Carbon capture and storage physical, chemical, and biological methods (ASCE, 2015)

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Carbon Capture and Storage Physical, Chemical, and Biological Methods SPONSORED BY Carbon Capture and Storage Task Committee of the Technical Committee on Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Engineering of the Environmental Council of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of ASCE EDITED BY Rao Y Surampalli Tian C Zhang R D Tyagi Ravi Naidu B R Gurjar C S P Ojha Song Yan Satinder K Brar Anushuya Ramakrishnan C M Kao Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Carbon capture and storage : physical, chemical, and biological methods / sponsored by Carbon Capture and Storage Task Committee of the Environmental Council, Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI) of the American Society of Civil Engineers ; edited by Rao Y Surampalli [and others] pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-7844-1367-8 (pbk.) ISBN 978-0-7844-7891-2 (e-book PDF) Carbon sequestration Sequestration (Chemistry) I Surampalli, Rao Y., editor II Environmental and Water Resources Institute (U.S.) Carbon Capture and Storage Task Committee, sponsoring body TP156.S5C37 2015 628.5'32 dc23 2014038868 Published by American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191-4382 | Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and not necessarily represent the views of ASCE, which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by ASCE The materials are for general information only and not represent a standard of ASCE, nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this publication, and assumes no liability therefor The information contained in these materials should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application Anyone utilizing such information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U.S Patent and Trademark Office Photocopies and permissions Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be requested by sending an e-mail to or by locating a title in ASCE's Civil Engineering Database ( or ASCE Library ( and using the “Permissions” link Errata: Errata, if any, can be found at Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Civil Engineers All Rights Reserved ISBN 978-0-7844-1367-8 (print) ISBN 978-0-7844-7891-2 (E-book PDF) Manufactured in the United States of America 20 19 18 17 16 15 Contents Preface ix Contributing Authors xi Chapter Introduction Chapter Carbon Capture and Storage: An Overview 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Introduction CCS Technologies Current Status of CCS Technology 14 Barriers to CCS 17 Major Issues Related to CCS 21 Summary 31 References 31 Chapter Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Physical/Chemical Technologies 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Introduction 37 Separation with Solvents 38 Separation with Sorbents 44 Separation with Membranes 47 Separation with Other Technologies 51 Carbon Capture Schemes for Different Sources 53 Conclusions 59 References 60 Chapter Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Biological Technologies 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Introduction 65 Biological Processes for Carbon Capture 66 Biological Processes for CO2 Sequestration 76 Advanced Biological Processes for CCS 87 Biotic versus Abiotic CCS 95 Summary 96 Acknowledgements 98 Abbreviations 98 References 99 iii Chapter CO2 Sequestration and Leakage 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Introduction 113 Ocean Carbon Sequestration (OCS) 115 Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) 126 Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration (TCS) 134 Leakage, MVA, and LCRM 139 Future Trends and Summary 144 Acknowledgements 146 Abbreviations 147 References 147 Chapter Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geological Formations 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 Introduction 159 Generic Storage Options for Geological Storage of CO2 .160 MVA: Background and General Procedures 163 Key Monitoring Techniques of MVA .169 Two Case Studies 182 Current Issues and Future Research Needs 185 Conclusions 186 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 187 References 188 Chapter Carbon Reuses for a Sustainable Future 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Introduction 195 CO2 Reuse as Fuel 197 Carbon Reuse as Plastics 203 CO2 Reuse towards Low Carbon Economy 207 Conclusions 211 References 211 Chapter Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Introduction 217 CO2 Capture Technologies 218 Principles of Sorption-Based CO2 Capture Technologies 227 Major Issues and Future Perspectives 231 Conclusions 233 References 233 iv Chapter CO2 Scrubbing Processes and Applications 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Introduction 239 Process Overview 239 Advantage and Disadvantage 241 CO2 Scrubbing Materials 242 Current Status of CO2 Scrubbing Technology 255 Future Perspectives 265 Conclusions 266 References 267 Chapter 10 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Introduction 281 Choice of Minerals 284 Process Thermodynamics 287 Pre-Treatment 287 Carbonation Processes .288 Techno-Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Mineral Carbonation 295 Benefits of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation 296 Future Research Directions 297 References 298 Chapter 11 Carbon Burial and Enhanced Soil Carbon Trapping 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Introduction 303 Carbon Burial 304 Enhanced Soil Carbon Trapping 319 Conclusions 328 Acknowledgements 329 Abbreviations 329 References 329 Chapter 12 Algae-Based Carbon Capture and Sequestrations 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 Introduction 339 Principle and Carbon Cycle 340 Effects of Major Factors 342 Applications .350 Economic Analysis 356 Limitation and Future Perspectives 357 Summary 359 Acknowledgements 359 v 12.9 References 359 Chapter 13 Carbon Immobilization by Enhanced Photosynthesis of Plants 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 Introduction 369 Deforestation and Reforestation 370 Genetic Engineering to Increase C4 Plants 378 Future Trends and Perspectives .388 Summary 389 Acknowledgements 390 References 390 Chapter 14 Enzymatic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 Introduction 401 Carbonic Anhydrase Catalytic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration 401 Other Enzyme Catalytic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration 410 Technical Limitations and Future Perspective 412 Summary 413 Acknowledgements 414 Abbreviations 414 References 414 Chapter 15 Biochar 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 Introduction 421 Role of Biochar for CCS 422 Biochar Technology 423 Biochar for Development of Sustainable Society 435 Biochar Sustainability 441 Concerns and Future Perspectives 443 Summary 446 Acknowledgements 447 Abbreviations 447 References 448 Chapter 16 Enhanced Carbon Sequestration in Oceans: Principles, Strategies, Impacts, and Future Perspectives 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 Background of CO2 Sequestration in Oceans 455 Major Strategies for Ocean Sequestration of CO2 458 Ocean Nourishment 462 Impact of Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide 465 Future Perspectives 466 Summary 467 Acknowledgements 467 vi 16.8 16.9 Abbreviations 467 References 468 Chapter 17 Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis of Transport and Geological Sequestration of CO2 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 Introduction 475 Modeling CO2 Transport to Sequestration Site 476 CO2 Storage Capacity and Injectivity 479 Modeling of Sink Performance 482 Leakage Potential and Its Mitigation for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Saline Aquifer .487 Conclusion .492 References 494 Chapter 18 Carbon Capture and Storage: Major Issues, Challenges, and the Path Forward 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 Introduction 499 Cost and Economics Issues 500 Legal and Regulatory Issues 504 Social Acceptability Issues 511 Technical Issues: Uncertainty and Scalability 513 Conclusion .515 References 516 Index 519 Editor Biographies 533 vii This page intentionally left blank Preface Currently, three climate change mitigation strategies are being explored: a) increasing energy efficiency, b) switching to less carbon-intensive sources of energy, and c) carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) As a strong option to achieve the large-scale reductions in CO2, CCS technology allows the continuous use of fossil fuels and provides time to make the changeover to other energy sources in a systematic way Therefore, CCS technology is certainly necessary both globally and nationally in order to mitigate climate change The ASCE’s Technical Committee on Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste has identified CCS technology as an important area for mitigation of climate change and sustainable development, and thus, made an effort to work with the contributors to put this book together in the context of a) the basic principles of CCS focusing on the physical, chemical and biological methods (see chapters 1–7); and b) applications and research development related to CCS (see chapters 8-17) This structure reflects the historical evolution and current status of CCS technology as well as the major issues/challenges/the path forward for CCS technology Many factors decide CCS applicability worldwide, such as technical development, overall potential, flow and shift of the technology to developing countries and their capability to apply the technology, regulatory aspects, environmental concerns, public perception and costs In this book, the term CCS is defined as any technologies/methods that are to a) capture, transport and store carbon (CO2), b) monitor, verify and account the status/progress of the CCS technologies employed, and c) advance development/uptake of low-carbon technologies and/or promote beneficial reuse of CO2 As a reference, the book will provide readers indepth understanding of and comprehensive information on the principles of CCS technology, different environmental applications, recent advances, critical analysis of new CCS methods and processes, and directions toward future research and development of CCS technology We hope that this book will be of interest to students, scientists, engineers, government officers, process managers and practicing professionals The editors gratefully acknowledge the hard work and patience of all the authors who have contributed to this book The views or opinions expressed in each chapter of this book are those of the authors and should not be construed as opinions of the organizations they work for Special thanks go to Ms Arlys Blakey at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln for her thoughtful comments and invaluable support during the development of this book – RYS, TCZ, RDG, RN, BRG, CSPO, SY, SKB, AR, CMK ix .. .Carbon Capture and Storage Physical, Chemical, and Biological Methods SPONSORED BY Carbon Capture and Storage Task Committee of the Technical Committee on Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive... Cataloging-in-Publication Data Carbon capture and storage : physical, chemical, and biological methods / sponsored by Carbon Capture and Storage Task Committee of the Environmental Council, Environmental and Water... Surampalli, B R Gurjar, Tian C Zhang, and C S P Ojha This book on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) mainly includes the Physical, Chemical and Biological Methods The book starts with a broad overview
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Xem thêm: Carbon capture and storage physical, chemical, and biological methods (ASCE, 2015) , Carbon capture and storage physical, chemical, and biological methods (ASCE, 2015) , 5 Leakage, MVA, and LCRM, 3 MVA: Background and General Procedures, 2 CO[sub(2)] Reuse as Fuel, 4 CO[sub(2)] Reuse towards Low Carbon Economy, 7 Benefits of CO[sub(2)] Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation, 1 Background of CO[sub(2)] Sequestration in Oceans, 2 Modeling CO[sub(2)] Transport to Sequestration Site, 3 CO[sub(2)] Storage Capacity and Injectivity

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