Risks, impacts and management of invasive plant species in vietnam

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Risks, impacts and management of invasive plant species in Vietnam Thi Anh Tuyet Truong BA MSc Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia 2019 i Declaration I declare that this thesis is my own account of my research and contains as its main content work which has not previously been submitted to a degree or diploma at any tertiary education institution Human ethics The research in chapter presented and reported in this thesis was conducted in accordance with the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007), the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research (2007) and Murdoch University policies The proposed research study received human research ethics approval from the Murdoch University Human Research Ethics Committee, Approval Number 2017/033 Thi Anh Tuyet Truong 2019 i Statement of co-authorship The following people and institutions contributed to the publication of work undertaken as part of this thesis: Chapter 3: Truong, T T., Hardy, G E S J., & Andrew, M E (2017) Contemporary remotely sensed data products refine invasive plants risk mapping in data poor regions Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, 770 Tuyet T Truong, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia Giles Hardy, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia Margaret Andrew, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia Author contributions: TT prepared input data, performed models and interpreted results, wrote manuscript and acted as corresponding author MA supervised development of work, provided guidance throughout the project, and edited manuscript GH contributed to editing manuscript TT (candidate) (75%), MA (20%), GH (5%) We the undersigned agree with the above stated “proportion of work undertaken” for the above published peer-reviewed manuscripts contributing to this thesis Signed: Signed: Statement of co-authorship Thi Anh Tuyet Truong Margaret E Andrew Signed: Giles E StJ Hardy Date: ii Acknowledgements There are many people that have earned my gratitude for their contribution to this thesis My appreciation to all of them for being part of this journey and making this thesis possible Special mention goes to my principle supervisor, Dr Margaret Andrew, for her unflagging academic support, sage advice and attention to detail for every single part of this thesis I greatly benefited from her scientific insights and deep knowledge on invasion science, species distribution modelling and data analysis My heartfelt thanks go to Prof Giles Hardy for accepting me to Murdoch University, proofing my work and giving me motivation to boost my self-confidence I owe many thanks to Prof Bernie Dell for his invaluable advice and especially his thoroughly edition for the field experiment chapter Thank you for always encouraging me, sharing with me lots of great ideas and also your wittiness I am much grateful to Dr Mike Hughes for the time he gave in Chapter to check every transcript, coding and helping me to redirect myself out of the mess of preliminary results as well as proofing over and over long, tedious policy drafts Profound gratitude also goes to Prof Pham Quang Thu for his advice on fieldwork design and for the connections he bridged with interviewees I am grateful to all my supervisors for your unwavering mentoring and thoroughly reviewing all of my work I consider myself very fortunate being able to work with very considerate and encouraging supervisors like you I am also hugely appreciative to Cuc Phuong National Park Management Board for their support during my experiment Special thanks to Mr Quang Nguyen for supporting and companying me for the three years of the experiment and for sharing taxonomic expertise so willingly I am grateful to all interviewees who were willing to participate in the interviews and openly share with me their thoughts Each person I met, each story I heard was of valuable experience that encourages me to continue to follow the path I am pursuing Many thanks to everyone in the Plant Protection Centre of the Vietnam Academy of Forest Science for hosting cozy lunches I am grateful for their welcome and support during the time I was in Hanoi To my Murdoch friends Harish, Rushan, Louise and Agnes, thank you for coffee time and sharing hard times with me My thanks also go to many other Murdoch postgrad students who were willing to share their knowledge in data analysis and research skills with me My special thanks to Australia Award Scholarship (AAS) for financial support to my thesis and tremendous support to my life in Australia This project would not have been possible without this funding and support I also would like to acknowledge a Murdoch University Grant to my principal supervisor for funding my field work in Vietnam Last but not least, gratitude goes to my family Words fail to express how indebted I am to my parents and parents-in-law for their unconditional love, care, and support throughout my life Thanks to my brother who accompanied me for day after day during the experiment in Cuc Phuong National Park To my husband Hoang Ha and my son Lam Ha, thank you for patiently bearing with me throughout the up and down PhD journey and for rebalancing me in times of hardship Your love gives me the extra strength and motivation to get things done I dedicate this thesis to my beloved family! Abstract In Southeast Asia, research on invasive plant species (IPS) is limited and biased by geography, research foci and approaches This may hinder understanding of the extent of invasion problems and effective management to prevent and control IPS Because biological invasions are a complicated issue involving multiple disciplines, this thesis utilized diverse approaches to evaluate risk, impacts, and management of IPS in Vietnam Distribution models of 14 species predicted that large areas of Vietnam are susceptible to IPS, particularly in parts bordering China Native IPS, which are often overlooked in assessment, posed similar risks as non-native IPS From the model results, a native grass Microstegium ciliatum was selected to quantify its impacts on tree regeneration in secondary forests A field experiment in Cuc Phuong National Park found that tree seedling abundance and richness increased within one year of grass removal; this effect strengthened in the second year These results highlight the impacts of IPS on tree regeneration and the importance of IPS management to forest restoration projects Given the risks and impacts of IPS, strategic management is needed to achieve conservation goals in national parks (NPs) However, interviews with both state and non-state entities revealed poor and reactive management of IPS in Vietnamese NPs from national to local levels Institutional arrangements challenge IPS management in Vietnam Involvement of multiple sectors with unclear mandates leads to overlaps in responsibilities and makes collaboration among sectors difficult Lack of top-down support from the national level (legislation, guidance, resources) and limited power at the local level weakens implementation and ability of NPs to respond to IPS The findings of this thesis provide important information for achieving effective management of IPS in Vietnam Knowledge of vulnerable areas and species likely to invade and cause impacts can help Vietnam efficiently allocate management resources to prevent and control IPS, but adjustments to institutional arrangements and enhanced cooperation may be necessary to ensure management occurs Contents Declaration i Statement of co-authorship ii Acknowledgements iii Abstract v Contents vi Chapter Introduction .1 Introduction Aims and objectives of the thesis Structure and significance of the thesis Chapter A systematic review of research efforts on invasive species in Southeast Asia Abstract Introduction Background on invasion science and management Methods 15 Results 17 Discussion 28 Conclusions and future invasion research in SE Asia 33 Chapter Contemporary remotely sensed data products refine invasive plants risk mapping in data poor regions 34 Abstract 34 Introduction 35 Methods 41 Results 48 Discussion 57 Conclusions 62 Chapter Impact of a native invasive grass (Microstegium ciliatum) on restoration of a tropical forest .64 Abstract 64 Introduction 65 Methods 68 Results 79 Truong et al Weed Risk Mapping in Southeast Asia 221 Frontiers in Plant Science | www.frontiersin.org 14 May 2017 | Volume | Article 770 This is troubling and in some areas with argues against the use limited data coverage of global land cover (e.g., some areas in products in SDMs Truong et al Amazonia) or in Quantitative remotely rugged terrain such as sensed estimates of Laos (Bicheron et al., ecosystem structure 2008) Also, cloud and function may cover reduces the overcome some of the quality of the RS data, problems of categorical especially in tropical datasets, and we regions (Bradley and strongly advocate for Fleishman, 2008) their expanded use Classification errors and continued seem to be evaluation in SDM contributing to the contexts Interestingly, performance of RS the quantitative variables in our study measures of vegetation Unexpectedly, species productivity used in this associations with land study, while making cover classes, when important contributions they were found to be to the RS model set, important to models, generally dropped out were overwhelmingly of the COMB models negative There is no This may be because ecological or logical of interdependencies reason for this between climate Instead, because the variables and the consensus land cover photosynthetic product estimates the efficiency term used in certainty that a class is the MODIS GPP product, present, given the which relies on both individual land cover temperature and datasets, this suggests moisture (Running et that habitat suitability al., 2004), and thus tends to be greatest for would not be detected the modeled species in by the simple areas with high land univariate correlation cover uncertainty analysis used to screen Such uncertainty may input variables be due to inadequacies Another limitation to in the class definitions model performance in in this region, finethis study is the scaled mosaics of land sample size of the cover classes within a species occurrence km pixel, or simply records Performance poor classification of SDMs in the study performance Indeed, varied among species using the maximum Species with few estimated probability of occurrence records class membership as occurring in a wide an indicator of range of habitats, such certainty supports this as Mimosa pigra, have interpretation Large lower performance areas of SEA, including than others This is many of the same because SDMs perform locations with highbetter with larger predicted invasibility, sample sizes and for exhibit low certainty of species occupying a the land cover narrow environmental information (Figure niche than for 7) Further work is generalist species necessary to validate (Hernandez et al., the consensus land 2006) Although cover products in SEA Mimosa pigra has been and, especially, to recorded as one of the determine the most invasive plants in 14 Frontiers in Plant Science | www.frontiersin.org meaning of areas with many countries in SEA great class uncertainty (Thi, 2000; MacKinnon, 2002; Vanna and Nang, 2005; Nghiem et al., 2013), the number of occurrence records of this species in SEA is still limited This reflects lack of research and awareness of the public and government for invasive species detection in the region, which should be more encouraged Also, using hyperspectral RS to detect invasive species occurrences (Andrew and Ustin, 2008; Hestir et al., 2008) can be a solution for developing high-quality, unbiased occurrence data inputs (He et al., 2015), and also may reduce temporal mismatch between species occurrences and environmental variables In addition to model development, sample size influences model evaluation Performance measures such as the AUC provide a single spatial summary value AUC Weed Mapping in Southeast Asia has Risk been criticized for its inability to convey information about the spatial pattern of predictions or uncertainty (Franklin, 2010a) Yet spatial variation can be considerable Because AUC is often calculated from a tiny proportion of the pixels modeled, wildly different spatial predictions can receive similar, and indeed very high, AUC estimates (Synes and Osborne, 2011) For this reason, we prefer to present a suite of evaluation tools, including total predicted area and estimates of spatial agreement, in addition to the AUC Habitat Suitability Both non-native and native invasive species were predicted to occur across large areas of SEA, and thus may pose similar risk to the region Among life forms, shrub species potentially pose greater risk because of the predictions of high shrub invader richness over large areas, based on the set of species assessed Most countries in the region have suitable habitat for these species In general, shrubs exhibited weaker environmental associations than the other life forms (as seen in the lower variable importance scores), suggesting they may be tolerant of a broader range of conditions Relative to shrub and herb species, vine species’ distributions were most 222 strongly driven by climatic factors This May 2017 | Volume | Article 770 may facilitate their spread under climate change Invasive contradicting species may knowledge summarized disproportionately by Lozon and benefit from global MacIsaac (1997) that Truong et al.change (Dukes climate the establishment and and Mooney, 1999), spread of invasive and vines may be a plants are associated good example of these with disturbance concerns Climate Although disturbance is projections for the certainly a factor in region include many invasions, an increases in annual over-generalization that temperature and in invasion requires summertime disturbance can lead precipitation to low awareness of (Christensen et al., invasion in intact 2007), the latter areas Further fieldvariable was important based studies about to nearly all vine invasibility of these species distributions, species under all of which showed difference disturbance positive associations levels should be Without strong controls conducted The by biotic factors such effectiveness of GPP as land cover, vines variability as an may invade valuable indicator of diverse evergreen broadleaf disturbance processes trees forests in SEA A and diverse native vine, Merremia ecosystems should also boisiana is an example be evaluated The In the past decade, the relatively short vine has spread duration of the dramatically over satellite archive from South China (Wang et which it was computed al., 2005; Wu et al., is certainly a limitation 2007) and the north and center of Vietnam (Le et al., 2012) and our results reveal that more than 1.6 million km2 are invasible to this species, largely concentrated in China and Vietnam These findings suggest that awareness of invasive species and prevention and eradication efforts should not overlook the life form or origin status of the species of concern Interestingly, in contrast to our expectations, we found that for some species (Microstegium ciliatum and Mimosa diplotricha) suitability was negatively related to the variability of GPP (GPP_CV), which was used to proxy disturbance processes This suggests that invasion possible Frontiers in PlantisScience | www.frontiersin.org even with low disturbance, Weed Risk Mapping in Southeast Asia 223 14 May 2017 | Volume | Article 770 Truong et al Weed Risk Mapping in Southeast Asia 222 Frontiers in Plant Science | www.frontiersin.org 15 May 2017 | Volume | Article 770 Given that many of the study species were identified from Vietnam’s invasive weed list, it is not surprising that we found, within the region, north and north central Vietnam were most Truong et al susceptible to the invasion of weeds (Figures 5, 6) However, it is worth emphasizing that many of the invasive weeds predicted in this region also have high invasibility in China, where outbreaks have been recorded (Yan et al., 2001) Biological invasions are a trans-border issue Similarly, provinces (Guangxi, Quangdong, and Yunnan) sharing borders with Vietnam, Lao, and Myanmar are listed as areas with a high number of invasive species in China (Xu et al., 2012) Effective management requires that invasions be considered in the context of the region (SEA), rather than a country (Paini et al., 2010) Studies such as ours can help the Vietnamese and other governments to prioritize management actions for invasive species within the country and also to inform biosecurity policy across borders land cover information in SDMs, which may propagate errors and confound interpretation Greater adoption of quantitative remotely sensed datasets estimating ecosystem structure and Weed Risk Mapping in Southeast Asia function may mitigate the weaknesses and limited utility of RS observed in this study From the standpoint of biodiversity management, our findings have implications in targeting management to susceptible areas, providing initial data for invasive species risk assessments, and proposing biosecurity policy in the region CONCLUSION FUNDING This study demonstrated that 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Copyright © 2017 Truong, Hardy and Andrew This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms 225 ... effective management Thus, invasiveness, invasibility and impacts have been considered as the three main topics in invasion ecology, helping to shape understanding of the mechanisms of invasion and. .. characteristics of an IS (invasiveness) and of the ecosystem (invasibility) both influence the success of invasion and the impact of the invader in an ecosystem When IS cause impacts and alter attributes of. .. invasive species and impediments to effective management Chapter provides a synthesis of the main findings and their contributions and implication for the management of invasive plant Chapter species
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Xem thêm: Risks, impacts and management of invasive plant species in vietnam , Risks, impacts and management of invasive plant species in vietnam , Chapter 3. Contemporary remotely sensed data products refine invasive plants risk mapping in data poor regions, Appendix A. Chapter 3 supplementary material, Appendix B. Chapter 4 supplementary material

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