries resulting from 122 Pluto 134 Octans (constellation) 261 Octantis (South Polar Star) 261 Olbers, Heinrich 204 Olbers’ Paradox 204 Omega Centauri (globular cluster) 187 Oort Cloud 137, 139 Halley’s Comet 141 Open clusters see Stellar clusters Ophiuchus (constellation) 62, 168, 236–7 Oppositions 62–3 Orbiter probe 24, 50 Orion (constellation) 166, 170, 215, 248, 264, 265 Orion Nebula see M42 Orrery 12 P P Cygni 181 Palitzsch (amateur astronomer) 140 Pallas (asteroid) 90 Pan (satellite of Saturn) 112, 116 Pandora (satellite of Saturn) 112, 113, 116 Parsec 170, 204 Pavo (constellation) 259 Peary, Robert 148 Pegasi (Markab) (star) 242 Pegasus (constellation) 215, 217, 242–3 Penzias, Arno 206 Period-luminosity relationship 258 Perseus (constellation) 166, 241 Phaethon (asteroid) 92, 139 Pharos 132 Phobos probes 80–1 Phobos (satellite of Mars) composition 81 orbit 81 origin 81 probes to 81 size 80 Stickney crater 80 surface 80 transits 80 Phoebe (satellite of Saturn) 116, 117, 119 Phoenix (constellation) 258 Pholus (asteroid) 137 Photography 18, 142, 250, 252 amateur 264 colour enhanced 79, 98, 115 colour images, reconstruction 109 Faint Object Camera (FOC) 30, 136 false colour 113 film 170, 265 from space probes 24, 78 Halley Multi-colour Camera 141 infra-red 122 proper motion of stars 170 stellar sky mapped 142 subjects 219, 229, 230, 236, 259 artificial satellites 170, 264 asteroid tracks 90 globular clusters 235 Local Group 199 Mars 79 meteors 146, 264 Moon 46 solar eclipses 161 stars 170, 264–5 Sun 153 Venus 71 Wide Field and Planetary Camera 30, 109, 179 Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) 31, 125, 131, 185, 205 Photosynthesis 36 Piazzi, G 90 Pickering, E C 177 Pickering, W H 117, 126 Pictor (constellation) 254–5 Pinwheel see M33 Pioneer probes Pioneer 72 Pioneer 10 98, 162 Pioneer 11 98, 99, 108, 111, 112, 114, 162 Pisces (constellation) 168, 242–3 Piscis Australis (constellation) 245 Planetary nebulae see Nebulae (planetary) Planetesimal 137 Planetoids 34 Planets 34 conjunctions 62 data listed 35 distances from Sun 90 earliest observed conjunction 12 ‘inferior’ 62 magnetospheres 41, 98–9, 108, 124 movements of 62 oppositions 62–3 planet forming material 246–7, 254–5 possible stars as centres for 167, 259 satellites 34 speeds compared 196 superior 62 systems beyond Sun 208, 246–7, 261 undiscovered 34, 137, 246–7 visibility of 63 see also individual planets Plaskett’s Star (star) 172 Plate tectonics 38 Pleiades see M45 Plough see Ursa Major Pluto 34, 134–5 atmosphere 134 brightness 63 Charon 134, 135 discovery 134 movements 62 next aphelion 134 nomenclature 134 origin 135 planetary data listed 35, 135 possible planetesimal 137 size 134 spectroscopic study 134–5 surface 136 Poczobut (astronomer) 236 Pointers to the Southern Cross 256 Polaris (star) 36, 63, 168, 220 Pole star see Polaris Pollux (binary star) 177, 251 Pons, Jean Louis 139 Populations I and II 196, 224 Praesepe (cluster) 186 Praxidike (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Precession 168, 169 Prentice, J P M 180, 234 Principia (Newton) 13 probes see Space probes Proctor, R A 109, 114 Procyon (star) 248 Project Ozma (Project Little Green Man) 208 Prometheus (satellite of Saturn) 112, 113, 116 Proper motion 170, 236 Prospector lunar probe 52–3 Prospero (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127 Proteus (satellite of Neptune) 132 Protostar 174 Proxima Centauri (red dwarf star) 170, 177, 256 Ptolemy of Alexandria 12, 212, 229, 234, 238, 239, 256, 260 catalogues 166, 223, 231 Pulsars 175, 182, 184 gravity 183 mass 183 optical identification 250 origin 175 quickest spinning 182 Puppis (constellation) 215, 255 Pyramids 12, 37, 167, 168 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:32 pm Page 285 INDEX Q QSOs (Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources) 202 Quaoar 34, 137 Quasars 185, 202–3 age 202 and BL Lacs 202, 223 and companion galaxies 203 ‘bridges’ between 202 discovery 202 distance 202 galaxies, connected to 202 host galaxies 203 0316-346 203 3C-272 202 HE 1013-2136 202 PKS 2349 (quasar) 203 Queloz, Didier 208 R R Aquarii (symbiotic or Z Andromedae type star) 244 R Arae (Algol-type eclipsing binary) 256 R Carinae (Mira star) 254 R Cassiopeia (Mira star) 222 R Centauri (Mira variable star) 256 R Coronae Australis (erratic variable star) 239 R Coronae Borealis (eruptive variable star) 179, 225, 239 R Dôradus 172 R Horologii (Mira variable star) 260 R Hydrae (variable star) 230 R Leporus (Crimson Star) 249 R Scuti (variable star) 234 Rabinowitz, D L 137 Radar asteroids, discovery 92 observations of Mercury 66 Venus mapped 72, 74–5 Radiation 40 after Big Bang 206 background 20, 206 from pulsars 183 Radio astronomy 22–3, 196, 202 Cambridge catalogue 202 interstellar communication 208 mass transfer 178 Project Ozma 208 quasars, discovery 202 Very Large Array telescope 196 Radio emissions Algol 241 Antares supergiant 238 Cassiopeia A 183 Centaurus A 256 galaxies 196, 201, 229, 246 M77 (Seyfert spiral galaxy) 246, 247 neutral hydrogen 196 Quasars 202 Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources (QSOs) 202 Saturn 108–9 supernovae 179, 182–3, 222 Virgo A (3C-274; M87) 229 waves 20, 40 Ranger space probe 50 Rasalgethi (supergiant star) 234, 236 Ray-centres 44, 45, 54, 65 Red dwarf star 173, 177 Red giant star 175, 177 Red supergiant star 177, 238 Regor (Wolf-Rayet double star) 254 Regulus (white star) 155, 226 Reticulum (constellation) 260 Retrograde motion asteroids 132 Neptune satellites 132 Venus 70 Rhea (satellite of Saturn) 113, 116, 117, 119 Riccioli (astronomer) 44 Rigel Kent (Rigel Kentaurus) see Alpha Centauri Rigel (type B8 star) 166, 170, 248 HR Diagram 173 Right ascension 168 Ring Nebula see M57 Ritchey, G W 141 Roche limit 110 Rockets 22–3 M-3SII-6 162 compound launchers 22 liquid fuel 22 principle of reaction 22, 23 progress 23 V2 22, 23 Röntgen satellite (ROSAT) 24 Rosette Nebula 249 Rosse, Earl of 15, 188, 194, 200, 219 Rowan-Robinson, Michael 201 Royal Society of London 14 Royer (astronomer) 213 RR Lyrae type stars 173, 178, 179, 219 RR Pictoris (nova) 255 RR Telescopii (variable star) 256 Russell, Henry Norris 172 S S/2002 N1, N2 and N3 (satellites of Neptune) 132 S Andromedae (supernova of 1885) 183, 199, 240 S Monocerotis (star group) 249 Sagan, Carl 88 Sagitta (constellation) 234 Sagittarius (constellation) 166, 196, 238–9 Sagittarius A* 196, 197 Saiph (star) 248 Saltation 76 Satellites see under individual planets Satellites, artificial South Atlantic Anomaly 41 orbits 24 photographing 170 Chandra 25 Explorer 41 IRAS (Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite) 197, 208, 232, 245, 246 ROSAT (Röntgen satellite) 24 Sputnik 20 TRACE 163 Yohkoh X-ray 162 Saturn 33, 34, 108–15, 229 belts 108 colour 108, 114 comets, Saturn’s effect on 108 density 108 from Earth 108 gravitational pull 108 jet-streams 114 Jupiter compared 108, 114 and Jupiter’s magnetosphere 98 magnetosphere 108 meteors, Saturn’s effect on 146 missions to 25, 108, 112, 114–5 nomenclature 108 occulation of the Moon 63 orbit 108, 110 periods of rotation 108, 114 planetary data listed 35, 109 polar regions 114, 115 radiation 108, 109 radio pulse 108–9 ring system 110, 113 aspects from Earth 110 Cassini Division 109, 110, 111, 112 composition 110, 112 data listed 111 distances listed 111 edgewise presentation intervals 110 Encke Division 109, 111, 112, 116 magnetic effects 112 orbital speeds 112 origin of 113 particle size 112 periods listed 111 ‘spokes’ 112 temperature 112 A 108, 109, 112 B 108, 109, 112, 113 C (Crêpe or Dusky Ring) 110, 111, 112 D 111, 112 E 111, 113 F ‘Braided’ 111, 112, 113 G 113 satellites 116–21 data listed 111, 116 features listed 118–9 gravitational effects 112 maps 118–9 orbits shown 116 rotation 119 telescopic observation 117 Atlas 112 Calypso 117 Dione 116, 117, 118, 119 Enceladus 111, 113, 116, 118 Epimetheus 116 Hyperion 116, 117, 119 Iapetus 116, 117, 119 Janus 116 Mimas 110, 111, 116, 118 Pan 112, 116 Pandora 112, 113, 116 Phoebe 116, 117, 119 Prometheus 112, 113, 116 Rhea 113, 116, 117, 119 Telesto 117 Tethys 111, 116, 117, 118 Themis 117 Titan 42, 108, 114, 116, 120–1 spots 114, 115 Anne’s Spot 114 time interval between 114 structure 108 surface 108, 114 temperature 114 visual identification 264 Saturn Nebula 245 Scattered Disk objects 137 Schiaparelli, G V 68, 76 Schmidt, Maarten 202 Schmitt, Dr Harrison 50 Schröter, Johann Hieronymus 90 Schwarzschild radius 184 Scorpius (constellation) 217, 238 Sculptor (constellation) 31, 259 Scutum (constellation) 234 Secchi, Angelo 228 Sedna 34 Seismic waves 38, 39 Serpens (constellation) 174, 237 Setebos (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127 Seven Sisters see M45 Sextans (constellation) 227 Seyfert, Carl 201 Shapley, Harlow 187, 194 Shaula (star) 238 Shepard, Commander Alan 26, 50 Shoemaker, Eugene 92, 100 Shoemaker, Carolyn 100 Shooting stars 34, 146–7 Sigma Octantis (star) 168 Sirius (star) 12, 108, 166, 167, 168, 170, 172, 175, 215, 216, 217, 248 brightness 167 HR Diagram 173 magnitude 167 nomenclature 166 Sky maps 166 Skylab space station 28, 162 Slayton, Deke 26 Smette, Alain 137 Smyth, Admiral 255 Sojourner rover 88 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory 162 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) 162 Solar spectrum 158–9 Solar System 34–7, 195 age 34 boundaries 137 divisions 34 extent 34 relative speed of planets 196 Solar wind 162 effect on comets 138 and Jupiter 99 and Mercury 64 ‘Sols’ 76 Solstice 37 Southern Cross see Crux Australis Space exploration 17, 23 Apollo see Apollo space missions benefits from 40 early ideas for 22 failures 26, 81 future 25 manned missions 26–7 deaths 26 first 26 Moon landing 27 most dangerous mission 30 Mercury see Mercury programme search for life 86–7 Soviet Union 26, 78, 81 Space Shuttle see Space Shuttle space stations 28–29 on Martian satellite 81 Mir 23, 28–9 Skylab 28, 162 space walks 27 Vostok see Vostok programme see also Space probes Space probes escape velocity 24 future 25 gravity-assist technique 25, 64, 164 interplanetary 24 missions to Saturn 108, 114–5 to asteroid Eros 90 to Moon 24, 43, 48, 50, 57 Cassini 32–3, 95, 97, 113, 114–5, 120–1 Deep Space 25, 145 Friendship 26–27 Galileo 51, 90, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104–5 Giotto 25, 140, 141 Huygens 120–1 Lunik (Lunar) 24, 43, 48, 50 Lunokhod 57 Magellan 72–5 Mariner see Mariner probes Mars Express 89 Mars Global Surveyor 85, 88 Mars Observer 81 Mars Odyssey 87 Mars Pathfinder 84, 88 Microwave Anisotropic Probe 207 NEAR 90, 92, 93 Orbiter 24, 50 Phobos probes 80–1 Pioneer see Pioneer probes Ranger 50 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory 162 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) 162 Stardust 145 Surveyor 50 to Halley’s Comet 25 to Mars 81, 86–9 to outer planets 25 to Sun 162 to Venus 70, 71, 72–5 Ulysses 23, 98, 103 Venera 70, 71 Viking see Viking probes Voyager see Voyager probes see also Satellites, artificial Space Shuttle 26, 28 Atlantis 74 Challenger 26 Columbia 26 Discovery 25, 26, 30 Endeavour 11, 30 Spectroheliograph 159 Spectroscope 158, 172 Spectroscopic binary stars 177, 238 Spectroscopy 20, 158, 172, 177, 188 Ångström 20 asteroids 90 Fraunhofer lines 158–9, 171 Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) Diagrams 172, 173 Jupiter 94 Main Sequence 172, 174, 175, 178, 179, 189 nebulae 188, 221 Newton 158 novae 181 Pluto 134 Secchi 228 stars 172, 173, 177, 225, 228 T Coronae 225 Titan 120 to find age of universe 204 to find galactic velocity 202, 204 to find star distance 170, 202 Spectrum electromagnetic 162 emission 159 Fraunhofer lines 158–9, 171 solar 158–9 stellar 172, 173 Spica (star) 217, 228 Spirit and Opportunity rovers 89 Spörer, F W 157 Spry, Reg 269 Sputnik 20 SS Cygni (cataclysmic variable star) 179 ‘Standard candles’ 178 Star of Bethlehem 141 Star catalogues 17th century 166 Baghdad school 12 285 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:32 pm Page 286 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Index Bayer 166, 218 Caldwell 186 Cambridge 170, 244, 254, 260 Chinese 12 distance and luminosity values 170 Dreyer 186 Henize 188 Messier 194, 225, 243, 250 New General Catalogue (NGC) 186 Poczobut 236 Ptolemy 166, 223 radial velocities 170 of radio sources 202 Tycho Brahe 13 Star classification distance and luminosity 172 Harvard system 172 magnitude, classes of 166–7 spectral types 172 types 172 Star maps 210–261 Hevelius 219 Lacaille 260, 261 Stars A-type 176 accretion disk 180 approaching Earth 171 B-type 256 Bible, mentioned in 250 binary 171, 180, 234, 236 Alpha Centauri 167, 177, 182, 216, 217, 256 Arich (Porrima; Postvarta) 228 Capella 172, 173, 214–5, 252 Castor and Pollux (Heavenly Twins) 177, 251 eclipsing see below eclipsing binary Plaskett’s Star 172 black dwarf 175 blue stragglers 187, 258 brightness 167 cepheids see Cepheids circumpolar 169 clusters see Stellar clusters colour 167, 218 declination 214–5 density 175 diameter, measurement 172 dissolving 207 distance from Earth 170, 178 measurement 170 double 167, 176–7, 218, 254 changing appearance 177 data listed 177 distance apart 176–7 formation 177 frequency 176 movement 176 position angle (PA) 177 spectral lines 177 see also binary above; eclipsing binary below eclipsing binary 180, 223, 228, 258 Algol 178, 241 Auriga 252 B Lyrae 232 Delta Librae 178 Mintaka 248 R Arae 256 UW Canis Majoris 248 Zeta Aurigae 178 Zeta Phoenicis 258 egg-shaped 178, 234 exploding 181 extinction 248 286 table 242 faintest visible 166–7 Gamma Cassiopeia variables 222 giant 172, 173 Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) Diagrams 172 images from the past 167 interstellar travel 208 K-type 176 Diphda 246 ‘late’ and ‘early’ 172 L-type (brown dwarf) 172 M-type see red dwarf below M-type giant 258 magnitude 167, 242 mass and size 167, 172, 223 mass transfer 178 most powerful 172, 179 movement 167 and navigation 220 nearest 34, 167 neutron stars see Pulsars nomenclature 166, 259 non-circumpolar 169 novae see Novae nuclear reactions 180 number 166, 208 occulted by Moon 226 See also Occultation optical pair 244 period-luminosity relationship 258 planet-forming matter 245, 254–5 planetary systems 259, 261 proper motions 170–1 pulsars see Pulsars red dwarf 173, 177 red giant 175, 177 ‘runaway’ 252 seasonal maps north 214–5 seasonal maps south 216–75 spectra 173, 177, 218, 258 spectroscopic binary 177, 238 spectroscopy 172–3, 177, 225, 228 SS Cygni type 251 stellar evolution 230, 241 death 182–3 origin 189, 207, 250 theories 173, 174 subdwarf 173 subgiant 173 supergiant 172, 173, 177, 184, 222, 238 Antares 177, 217, 238 Arneb 249 Betelgeux see Betelgeux Deneb 189, 217, 232 Jewel Box 167, 186, 257 Rasalgethi 234, 236 supernovae see Supernovae surface details detected 172, 248 symbiotic 244 T Tauri stage 175 targets for SETI listed 209 temperature 167, 172 trails 169, 265 twinkling 248 variable see Variable stars W and O type 173 W Virginis type 228, 259 white dwarf 155, 172, 173, 175, 179, 180, 243 Wolf-Rayet type 172 Acamar 260 Achernae 260 Acrux 169 Adhara 248 Agena 256 Albireo (Beta Cygni) 177 Alcor 176, 218 Alcyone 250 Almaak (Gamma Andromedae) 176, 240 Alnair 258 Alpha Capricorni 176 Alpha Centauri 167, 177 Alphard (Solitary One) 230 Alpheratz 240, 242 Altair 217, 234 Aludra 248 Ankaa 258 Arcturus 169, 217, 224 Barnard’s Star 170, 171, 236 Becklin–Neugebauer Object (BN) 189 Bellatrix 248 Bellissima 228 Beta Centauri 167, 216, 217 Beta Lyrae 178 Beta Pictoris 208 Betelgeux see Betelgeux Blaze Star (T Coronae) 181, 225, 236 Canopus 108, 166, 167, 169, 215, 216, 217, 254 Dubhe 166, 218 Fomalhaut 208, 215, 245 Gamma Crucis 167 Hadar 256 Kappa Crucis 242 Kappa Pavonis 259 Kursa 246 Lambda Tauri 178 Lesath 238 Ludwig’s 218 Main Sequence 172, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 189, 216 Miaplacidus 254 Mirach 240 Mizar 176, 218 Octantis (South Polar Star) 261 Plaskett’s Star 172 Polaris 36, 63, 168, 220 Procyon 248 Proxima Centauri 170, 177, 256 R Leporus (Crimson Star) 249 Regor 254 Regulus 167, 226 Rigel 166, 170, 248 Saiph 248 Shaula 238 Sigma Octantis 168 Sirius see Sirius 61 Cygni 170, 178 Spica 217, 228 T Coronae 181, 225, 236 T-type (brown dwarf) 172 Van Maanen’s Star (Wolf 28) 243 Vega 168, 208, 215, 232 Wezea 248 Zaurak 246 Zeta Herculis 177 Zubenelchemale (Northern Claw) 229 Zubenelgenubi (Southern Claw) 229 ‘Steady-state’ theory 206 Stellar clusters 167, 175, 186–7 globular 196, 199, 219, 230, 234, 235, 237, 239, 244, 249 discovery 239 M13 235, 237 M22 239 M68 230 M79 249 M92 235 NGC104 (47 Tucanae) 258 NGC362 258–9 NGC2419 253 NGC6025 256 NGC6352 256 NGC6397 256 NGC6752 259 ˆ Centauri 256 IC2602 254 Jewel Box 167, 186, 257 listed 186 NGC2516 254 nomenclature 186 open 238, 248, 251, 252 Hyades 186, 187, 250 M35 251, 252 M41 248 NGC2244 249 NGC2391 254 NGC6067 256 NGC6087 256 Pleiades (Seven Sisters) 186–7, 215, 250 Praesepe 186 types 186 Stellar parallax 220 Stephano (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127 Stonehenge 13 Stromatolites 37 ‘Sulci’ 107 Sun 152–63 X-Ray image 162 absolute magnitude 170 apparent movement 168 auroral ovals on Earth 41 and comets 34, 137 composition 154 corona 161, 162 coronal mass ejection 162 data listed 154 and Earth’s axis 168 and Earth’s tides 43 eclipses 160–1 diamond-ring effect 161 ecliptic 168 energy source 154, 155 evolution 155, 175, 185 faculae 154 final state 185 flares 162 flocculi 161 granules 157 gravitation 160 HR Diagram 173 Jupiter compared 94 Kitt Peak Solar Telescope 159 magnetic field 157 magnetic phenomena 162 magnitude 167 Maunder Minimum 156, 157 movement through galaxy 196 nearest star 34, 137 neutrino emissions 155 observing 154, 155, 159 origins 155 photographing 161 photosphere structure 157 position in galaxy 154–5, 196 prominences 160–1, 162–3 ratio of elements 158–9 similar star 246 size 167 solar cycle 156–7 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory 162 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) 162 solar probes 162 solar spectrum 158–9 solar wind 162 spectral classification 172, 173 spicules 162 surface 156–7 T Tauri stage 175 zone layers 154 Sunspots 36, 153, 156–7 and Aurora Borealis 162–3 cause 157 cycle 156–7 faculae 157 maxima 156 minima 157 penumbra 153, 156 size 156 temperature 156 umbra 153, 156 Wilson Effect 157 Supergiants see Stars Super-kamiokande 155 Supernovae 179, 182–3, 199 of 1006 183, 257 of 1054 182, 183, 250 of 1562 (Tycho’s Star) 183 of 1604 183 of 1885 (S Andromedae) 183, 199, 240 of 1987 183, 260 amateur discovery 256 brightest seen 183 Chandrasekhar limit 182 classes 182 evolution 182 formation 175 frequency 183 future 254 galactic 236 gravity 183 layers 182 luminosity 182 mass 183 observation 201 outburst 175 radio radiation 182, 183 Vela remnant 184 Surveyor probe 50 Swift, Jonathan 80 SX Phoenicis (variable star) 258 Sycorax (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127 Synodic period 63 T T Coronae (Blaze Star) 181, 225, 236 Tadpole Galaxy Tarantula (nebula) 193, 199 Taurus (constellation) 250–1 Taygete (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Tektites 148, 149 Telescopes 14–15 X-ray 24 ‘active optics’ 18 altazimuth mounting 14, 18 Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) 18 choosing 264, 266–7 compound Schmidt-Cassegrain 266–7 Dobsonian 267 earliest 13, 14 electromagnetic spectrum 20 equatorial mounting 14, 15, 19 eyepieces 266 faintest object ever seen 184 first astronomical 102 first observation of Jupiter 96 home observatories 268–9 infra-red 18 IRAS (Infra-red Astronomical Satellite) 197, 208, 232, 245, 246 United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) 18, 21 James Clerk Maxwell 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:33 pm Page 287 INDEX Telescope (JCMT) 21 Kitt Peak Solar 159 largest British 17 largest listed 19 made by Galileo 14 made by Herschel 15, 90 made by Newton 14–15 Mars from moderate-sized 76 mechanically driven 15 mounting for 268 nebulae observed through 221 New Technology Telescope (NTT) 18, 137 photography 15 Pluto from moderate-sized 135 radio 20, 21, 202, 206 Arecibo 20 Green Bank, West Virginia 208 Lovell 20, 21 MERLIN (Multi-Element Radio Link Interferometer Network) 21 VLA (Very Large Array) 21, 196 reflector 30-centimetre (12-inch) 82, 117 Anglo-Australian (AAT) 16 Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope 17, 20 Antu 17, 19, 190–1 Cassegrain 268 Danish 154-cm (60-inch) 141 first 14 Fraunhofer 15 Gemini North 16 Hale (Palomar) 17, 18, 174, 194, 202 Herschel 15 Hooker 16 Hubble Space Telescope see Hubble Space Telescope Isaac Newton, La Palma 16 James Webb Space Telescope 30 Keck Telescope 18, 19 Kueyen 17, 19, 190–1 McMath–Pierce Solar Facility 17 Melipal 17, 19, 190–1 mirror size 15, 16 Mount Wilson 15, 141, 194, 195 Newtonian 266–9 Newton’s first 14–15 Palomar 60-inch (152-cm) 123 principle explained 14–15 Rosse 15, 188, 194, 200 Swedish Solar Telescope, La Palma 153, 158 United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) 18, 21 Very Large Telescope (VLT) 17, 19, 122, 190–1, 193, 196, 197 William Herschel 16, 17 Yepun 17, 19, 190–1 refractor 157, 266 7.5-centimetre (3-inch) 117 false colour 14 Lick 103 Lowell 76, 109 Meudon 77 principle explained 14 resolution of 7.6 centimetres (3 inches) 218 Washington 80 Yerkes Observatory 15, 18 resolution 19, 21, 30, 172, 187, 195, 218, 258 Schmidt 18, 184 siting 198, 260 small 110, 176 spectroscope see Spectroscope; Spectroscopy star magnitudes visible 167 Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) 172 test objects 236, 239, 244 types 266–7 United Kingdom Schmidt (UKS) 18, 19 wide-field 24, 237 Wide Field and Planetary Camera 30, 109, 179 Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) 31, 125, 131, 185, 205 Telescopium (constellation) 166, 256–7 Telesto (satellite of Saturn) 117 Television 48 Tereshkova, Valentina 26 Tesserae (‘parquet terrain’) 72, 74 Tethys (satellite of Saturn) 111, 116, 117, 118 Thales of Miletus 12, 160 Themis (satellite of Saturn) 117 Themisto (satellite of Jupiter) 103 Thuban (star) 36, 168, 169 Thulis 139 Titan (satellite of Saturn) 42, 108, 114, 116, 120–1 atmosphere 120–1 Cassini mission 120–1 discovery 120 possibility of life on 120 spectroscopic study 120 structure 120 surface 120–1 Titania (satellite of Uranus) 126, 127, 128–9 Toliman see Alpha Centauri Tomasko, Martin 120 Tombaugh, Clyde 134 Toutatis (asteroid) 92, 93 Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP) 45 Transits 62 Trans-Neptunian object 137 28978 Ixion 137 50000 Quaoar 34, 137 20000 Varuna 137 Triangulum (constellation) 166, 240 Triangulum Australe (constellation) 256 Triangulum Spiral see M33 Trifid Nebula 239 Triton (satellite of Neptune) 132–3, 134 Trojans (asteroids) 92–3, 117 Tsiolkovskii, Konstantin Eduardovich 22, 23 Tucana (constellation) 258–9 Tycho Brahe 13, 183, 221, 225 Tychonic theory 13 126, 127, 128–9 United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) 18, 21 Universe acceleration 207 age 175, 204 ‘Big Bang’ 206–7 ‘Big Crunch’ 207 earliest moments 206 Earth’s relation to 195 formation of matter 206 future 207 history 204 life in 208–9 missing mass 207 origin 206–7 size 204 ‘steady-state’ theory 206 time scales 195 Upsilon Andromedae 208, 238 Uranus 34, 122–9 air currents 124 atmosphere 122 aurorae 124 axial inclination 122 brightness 63 colour 122, 124 core 122 discovery 122 magnetic field and axis 124 missions to 25, 112, 114, 124–5 and Neptune 122, 131 orbit 122 planetary data listed 35, 123 possible massive impact on 122 radio waves 124 ring system 110, 122–3, 124, 125 colour 124 data listed 125 discovery 122 Epsilon 124 Saturn’s compared 124 satellites 124, 126–9 collisions 127 coronae 127, 128 data listed 126 discovery 124, 126 maps 128–9 named 122 nomenclature 127 Ariel 126, 127, 128 Miranda 126, 127, 128 Oberon 126, 127, 128–9 shepherd 124 Titania 126, 127, 128–9 Umbriel 126, 127, 128–9 Ursa Major (constellation) 166, 169, 171, 204, 215, 217, 218–9 effect of proper motion 171 nomenclature 166 star distances from Earth 171 Ursa Major (star) 169 Ursa Minor (constellation) 36, 168, 220–1 UW Canis Majoris (eclipsing binary) 248 V U U Geminorum (prototype dwarf nova) 251 Ultraviolet 188 Faint Object Camera (FOC) 187 from globular clusters 187 Röntgen satellite (ROSAT) 24 Ulugh Beigh 12 Ulysses probe 23, 98, 103, 162 Umbriel (satellite of Uranus) V354 Cephei 172 Van Allen zones 98 Van Maanen’s Star (Wolf 28) 243 Vandenburg Air Force Base, California 137 Vanderriest, Christian 137 Variable stars 178–9, 225, 232 basic classification listed 179 cataclysmic 179 Cepheids see Cepheids discovery 234 eclipsing binaries 178, 180, 223, 228 eruptive 179 Gamma Cassiopeia variables 222 Mira Ceti long-period variable type 178, 179 Mira Ceti 246, 247 R Carinae 254 R Centauri 256 R Horologii 260 and novae 180 pulsating 178, 179 RR Lyrae type 173, 178, 179, 219 RV Tauri type 178, 179 semi-regular 179 SS Cygni 179 SX Phoenicis 258 T Tauri type 179, 189 U Geminorum type 251 variable spectrum 258 W Virginis type 178, 228 Epsilon Aurigae 178 Eta Carinae 172, 179 R Coronae Australis 239 R Coronae Borealis 179, 225, 239 R Hydrae 230 R Scuti 234 RR Telescopii 256 Vega (star) 168, 208, 215, 232 Vela (constellation) 254 Venator, Nicolaus 234 Venera probes 70, 71 Venus 34, 70–75 Ashen Light 70 atmosphere 70, 226 brightness 63 clouds 70 exploration 70, 72, 74–5 features listed 73 Halley’s Comet 140 Magellan probe 72–5 Mariner 10 probe 64 movements 62 retrograde rotation 70 observation 62, 264 occulation of Regulus 226 planetary data 35, 70 possible life on 155 radar mapping 72, 74–5 sulphuric acid ‘rain’ 70 Sun’s effect on 155 surface colour 70 transit dates 62 Venera probes 70, 71 vulcanism 72, 74 Vernal Equinox (First Point of Aries) 168 Verne, Jules 22 Very Large Telescope (VLT) 17, 19, 122, 190–1, 193, 196, 197 Vesta (asteroid) 90, 91 Viking probes Viking 79 Viking 78, 79, 86–7 Virgo A (3C-274) 229 Virgo cluster 195, 199, 204, 205 Virgo (constellation) 185, 228, 231 Volans (constellation) 255 Volcanoes see Vulcanism Von Braun Wheel 28 Vostok programme Vostok 26 Vostok 27 Voyager probes 104, 118, 119, 162 Voyager 98, 102, 103, 104, 108, 162 Voyager 25, 98, 99, 102, 108, 111, 112, 113, 114–5, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 162 Vulcanism Earth 38, 39 Io 38, 94, 102–5, 106 Mars 38, 78 Mercury 66 Moon 44–5 Venus 38, 72, 74 Vulpecula (constellation) 234 VZ Ceti 246 W W Centauri (globular cluster) 256 W M Keck Foundation 18 Webb, T W 229 Wegener, Alfred 38 Wezea (star) 248 Whirlpool Galaxy see M51 Whiston, Rev William 142 White, Major Edward 27 White dwarf 155, 172, 173, 175, 179, 180, 243 White hole 185 Wickramsinghe, Chandra 142 Wide Field and Planetary Camera 30, 109, 179 Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) 31, 125, 131, 185, 205 Wilson, A 157 Wilson, Robert 206 Wilson Effect 157 Wolf 339 (type M star) 173 Wolf-Rayet star type 172 Wollaston, W H 158 Wright, Orville 26–27 X X-ray astronomy 23 black holes 184 image of Sun 162 pulsar 182 Röntgen satellite (ROSAT) 24 telescopes 24 Virgo A (3C-274) 229 Yohkoh satellite 162 Y Yohkoh X-ray satellite 162 Young, John (astronaut) 50 Z Zaurak (star) 246 Zenithal Hourly Rate (ZHR) 146 Zero gravity 26 Zeta Aurigae (eclipsing binary star) 178 Zeta Herculis 177 Zeta Orionis see Alnitak Zeta Phoenicis (Algol eclipsing binary star) 258 Zodiac 62 Zodiacal light 34, 35, 162 Zubenelchemale (Northern Claw) star 229 Zubenelgenubi (Southern Claw) star 229 ZZ Carinae (Cepheid star) 254 287 262-288 Atl of Univ Phil'05 7/6/05 2:34 pm Page 288 ATLAS OF THE UNIVERSE Acknowledgements Many people have helped in the preparation of this book My special thanks go to Professor Sir Arnold Wolfendale for providing a Foreword, and to Paul Doherty for his excellent artwork Among those who have provided photographs are Commander Henry Hatfield, Don Trombino, H.J.P Arnold, Bernard Abrams, John Fletcher, and the Honourable Adrian Berry Finally, I am most grateful to Robin Rees, of Messrs Philip’s, for all his help and encouragement Photographic Credits Where one of a number of photographs appears over two pages, it is credited on the first page only Abbreviations used are: t top; c centre; b bottom; l left; r right AU Associated Universities, Inc AURA Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc Caltech California Institute of Technology DLR Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt ESA European Space Agency ESO European Southern Observatory GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center JHU Johns Hopkins University JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory JSC Johnson Space Center MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NSO National Solar Observatory NOAO National Optical Astronomy Observatory NRAO National Radio Astronomy Observatory NSF National Science Foundation PM Patrick Moore Collection SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA SSI Space Science Institute STScI Space Telescope Science Institute SwRI Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado TRACE Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratories USGS US Geological Survey Front endpaper V838 Monocerotis NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI); Gemini Observatory/Travis Rector, University of Alaska Anchorage; NASA, N Benitez (JHU), T Broadhurst (The Hebrew University), H Ford (JHU), M Clampin (STScI), G Hartig (STScI), G Illingworth (UCO/Lick Observatory), the ACS Science Team and ESA; Todd Boroson/NOAO/AURA/NSF; ESO; 10–11 NASA; 12t Detlev Van Ravenswaay/Science Photo Library, 12c Science Photo Library, 12bl Dr Jeremy Burgess/Science Photo Library, 12bc PM; 13 PM; 15 PM; 16t Richard Wainscoat/Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF, 16b Nik Szymanek, 16r NOAO/AURA/NSF; 17t Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica, 17b PM; 18l PM, 18r ESO; 19 ESO; 20tl Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica, 20tr Image courtesy of the U.K Infrared Telescope, Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii, 20bl Ian Morison, Jodrell Bank Observatory, 20br courtesy of the NAIC – Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF; 21t NRAO/AU/NSF; 22tl PM, 22cl NASA, 22bl PM, 22r PM; 23tr NASA, 23b PM; 24tl Novosti, 24cl NASA, 24bl NASA, 24r NASA; 25cr PM; 25br NASA; 26tl NASA, 26bl Novosti, 26c NASA; 27 (from top to bottom) PM, NASA/Woodmansterne, PHOTRI/ZEFA, NASA/PM; 28tl NASA, 28tr STS-89 crew/NASA, 28b NASA; 29t NASA, 29b NASA; 30t NASA, 30bl Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA), 30br NASA, Holland Ford (JHU), the ACS Science Team and ESA; 31tl Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA), 31tr C Struck, P Appleton (Iowa State University), K Borne (Hughes STX Corp.), R Lucas (STScI)/NASA, 31br NASA; 32 NASA/JPL/SSI; 34–5 MERCURY NASA/JPL, VENUS NASA/JPL, EARTH NASA/JSC, MARS NASA/JPL/USGS, JUPITER NASA/JPL/University of Arizona, SATURN NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)/R.G French (Wellesley College)/J Cuzzi and J Lissauer (NASA/Ames Research Center)/L Dones (SwRI), URANUS JPL/Caltech, 288 NEPTUNE NASA/JPL, PLUTO SwRI/Lowell Observatory/STScI/NASA; 36 NASA; 37t F Damm/ZEFA, 37b PM; 40 Dominic Cantin; 41 A Watson/PM; 42 Eckhard Slawik/Science Photo Library; 43 Akira Fujii/David Malin Images; 44 H.R Hatfield; 45 PM; 46–7 PM; 48 NASA; 49 NASA/NSSDC; 50 NASA/JSC; 51 NASA/JSC; 52t PM, 52b US Naval Research Laboratory; 53t NASA/JPL/USGS, 53bl NASA/JPL/USGS, 53r NASA/GSFC, 53br NASA/GSFC; 63 PM; 64 NASA; 65 NASA/JPL; 66 NASA/GSFC; 67 NASA/JPL; 70b Damian Peach/Galaxy; 71t NASA/JPL, 71b Novosti; 72–3 NASA/JPL/USGS; 74l NASA, 74r NASA/JPL; 75 NASA/JPL; 76 Charles Capen (Lowell Observatory, Arizona); 77 PM; 78 NASA/JPL; 79 NASA/JPL; 80–1 NASA/JPL; 84t and 84br Steve Lee (University of Colorado), Phil James (University of Toledo) and Mike Wolff (University of Toledo), and NASA, 84l NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J Bell (Cornell U.), P James (U Toledo), M Wolff (SSI), A Lubenow (STScI), J Neubert (MIT/Cornell); 85tl NASA/JPL/MSSS, 85tr NASA, 85bl NASA/JPL/MSSS, 85br NASA/JPL; 86 NASA/JPL; 87tl NASA/JPL/MSSS, 87tr NASA, 87b NASA/JPL/USGS; 88 NASA/JPL; 89tr Mars Exploration Rover Mission/JPL/NASA, 89tl ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G Neukum), 89c ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G Neukum), 89b NASA/JPL/Cornell; 90t NASA/JPL, 90l PM, 90r NASA; 91t B Zellner/NASA, 91bl NASA, 91br B Zellner, A Sorrs, HSTI/NASA; 93t PM, 93c EROS NASA/JHU Applied Physics Laboratory, TOUTATIS NASA/NSSDC, 93b ESO; 94tl NASA/JPL/CICLOPS/University of Arizona, 94bl Damian Peach, 94br PM; 95 NASA/JPL/CICLOPS/University of Arizona; 97 NASA/JPL/CICLOPS/University of Arizona; 98–9 NASA/JPL; 100 HST Comet Team/NASA; 101tl, tr, cl, b Dr H Weaver & T Ed Smith (STScI)/NASA, 101cr PM; 102t NASA/JPL, IO NASA/JPL, EUROPA NASA/JPL/DLR, GANYMEDE NASA/JPL, CALLISTO NASA/JPL/DLR; 103 NASA/JPL; 104–5 NASA/JPL; 109t Charles Capen (Lowell Observatory, Arizona), 109b NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)/R.G French (Wellesley College)/J Cuzzi and J Lissauer (NASA/Ames Research Center)/L Dones (SwRI); 110l NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: R.G French (Wellesley College), J Cuzzi (NASA/Ames), L Dones (SwRI), and J Lissauer (NASA/Ames), 110r NASA/JPL; 111 Damian Peach; 112 NASA/JPL; 113b NASA/JPL, 113t NASA/JPL/SSI; 114t NASA/JPL/SSI, 114b NASA/JPL; 115 NASA/JPL/SSI; 116 MIMAS NASA/JPL/SSI, ENCELADUS NASA/JPL; 117 TETHYS NASA/JPL, DIONE NASA/JPL/SSI, RHEA NASA/JPL/SSI, HYPERION NASA/JPL, IAPETUS NASA/JPL/SSI, PHOEBE NASA/JPL/SSI; 120l ESA/NASA/University of Arizona, 120r NASA/JPL/SSI; 121tl ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona, 121tr NASA/JPL, 121bl NASA/JPL/SSI, 121br NASA/JPL; 122 ESO; 123l PM, 123r Kenneth Seidelmann, US Naval Observatory/NASA; 124 NASA/JPL; 125t NASA/JPL/Caltech, 125b Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA; 126t NASA/JPL, 126bl NASA/JPL, 126r NASA/JPL/Caltech; 127 NASA/JPL; 130 NASA/JPL; 131t L Sromovsky (University of WisconsinMadison)/NASA, 131b NASA/JPL; 132–3 NASA/JPL; 134 PM; 135t PM, 135c PM, 135b NASA; 136 A Stern (SwRI), M Buie (Lowell Observatory)/ESA/NASA; 137t Chad Trujillo & Michael Brown (Caltech), 137l (3) A Smette, C Vanderriest (La Silla), ESO, 137br D L Rabinowitz (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Arizona); 138l Akira Fujii/David Malin Images, 138r Gordon Rogers; 139 NASA/JPL/Caltech; 140t Peter Carrington/PM, 140c (6) Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 140l ESA, 140r Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington; 141 ESA; 142–3 PM; 144 Akira Fujii/David Malin Images; 145t NASA/JPL-Caltech, 145c NASA/JPL, 145l PM, 145br NASA/JPL; 146 PM; 147tl John Fletcher, 147tr PM, 147c PM, 147b D.F Trombino; 148–9 PM; 150tl D.F Trombino, 150bl PM, 150r PM; 151t David Parker/SPL, 151r Vic Urban; 152–3 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; 155tl COBE/DIRBE/NASA/GSFC, 155tr PM, 155bl Kamioka Observatory, ICRR (Institute for Cosmic Ray Research) The University of Tokyo, 155br Brookhaven National Laboratory; 156tr Kitt Peak National Observatory, Arizona, 156br H.J.P Arnold; 157tr (3) Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, Australia; 158cl Göran Scharmer/Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 158br D.F Trombino; 159 Bill Livingston/NOAO/AURA/NSF; 161t Henry Brinton, 161c PM, 161bl Akira Fujii/David Malin Images, 161br Bill Livingston/NSO/AURA/NSF; 162 Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan; 163t TRACE is a mission of the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research and part of the NASA Small Explorer program, 163bl Courtesy SOHO/EIT Consortium, 163br Dominic Cantin; 164–5 Akira Fujii/David Malin Images; 166–7 PM; 169 PM; 170 PM; 172 PM; 174b ESO; 177 Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA/NASA); 179 Jon Morse (University of Colorado) and NASA; 180 PM; 181t F Paresce, R Jedrzejewski (STScI), NASA/ESA, 181c N.A Sharp/WIYN/NOAO/NSF; 182b NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), 182t PM; 183l R.W Arbour, 183r G Sonneborn (GSFC)/NASA and J Pun (NOAO)/SINS Collaboration; 184 © Anglo-Australian Observatory, photograph by David Malin; 185c NASA/ESA/A.M Koekemoer (STScI), M Dickinson (NOAO) and The GOODS Team, 185b Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA); 186 © Anglo-Australian Observatory/Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Photograph by David Malin; 187 Rebecca Elson and Richard Swird (Cambridge and NASA); original WFPC2 courtesy of J Westphal (Caltech); 188t Matt Bobrowsky (Orbital Sciences Corporation) and NASA, 188bl John Fletcher, 188br H.R Hatfield; 189 Gordon Rogers; 190 ESO; 191tl ESO, 191tr NOAO/AURA/NSF, 191b ESO; 192–3 NOAO/AURA/NSF; 194l T.A Rector and B.A Wolpa/NOAO/AURA/NSF; 195t Hubble Space Telescope WFPC Team, 195b ESO; 197t ESO, 197b Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech/JPL IPAC is NASA’s Infrared Astrophysics Data Center; 198l NOAO/AURA/NSF, 198r ESO; 199r T.A Rector (NRAO/AUI/NSF and NOAO/AURA/NSF) and M Hanna (NOAO/AURA/NSF); 200bl Lick Observatory; 200bc Hale Observatories; 200br Hale Observatories; 201t Hale Observatories (3), 201bl Hale Observatories, 201bc Lick Observatory, 201br Hale Observatories; 202t PM, 202b ESO; 203tr J Bahcall (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton)/NASA, 203tl & 203bl J Bahcall (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton), M Disney (University of Wales)/NASA, 203cr NASA/ESA; 204 R Williams (STScI), the Hubble Deep Field Team and NASA; 205 R Windhorst, S Pascarelle (Arizona State University)/NASA; 206 WMAP Science Team, NASA; 208 Chris Burrows, STScI, ESA, J Krist (STScI), the WFPC2 IDT team, and NASA; 210–1 The Art Archive / Palazzo Farnese Caprarola / Dagli Orti (A); 219 T.A Rector and Monica Ramirez/NOAO/AURA/NSF; 221 J.P Harrington and K.J Borkowski (University of Maryland), and NASA; 229 ESO; 231 B Whitmore (STScI)/NASA; 236–7 John Fletcher; 243 Bernard Abrams; 245 Doug Williams, N.A Sharp/NOAO/AURA/NSF; 247 NOAO/AURA/NSF; 251 Bernard Abrams; 253 T.A Rector and B.A Wolpa/NOAO/AURA/NSF; 260 W Keel/ NOAO/AURA/NSF; 262–3 PM; 264tl PM, 264bl PM, 264r Derek St Romaine; 265l David Cortner/Galaxy, 265r PM; 266 Derek St Romaine; 267tl T.A Rector, I.P Dell’Antonio/NOAO/AUFA/NSF, 267tr NASA/JPL/USGS, 267b (3) Derek St Romaine; 268 PM; 269t PM, 269l Curtis MacDonald/Galaxy, 269r Jerry Gunn/Galaxy; Back endpaper Eagle Nebula NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Artwork Credits (© Philip’s) Paul Doherty, Raymond Turvey and Julian Baum (174–5) Mapping Credits (© Philip’s) MOON MAPS John Murray WHOLE SKY MAPS AND SEASONAL CHARTS Wil Tirion STAR MAPS prepared by Paul Doherty and produced by Louise Griffiths ... or epicycle, the centre of which – the deferent – itself moved round the Earth in a perfect circle ᭤ The Copernican theory – placing the Sun in the centre removed many of the difficulties of the. .. Law For any planet, the square of the revolution period (p) is proportional to the cube of the planet’s mean distance from the Sun (a) Once the distance of any planet is known, its period can... Atl of Univ Phil'03stp 2/5/03 6:36 pm Page 23 EXPLORING THE UNIVERSE a few tens of metres at a top speed of below 100 kilometres per hour (60 miles per hour), but it was the direct ancestor of the
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