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GEOMICROBIOLOGY Fifth Edition CRC_7906_FM.indd i 11/11/2008 5:11:57 PM CRC_7906_FM.indd ii 11/11/2008 5:11:58 PM GEOMICROBIOLOGY Fifth Edition Henry Lutz Ehrlich Dianne K Newman Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business CRC_7906_FM.indd iii 11/11/2008 5:11:58 PM CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-7906-2 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint Except as permitted under U.S Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http:// www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400 CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ehrlich, Henry Lutz, 1925Geomicrobiology / Henry Lutz Ehrlich 5th ed / and Dianne K Newman p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-8493-7906-2 (alk paper) Geomicrobiology I Newman, Dianne K II Title QR103.E437 2009 551.9 dc22 2008029570 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com CRC_7906_FM.indd iv 11/11/2008 5:11:58 PM Dedication We dedicate this edition to Terry Beveridge: dear friend, inspiring mentor, and geomicrobiologist par excellence CRC_7906_FM.indd v 11/11/2008 5:11:58 PM CRC_7906_FM.indd vi 11/11/2008 5:11:59 PM Contents Preface xix Authors xxi Chapter Introduction References Chapter Earth as a Microbial Habitatt 2.1 Geologically Important Features 2.2 Biosphere 10 2.3 Summary 11 References 11 Chapter Origin of Life and Its Early History 15 3.1 Beginnings 15 3.1.1 Origin of Life on Earth: Panspermia 15 3.1.2 Origin of Life on Earth: de novo Appearance 16 3.1.3 Life from Abiotically Formed Organic Molecules in Aqueous Solution (Organic Soup Theory) 16 3.1.4 Surface Metabolism Theory 18 3.1.5 Origin of Life through Iron Monosulfide Bubbles in Hadean Ocean at the Interface of Sulfide-Bearing Hydrothermal Solution and Iron-Bearing Ocean Water r 19 3.2 Evolution of Life through the Precambrian: Biological and Biochemical Benchmarks 20 3.2.1 Early Evolution According to Organic Soup Scenario 21 3.2.2 Early Evolution According to Surface Metabolist Scenario 27 3.3 Evidence 28 3.4 Summary 31 References 32 Chapter Lithosphere as Microbial Habitat t 37 4.1 Rock and Minerals 37 4.2 Mineral Soil 39 4.2.1 Origin of Mineral Soil 39 4.2.2 Some Structural Features of Mineral Soil .40 4.2.3 Effects of Plants and Animals on Soil Evolution 42 4.2.4 Effects of Microbes on Soil Evolution 42 4.2.5 Effects of Water on Soil Erosion 43 4.2.6 Water Distribution in Mineral Soil 43 4.2.7 Nutrient Availability in Mineral Soil .44 4.2.8 Some Major Soil Types 45 4.2.9 Types of Microbes and Their Distribution in Mineral Soil 47 vii CRC_7906_FM.indd vii 11/11/2008 5:11:59 PM viii Contents 4.3 Organic Soils 49 4.4 The Deep Subsurface 50 4.5 Summary 51 References 52 Chapter The Hydrosphere as Microbial Habitatt 57 5.1 The Oceans 57 5.1.1 Physical Attributes 57 5.1.2 Ocean in Motion 59 5.1.3 Chemical and Physical Properties of Seawater r 62 5.1.4 Microbial Distribution in Water Column and Sediments 68 5.1.5 Effects of Temperature, Hydrostatic Pressure, and Salinity on Microbial Distribution in Oceans 70 5.1.6 Dominant Phytoplankters and Zooplankters in Oceans 71 5.1.7 Plankters of Geomicrobial Interestt 72 5.1.8 Bacterial Flora in Oceans 72 5.2 Freshwater Lakes 73 5.2.1 Some Physical and Chemical Features of Lakes 74 5.2.2 Lake Bottoms 76 5.2.3 Lake Fertility 77 5.2.4 Lake Evolution 77 5.2.5 Microbial Populations in Lakes 77 5.3 Rivers 78 5.4 Groundwaters 79 5.5 Summary 82 References 83 Chapter Geomicrobial Processes: Physiological and Biochemical Overview 89 6.1 Types of Geomicrobial Agents 89 6.2 Geomicrobially Important Physiological Groups of Prokaryotes 90 6.3 Role of Microbes in Inorganic Conversions in Lithosphere and Hydrosphere 91 6.4 Types of Microbial Activities Influencing Geological Processes 92 6.5 Microbes as Catalysts of Geochemical Processes 93 6.5.1 Catabolic Reactions: Aerobic Respiration .94 6.5.2 Catabolic Reactions: Anaerobic Respiration 96 6.5.3 Catabolic Reactions: Respiration Involving Insoluble Inorganic Substrates as Electron Donors or Acceptors 98 6.5.4 Catabolic Reactions: Fermentation 100 6.5.5 How Energy Is Generated by Aerobic and Anaerobic Respirers and Fermenters During Catabolism 101 6.5.6 How Chemolithoautotrophic Bacteria (Chemosynthetic Autotrophs) Generate Reducing Power for Assimilating CO2 and Converting It into Organic Carbon 103 6.5.7 How Photosynthetic Microbes Generate Energy and Reducing Power r 103 6.5.8 Anabolism: How Microbes Use Energy Trapped in High-Energy Bonds to Drive Energy-Consuming Reactions 105 6.5.9 Carbon Assimilation by Mixotrophs, Photoheterotrophs, and Heterotrophs 108 CRC_7906_FM.indd viii 11/11/2008 5:11:59 PM Contents ix 6.6 Microbial Mineralization of Organic Matterr 108 6.7 Microbial Products of Metabolism That Can Cause Geomicrobial Transformations 110 6.8 Physical Parameters That Influence Geomicrobial Activity 110 6.9 Summary 112 References 113 Chapter Nonmolecular Methods in Geomicrobiology 117 7.1 7.2 Introduction 117 Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Geomicrobially Active Organisms 118 7.2.1 In Situ Observation of Geomicrobial Agents 118 7.2.2 Identification by Application of Molecular Biological Techniques 120 7.3 Sampling 120 7.3.1 Terrestrial Surface/Subsurface Sampling 121 7.3.2 Aquatic Sampling 121 7.3.3 Sample Storage 122 7.3.4 Culture Isolation and Characterization of Active Agents from Environmental Samples 124 7.4 In Situ Study of Past Geomicrobial Activity 125 7.5 In Situ Study of Ongoing Geomicrobial Activity 126 7.6 Laboratory Reconstruction of Geomicrobial Processes in Nature 128 7.7 Quantitative Study of Growth on Surfaces 132 7.8 Test for Distinguishing between Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Geomicrobial Activity 134 7.9 Study of Reaction Products of Geomicrobial Transformation 134 7.10 Summary 135 References 135 Chapter Molecular Methods in Geomicrobiology 139 8.1 Introduction 139 8.2 Who Is There? Identification of Geomicrobial Organisms 139 8.2.1 Culture-Independent Methods 139 8.2.2 New Culturing Techniques 141 8.3 What Are They Doing? Deducing Activities of Geomicrobial Organisms 141 8.3.1 Single-Cell Isotopic Techniques 142 8.3.2 Single-Cell Metabolite Techniques 144 8.3.3 Community Techniques Involving Isotopes 145 8.3.4 Community Techniques Involving Genomics 146 8.3.5 Probing for Expression of Metabolic Genes or Their Gene Products 147 8.4 How Are They Doing It? Unraveling the Mechanisms of Geomicrobial Organisms 147 8.4.1 Genetic Approaches 148 8.4.2 Bioinformatic Approaches 151 8.4.3 Follow-Up Studies 151 8.5 Summary 152 References 152 CRC_7906_FM.indd ix 11/11/2008 5:11:59 PM Index microbial activity and formation of, 553–554 as microbial substrate, 554–555 coal damp, methane formation and, 538–539 coccolith assembly, calcium carbonate deposition, 170–171 coenzymes, methanogenesis, 543–544 cold monomictic lakes, defined, 74 column experiments, metal sulfides, 495–496 community-based techniques, geomicrobial activity observations genomics and, 146–147 isotope techniques, 145–146 complementation techniques, geomicrobial analysis, 149–151 concentration, geomicrobial agents for, 91–92 confined aquifer, defined, 80 connate water, groundwater formation and, 79 consortia Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, 286–287 geomicrobial activity and, 118 sulfur interactions, 458–459 contaminants early evolutionary evidence and role of, 28 geomicrobial activity and, 118 continental margin, defined, 57 continental rise, defined, 58 continental shelf, defined, 57 continental slope, defined, 57 convection, Earth’s crust and, convergence oceanic currents, 62 seawater chemistry and, 66–67 convergent evolution, biosynthetic pathways and, 31 coordination chemistry, arsenic, 243–244 cooxidation, petroleum degradation, 562–563 copiotrophs, in mineral soils, 48 core (Earth), Coriolis force, oceanic currents and, 59–62 corrosion, mineral soil formation, 40 crust (Earth), antimony occurrence, 256 arsenic occurrence, 243 carbon occurrence, 157 chromium occurrence, 421 iron occurrence, 279 manganese occurrence, 347 mercury occurrence, 265–266 phosphorus occurrence, 219 selenium occurrence, 527 sulfur occurrence, 439 tellurium occurrence, 527 uranium occurrence, 429 crustal divergence, plate tectonics and, culture-independent techniques, geomicrobial organism identification, 139–140 culture isolation and characterization, geomicrobial activity observations molecular approaches, 141 nonmolecular approaches, 124–125 currents, oceanic, 59–62 cyanobacteria calcium carbonate deposition, 167–168 in lakes, 77–78 limestone biodegradation, 180–183 meta-cinnabar formation, 270 CRC_7906_Index.indd 593 593 in mineral soils, 48–49 oceanic, 57 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 23–27 photophosphorylation, 105 sulfur oxidation, 445–446 Cyrenaican Lakes, sulfur deposition, 466–468 cytochromes ferric iron reduction, 311–313 iron oxidation, enzymatic oxidation, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, 291–292 metal sulfide oxidation, 499–504 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 25–27 cytoskeleton, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 22–27 D Dead Sea, formation of, 78 decomposition, organomercurials, geomicrobial activity, 270 deep-sea sediments manganese deposition, 387–392 microbial distribution in, 69–70 deep subsurface, in mineral soils, 50–51 dehydration, groundwater formation and, 79 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), geomicrobial organism identification, 140 denitrification, geomicrobial activity, 237–238 de novo appearance hypothesis, evolution and, 16 density, seawater, 65 ocean currents and, 59–62 depression spring, groundwater formation and, 80 desert soil, classification of, 47 desert varnish, manganese oxidation, 377–378 desulfurization, coal, 555 detoxification, mercury compounds, 266–267 diagenetic phosphorite formation, basic principles, 226 diatomic organisms deep-sea sediments, manganese deposition, 391–392 diatomaceous ooze, defined, 59 silicon bioconcentration in, 195–198 dimethylmercury, environmental occurrence, 266 dimictic lakes, defined, 74 diphenylmercury, microbial formation, 269 direct oxidation, metal sulfides, 499–503 dispersion, by geomicrobial agents, 92 disproportionation reactions methanogenesis, 541–544 sulfur oxidation, 451–452 thiosulfate, 455–456 dissimilatory iron reduction anaerobic respiration, 306–308 bioenergetics, 314 defined, 304 electron transfer, 313 ferric compound solubility, 315–316 dissimilatory sulfate reduction, 459–460 divergence, oceanic currents, 60–62 divergent evolution, biosynthetic pathways and, 31 DNA/DNA hybridization, geomicrobial organism identification, 139–140 DNA fingerprinting, geomicrobial organism identification, 139 10/21/2008 11:48:25 AM 594 DNA microarray analysis, geomicrobial organism identification, 141 DNR/RNA hybridization, geomicrobial organism identification, 139 dubiofossils, classification of, 28–29 dystrophic lakes, fertility, 77 E Earth, structural features, 5–9 eddies, oceanic, 60–62 electron sink, ferric iron reduction, 314 electron transfer ferric iron reduction, 313 metal sulfide oxidation, 502–504 electron transport system (ETS), geomicrobial catalysts aerobic respiration, 94–97 energy generation, 102–103 insoluble inorganic substrates, 98–100 electrowinning, metal sulfide ores, bioleaching, 509–511 Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, geomicrobial fermentation, 100–101 enargite, geomicrobial interactions, 248–250 endolithic microbial activity, limestone biodegradation and, 180–183 energy coupling, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans iron oxidation, 292–293 entisols, classification of, 47 environment mercury-microbial interactions and, 272 mercury occurrence, 266–267 selenium reduction in, 531–532 environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), geomicrobial activity observations, 118–120 enzymatic activity Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, iron oxidation, 289–292 ferric iron reduction, 308–313 geomicrobial transformation, 134 iron microbial precipitation, 318–319 manganese oxidation, 352–353 metal sulfide oxidation, 502–504 organic-inorganic phosphorus conversion and phosphate synthesis, 220–221 selenium bioreduction, 529 epigenetic sulfur deposits, 472–475 epilimnion, in freshwater lakes, 74–76 erosion, water erosion of mineral soil, 43 eukaryotes calcium carbonate deposition, 168–171 geomicrobial agents basic properties, 89–90 metabolic activity, 110 iron function in, 280 in mineral soils, 48–49 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 26–27 silicon bioconcentration in, 195–198 euphotic zone, in seawater, 68 euryhaline microorganisms, oceanic distribution of, 71 eutrophic lakes fertility, 77 microbial distribution in, 77–78 CRC_7906_Index.indd 594 Index evolution de novo appearance, 16 early history, 15 evidence for, 28–31 iron monosulfide bubbles hypothesis, 19 of lakes, 77 organic soup theory, 16–18 early evolution and, 21–27 panspermia hypothesis, 15–16 precambrian evolution, biological/biochemical benchmarks, 20–27 summary of theories, 31–32 surface metabolism theory, 18–19 early evolution, 27 Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy), geomicrobial analysis, 151 extracellular microbial precipitation, calcium carbonates, 164–167 extracellular polysaccharide solubilization, silicon bioweathering, 202 F facultative organisms, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 25–27 fauna, oceanic, 57 fermentation bacterial ferric iron reduction and, 304–306 geomicrobial catalysts, 100–103 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 25–27 ferric iron bacterial respiration, 304–316 current status, 309–313 dissimilatory reduction bioenergetics, 314 dissimilatory reduction iron(III) reduction, 315–316 early history, 306–308 as electron sink, 314 electron transfer, 313 enzymatic reduction, metabolic evidence, 308–309 fermentation and reduction, 304–306 fungal reduction, 315 enzymatic oxidation, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, 289–292 microbial assimilation, 281–282 microbial precipitation, 318–320 nonenzymatic reduction, 317–318 ferromanganese deposits deep-sea sediments, 389–392 microbial activity in lakes and, 379–383 Ferromicrobium acidophilum, iron oxidation, 295 Ferroplasma acidarmus, iron oxidation, 296 Ferroplasma acidiphilum, iron oxidation, 296 ferrous carbonate, microbial formation of, 176–177 ferrous iron Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans geomicrobial activity, 282–292 oxidation energetics, 288–289 anaerobic oxidation, 302–304 enzymatic oxidation, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, 289–291 nonenzymatic oxidation, 316–317 reduction, 317–318 fertility, freshwater lakes, 77 10/21/2008 11:48:25 AM Index filamentous bacteria, early evolution and, 29–31 fission reactions, petroleum degradation, 561–562 fixation reactions, nitrogen, 238 flora, oceanic, 57 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), geomicrobial organism isolation, 146 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), geomicrobial organism identification, 140 magneto-FISH techniques, 144 microautoradiography and (FISH-MAR), 142–144 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-SIMS), geomicrobial organism identification, 143–144 fluorescence microscopy, geomicrobial activity observations, 118–120 fluorescent probes, geomicrobial activity observations, single-cell metabolite techniques, 144–145 fossil fuels basic properties, 537 coal, 552–555 basic properties, 552–553 microbial activity and formation of, 553–554 microbial desulfurization, 555 as microbial substrate, 554–555 methane, 537–550 aerobic methanotrophs, oxidation biochemistry, 548–549 bioenergetics, 544 carbon cycle and, 550 carbon fixation, 544–545 methanogenesis, 541–544 methanogens, 539–541 methanotrophic carbon assimilation, 549–551 microbial oxidation, 545–548 natural abundance, 537 peat, 550–552 basic properties, 550–551 microbial activity and formation of, 552 petroleum, 556–563 aerobic/anaerobic microbial degradation, 560–563 basic properties, 556 degradation and microbial activity, 559–560 microbial activity and formation of, 556–557 microbial-based prospecting, 563 migration in reservoir rock, 557–558 secondary/tertiary oil recovery, microbial activity, 558–559 shale oil and microbial activity, 563 sulfur removal, 559 summary of research, 564 fractionation by geomicrobial agents, 92 isotopic fractionation in situ geomicrobial activity, 125–126 sulfur, 451–452, 461–462 sulfur disproportionation, 451–452 free-living bacteria, sulfur interactions, 458 freshwater systems lakes, 73–78 evolution of, 77 fertility, 77 lake bottoms, 76–77 manganese oxidation in, 379–383 CRC_7906_Index.indd 595 595 microbial distribution in, 77–78 physical and chemical features of, 74–67 syngenetic sulfur deposition, 466–472 manganese deposition, 380–384 lakes, 379–383 microbial mobilization, 399 springs, 379 water distribution systems, 383–384 fungi aluminum weathering and, 210–213 arsenic oxidation, 250–251 coal formation, 553–555 enzymatic mercury methylation, 268 ferric iron reduction, 306, 315 limestone biodegradation, 180–183 manganese reactivity oxidation, 348–351 reduction, 351–352 in mineral soils, 48 oceanic, water column distribution of, 69–70 peat formation, 552 petroleum degradation, 560–563 selenium reduction, 531 silicon bioconcentration in, 195 sulfur reduction, 448 G gain-of-function strategy, geomicrobial analysis, 150–151 Gallionella ferruginea geomicrobiology and, iron oxidation, 298–300 Gaurdak sulfur deposit, 474 genetic techniques Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, iron oxidation, 287–288 geomicrobial analysis, 148–151 follow-up studies, 151–152 mercury transformation, 271–272 genomics geomicrobial activity observations, 146–147 methanogenesis carbon fixation, 544–545 geologic process, geomicrobial agent activity and, 92–93 geologic time scale, early evolution and, 20–27 geomicrobial activity aerobic methanotrophs carbon assimilation, 549–550 methane oxidation, 545–546, 548–549 agent classification, 89–90 aluminum, bauxite formation, 210–215 anaerobic methanotrophs, methane oxidation, 547–548 antimony mineralization, 257 oxidation, 256–257 arsenic aerobic oxidation, dissolved arsenic, 245–247 anaerobic oxidation, dissolved arsenic, 247 arsenite oxidation and arsenate in situ reduction, 254–256 mineral interactions, 247–250 oxidized reduction, 250–251 respiration, 251–254 catalytic activity, 93–108 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM 596 geomicrobial activity (contd.) aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentation, 101–103 aerobic respiration, 94–96 anabolic energy conversion, 105–108 anaerobic respiration, 96–98 carbon assimilation, 108 carbon dioxide assimilation and carbon conversion, 103 fermentation, 100–102 insoluble inorganic substrates, electron donors/ acceptors, 98–100 photosynthetic energy generation and reducing power, 103–105 chromium chromium(III) biooxidation, 422 chromium(VI) bioreduction, 422–426 lixiviant chromium mobilization, 422 in situ chromate reduction, 426–428 coal formation, 553–555 in deep subsurface soil, 50–51 evolution of, 1–3 geological processes and, 92–93 geomicrobiology and, 1–2 in groundwater, 80–81 inorganic conversions, hydrospheric and lithospheric, 91–92 iron acidophiles, 282 anaerobic oxidation, 302–304 appendaged bacteria, 298–302 assimilation, 280–282 bacterial energy source, 282–302 iron bacteria concept, 320–322 mesophilic archaea, 296 mesophilic bacteria, 282–295 neutrophilic oxidizers, 298 nonenzymatic oxidation, ferrous iron, 316–317 nonenzymatic reduction, ferric iron, 317–318 ore, soil, and sediment mobilization, 325–326 precipitation, 318–320 terminal electron acceptors, bacterial respiration, 304–316 thermophilic archaea, 296–298 thermophilic bacteria, 295–296 in lakes, 77–78 lithosphere deep surface, 50–51 mineral soil, 39–49 organic soils, 49–50 rock and minerals, 37–39 summary of properties, 51–52 mercury diphenylmercury formation, 269 environmental significance, 272 enzymatic methylation, 268 genetic control, 271–272 ion reduction, 269–270 meta-cinnabar formation, 270 metallic mercury oxidation, 270–271 nonenzymatic methylation, 267–268 organomercurial decomposition, 270 metabolic products, transformational properties of, 110 metal sulfide biooxidation, 498–504 CRC_7906_Index.indd 596 Index mineral soil formation, 39–40, 42–43 classification and distribution in, 47–49 molecular analysis bioinformatics, 151 community-based genomic techniques, 146–147 community-based isotope techniques, 145–146 culture-independent methods, 139–141 culturing techniques, 141 follow-up studies, 151–152 gene probes, metabolic genes and gene products, 147–148 genetic approaches, 148–151 mechanisms of, 147–152 metabolic activity, 141–147 organism identification, 139–141 research background, 139 single-cell isotopic techniques, 142–144 single-cell metabolite techniques, 144–145 molybdenum, 427–428 nitrogen, 233–239 ammonia oxidation, 234–235 ammonification, 233–234 anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), 236–237 denitrification, 237–238 fixation, 238–239 heterotrophic nitrification, 236 nitrification, 234 nitrite oxidation, 236 nitrogen cycle, 239–240 nonmolecular analysis aquatic sampling, 121–122 cultural isolation and characterization, 124–125 detection, isolation, and identification, 118–119 enzymatic vs nonenzymatic activity, 134 laboratory reconstruction of natural processes, 128–133 molecular biological techniques and, 120 ongoing activity, in situ study of, 126–128 past activity, in situ study of, 125–126 quantitative surface analysis, 133–134 reaction products, 134–135 research background, 117–118 sample storage, 122–124 sampling techniques, 120–125 in situ observation, 118–120 terrestrial surface/subsurface sampling, 121 oceanic temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and salinity effects, 70–71 in water column and sediments, 68–70 oceanic distribution, plankter characteristics, 72 organic mineralization, 108–110 peat formation, 552 petroleum degradation, 559–560 formation, 556–563 prospecting, 563 secondary/tertiary oil recovery, 558 phosphorus immobilization, 223–226 mineral solubilization, 222–223 oxidation reduction, 228–229 oxidized forms, 227–228 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM Index phosphorus cycle and, 229 physical parameters, 110–112 polonium interaction, 432 prokaryotes, 90–91 in rivers, 78–79 selenium oxidation, 528 shale oil and, 563 sulfide aerobic attack, 449–450 anaerobic attack, 450 heterotrophic/mixotrophic oxidation, 451 sulfur autotrophy, 464–465 elemental sulfur aerobic/anaerobic attack, 451 disproportionation, 451–452 reduction, 448 heterotrophy, 465 inorganic sulfur reduction, 456 mixotrophy, 465 reduced sulfur oxidizers, 442–446 sulfate reduction, 446–448 sulfite oxidation, 452–453 sulfite reduction, 448 tetrathionate oxidation, 456 summary of properties, 112 thiosulfate disproportionation, 455–456 oxidation, 453–454 uranium-microbial interaction, 429–431 Glomar Challenger exploration, plate tectonics and, gold-mercury voltammetry, in situ geomicrobial research, 128 Gondwana, plate tectonics and, gram-negative bacteria, manganese oxidation deep-sea sediments, 389–392 group bacterial oxidizers, 354–359 gram-positive bacteria manganese oxidation, group bacterial oxidizers, 354–359 selenium bioreduction, 529 gravitational water, mineral soil and, 43–45 great plate count anomaly, geomicrobial activity observations, 141 green sulfur bacteria carbonate deposition and, 159–160 methanogenesis carbon fixation, 544–545 photophosphorylation, 104–105 sulfur oxidation, 445–446 groundwaters basic properties of, 79–82 uranium pollution, bioremediation, 431–432 growth-limiting substrates, laboratory reconstruction of geomicrobial activity, 130–132 Gunflintia minuta fossil, 29 guyots, 58–59 gyrals, oceanic currents and, 59–62 H Hadean era, iron monosulfide bubbles and evolutionary theory, 19 CRC_7906_Index.indd 597 597 halophiles geomicrobial agents as, 90 selenium bioreduction, 529–530 hematite, geomicrobial activity and formation of, 213–214 heterotrophs Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, iron oxidation, 285 aqueous organic soup theory of evolution and, 18 carbon assimilation, 108 carbon dioxide assimilation-microautoradiography (HetCO2-MAR), 143–144 ferric iron respiration, 306–308 geomicrobial agents as, 90–91 metabolism and, 110 methanogens, 540–541 mineral soil formation, 40 nitrification, 236 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 22–27 sulfate-reducing bacteria, 465 sulfur-microbial interaction, 444–446 sulfate-reducing bacteria, 446–448 sulfide oxidation, 451 surface metabolism theory of evolution, 19 uranium mobilization, 512 histosols, classification of, 49–50 holozoic protozoa, in mineral soils, 48 horizons, mineral soil structure, 40–42 hot springs, groundwater formation and, 80 humus geomicrobial mineralization of, 109–110 mineral soil formation, 42 oceanic, water column distribution of, 69–70 hydrocarbons, petroleum formation and degradation, 556–563 hydrolysis, phosphorus biochemistry, 219 hydromagnesite, magnesium carbonate formation and, 177 hydrosphere freshwater lakes, 73–78 evolution of, 77 fertility, 77 lake bottoms, 76–77 microbial distribution in, 77–78 physical and chemical features of, 74–67 geomicrobial agents, 10–11 inorganic conversions in, 91–92 groundwaters, 79–82 oceans, 57–73 bacterial flora in, 72–73 current systems, 59–62 geomicrobial plankters, 72 microbial distribution, temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and salinity effects, 70–71 microbial distribution in water column and sediments, 68–70 physical attributes, 57–59 phytoplanketers and zooplankters in, 71–72 seawater chemical and physical properties, 62–68 phosphorus distribution in, 219 rivers, 78–79 summary of features, 82–83 hydrostatic pressure (HP) oceanic microbial distribution and, 70–71 seawater, 64 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM 598 hydrothermal solution biosphere and, 10–11 metal sulfides, 491–493 hydrothermal vents manganese oxidation, 392–396 sulfur consortia in, 458–459 hygroscopic water, mineral soil and, 43–45 hypolimnion, in freshwater lakes, 74–75 I igneous minerals, defined, 37 inceptisol, soil classification, 45 indigenous organisms, geomicrobial activity and, 118 indirect oxidation, metal sulfides, 503–504 inorganic conversions geomicrobial agents and, 91–92 selenium bioreduction, 528–529 sulfur oxidation, 456 inorganic substrates, geomicrobial respiration, catabolic reactions, 98–100 in situ research chromate reduction, 426–427 geomicrobial activity current techniques, 118–119 metagenomics, 147 nonmolecular techniques, 117–118 ongoing activity, 126–127 past activity research, 125–126 microbial metabolism, in deep subsurface soil, 51 seawater photosynthesis, 67–68 intracellular carbonate deposition, microbial activity and, 168–171 ion reduction, mercury ions, geomicrobial activity, 269–270 iron See also ferric iron; ferrous iron cellular function, 280 deposition aluminum weathering and, 210–214 geomicrobiology and, 2–3 putative sedimentary biogenic deposits, 322–325 geochemistry, 279–280 geomicrobial activity acidophiles, 282 anaerobic oxidation, 302–304 appendaged bacteria, 298–302 assimilation, 280–282 bacterial energy source, 282–302 iron bacteria concept, 320–322 mesophilic archaea, 296 mesophilic bacteria, 282–295 neutrophilic oxidizers, 298 nonenzymatic oxidation, ferrous iron, 316–317 nonenzymatic reduction, ferric iron, 317–318 ore, soil, and sediment mobilization, 325–326 precipitation, 318–320 terminal electron acceptors, bacterial respiration, 304–316 thermophilic archaea, 296–298 thermophilic bacteria, 295–296 global occurrence, 279 in ocean water, 19 iron bacteria concept, basic principles, 320–322 CRC_7906_Index.indd 598 Index iron cycle, geomicrobial activity, 326–327 iron monosulfide bubbles, evolutionary theory and, 19 isotope arrays, geomicrobial organism identification community techniques, 145–146 single isotope techniques, 143–144 isotopic fractionation geomicrobial activity, in situ analysis of, 125–126 sulfur, 461–462 sulfur disproportionation, 451–452 isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), geomicrobial organism isolation, 146 J juvenile water, groundwater formation and, 79 K Kara Kum sulfur deposit, 475 kerogen evolutionary theory and, 30–31 microbial activity and, 563 kinetics, bioleaching, 513 Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle, aerobic respiration, geomicrobial catalysts, 94–96 L laboratory studies geomicrobial activity nonmolecular techniques, 117–118 reconstruction of natural processes, 128–132 metal sulfides, 495–498 batch cultures, 495–496 column experiments, 497–498 laccase, manganese oxidation, 350–351 lacustrine carbonate crust, formation of, 167–168 lake bottoms, properties of, 76–77 Lake Eyre, sulfur deposition, 469 Lake Senoye, sulfur deposition, 469 lakes See freshwater lakes laterization, soil classification and, 47 Laurasia, plate tectonics and, Lebedev model of water distribution, 43–45 Leptospirillum ferrooxidans iron oxidation, 294 metal sulfide ores, 510–511 Leptothrixx bacteria, manganese oxidation, 357–359 Leptothrix ocfhracea, geomicrobiology and, lichens, aluminum weathering and, 210–213 ligand solubilization, silicon bioweathering, 198–200 limestone, biodegradation, 178–181 lithification defined, 37 geomicrobial agent activity and, 92–93 lithosphere carbon distribution in, 157–158 geomicrobial agents, inorganic conversions in, 91–92 geomicrobiology and, 10–11 microbial ecology deep surface, 50–51 mineral soil, 39–49 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM Index organic soils, 49–50 rock and minerals, 37–39 summary of properties, 51–52 lixiviant generation chromium-microbial interaction, 422 metal sulfide ores, bioleaching, 507–511 loss-of-function analysis, geomicrobial analysis, 148–151 lotic environment, rivers and, 78–79 M magma in lithosphere, 37 plate tectonics and, magnesium carbonate, microbial formation of, 177 magneto-FISH techniques, geomicrobial organism identification, 144 magnetotactic bacteria, basic properties, 320–322 manganese bioaccumulation, 372–375 biological function of, 348 biooxidation, 352–363 enzymatic oxidation, 352–353 group oxidizers, 354–359 group oxidizers, 359–362 group oxidizers, 362 nonenzymatic oxidation, 362–363 bioreduction, 363–372 anaerobic organisms, 364–365 combined aerobic/anaerobic organisms, 365–370 manganese(III) reduction, 370–371 nonenzymatic oxide reduction, 371–372 freshwater deposition, 380–384 lakes, 379–383 microbial mobilization, 399 springs, 379 water distribution systems, 383–384 geochemistry of, 347–348 geomicrobial activity organic matter reduction and mineralization, 401–402 oxidizing bacteria and fungi, 348–351 reducing bacteria and fungi, 351–352 global occurrence, 347 marine deposition, 384–398 bays, estuaries, inlets, 385–386 hydrothermal vents, 392–396 microbial mobilization, 400–401 mixed ocean layers, 386–387 ocean floor, 387–392 seawater column precipitation, 396–397 ore deposition, 378–379 microbial mobilization, 398–399 oxidation, in situ geomicrobial research, 127–128 rock deposition, 377–378 soil deposition, 375–377 microbial mobilization, 397–398 manganese cycle, 402–405 manganese reactivity, group I oxidizers, 354–359 manganous carbonate, microbial formation, 174, 176 mantle (Earth), marine deposition CRC_7906_Index.indd 599 599 manganese, 384–398 aerobic/anaerobic reduction, 365–370 bays, estuaries, inlets, 385–386 hydrothermal vents, 392–396 microbial mobilization, 400–401 mixed ocean layers, 386–387 ocean floor, 387–392 seawater column precipitation, 396–397 sulfur consortia, 458–459 marine humus, geomicrobial mineralization of, 109–110 mecuric ions, microbial reduction of, 269–270 meddies, oceanic currents, 60–62 mercury anthropogenic compounds, 266 environmental distribution, 266–267 geomicrobial activity diphenylmercury formation, 269 environmental significance, 272 enzymatic methylation, 268 genetic control, 271–272 ion reduction, 269–270 meta-cinnabar formation, 270 metallic mercury oxidation, 270–271 nonenzymatic methylation, 267–268 organomercurial decomposition, 270 global occurrence, 265–266 mercury cycle, 272–273 meromictic lakes, defined, 74 mesophiles Archaea iron oxidation, 296 bacterial iron oxidation, 282–295 Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, 282–294 Ferromicrobium acidophilum, 295 Leptospirilum ferrooxidans, 294 Metallogenium, 295 sheathed encapsulated and wall-less iron bacteria, 301–302 strain CCH7, 295 Thiobacillus propserus, 294 oceanic distribution of, 70–71 temperature range for, 111 mesotrophic lakes, fertility, 77 metabolic potential, microbial metabolism, in deep subsurface soil, 51 metabolite analysis, geomicrobial activity observations, single-cell techniques, 144–145 meta-cinnabar formation, cyanobacteria-mercury interaction, 270 metagenomics, geomicrobial activity observations, 146–147 Metallogenium iron oxidation, 295 manganese oxidation, 377 metal mercury, oxidation of, 270–271 metal sulfides acid coal mine drainage, 514–517 batch cultures, 495–496 biogenic origin, 493–498 bioleaching kinetics, 513 biooxidation, 498–499 column experiments, 497–498 direct oxidation, 499–503 formation mechanisms, 494–495 future research, 517–518 heterotrophic uranium mobilization, 512 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM 600 metal sulfides (contd.) hydrothermal origin, 491–493 indirect oxidation, 503–504 ores, bioextraction, 513–514 ores, bioleaching, 507–511 pyrite oxidation, 504–506 uraninite leaching, 511–512 metamorphic rock, in lithosphere, 37 methane, 537–550 aerobic methanotrophs, oxidation biochemistry, 548–549 bioenergetics, 544 carbon cycle and, 550 carbon fixation, 544–545 methanogenesis, 541–544 methanogens, 539–541 methanotrophic carbon assimilation, 549–551 microbial oxidation, 545–548 methane cycle, 550–551 methanogens bioenergetics of methanogenesis, 544 carbon assimilation, 541–544 electron transport system in, 102–103 geomicrobial agents as, 90 methanotrophs aerobic carbon assimilation, 549–550 methane oxidation, 545–546, 548–549 anaerobic, methane oxidation, 547–548 microautoradiography (MAR), geomicrobial organism identification fluorescence in situ hybridization and (FISH-MAR), 142–144 heterotrophic carbon dioxide assimilationmicroautoradiography (HetCO2-MAR), 143–144 microbial ecology, defined, microbial habitat biosphere properties, 10–11 geologic features, 5–9 microbial precipitation, iron, 318–320 microfluidic digital PCR, geomicrobial organism identification, 144 microfossils criteria for, 28 early evolution and, 28–31 mineralization geomicrobial agents for, 108–110 manganese, in organic matter, 401–402 methanogens, 540–541 organic sulfur compounds, 440–441 minerals arsenic-geomicrobial interactions, 247–250 classification by formation, 37, 39 defined, 37 iron-containing minerals, 279–280 microbial mobilization, 325–326 in lithosphere, 37–39 phosphates, geomicrobial solubilization, 222–223 in seawater, 63–68 mineral soil classification of, 45–47 deep subsurface, 50–51 microbial distribution and classification in, 47–49 CRC_7906_Index.indd 600 Index microbial effects on evolution, 42 nutrient availability in, 44–45 organic soils, 49–50 origins of, 30–40 plants and animals and evolution of, 42 structural properties, 40–41 water and erosion of, 43 water distribution in, 43–45 mitochondria, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 26–27 mixed layer (ocean) manganese deposition in, 386–387 seawater temperature and, 65–66 mixotrophs Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, iron oxidation, 285 carbon assimilation, 108 geomicrobial agents as, 90–91 sulfate-reducing bacteria, 465 sulfur interactions free-living bacteria, 458 sulfide oxidation, 451 Mohorovicic discontinuity, molecular analysis, geomicrobial activity bioinformatics, 151 community-based genomic techniques, 146–147 community-based isotope techniques, 145–146 culture-independent methods, 139–141 culturing techniques, 141 follow-up studies, 151–152 gene probes, metabolic genes and gene products, 147–148 genetic approaches, 148–151 mechanisms of, 147–152 metabolic activity, 141–147 organism identification, 139–141 research background, 139 single-cell isotopic techniques, 142–144 single-cell metabolite techniques, 144–145 molecular biology evolutionary theory and, 30–31 geomicrobial activity observations, 120 mollisols, classification of, 45–46 molybdenum microbial oxidation and reduction, 427–428 occurrence and properties, 427 monomictic lakes, defined, 74 mountains, submarine ocean ranges, 58–59 multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS), geomicrobial organism identification, 143–144 mutagenesis, geomicrobial analysis, 148–151 N natron, sodium carbonate deposition and, 174–175 neutrophilic oxidizers, iron oxidation, 298 nitrate inhibition, ferric iron reduction, 309 nitrification geomicrobial activity and, 235 heterotrophic, 236 nitrite, oxidation, 236 nitrogen biosphere distribution of, 233–234 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM Index geomicrobial activity, 233–239 ammonia oxidation, 234–235 ammonification, 233–234 anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), 236–237 denitrification, 237–238 fixation, 238–239 heterotrophic nitrification, 236 nitrification, 234 nitrite oxidation, 236 oxidation, calcium carbonate precipitation, 165 nitrogen cycle, geomicrobial activity, 239–240 nonenzymatic geomicrobial transformation, 134 ferric iron reduction, 317–318 ferrous iron oxidation, 316–317 iron microbial precipitation, 319 manganese oxidation, 362–363 manganese reduction, 371–372 mercury methylation, 267–268 nonfossils, classification of, 28 nonmolecular analysis, geomicrobial activity aquatic sampling, 121–122 cultural isolation and characterization, 124–125 detection, isolation, and identification, 118–119 enzymatic vs nonenzymatic activity, 134 laboratory reconstruction of natural processes, 128–133 molecular biological techniques and, 120 ongoing activity, in situ study of, 126–128 past activity, in situ study of, 125–126 quantitative surface analysis, 133–134 reaction products, 134–135 research background, 117–118 sample storage, 122–124 sampling techniques, 120–125 in situ observation, 118–120 terrestrial surface/subsurface sampling, 121 nonphotosynthetic organisms, oceanic distribution, 69 nucleotide sequencing, geomicrobial organism identification, 140 nutrients, in mineral soil, 44 O ocean basin, topography of, 58–59 oceans, 57–73 bacterial flora in, 72–73 continental shelf, 57 current systems, 59–62 geomicrobial plankters, 72 manganese deposition in, 384–398 aerobic/anaerobic reduction, 365–370 bays, estuaries, inlets, 385–386 hydrothermal vents, 392–396 microbial mobilization, 400–401 mixed ocean layers, 386–387 ocean floor, 387–392 seawater column precipitation, 396–397 metal sulfides, crustal distribution, 492–493 microbial distribution temperature, hydrostatic pressure and salinity effects, 70–71 in water column and sediments, 68–70 physical attributes, 57–59 phytoplanketers and zooplankters in, 71–72 CRC_7906_Index.indd 601 601 seawater chemical and physical properties, 62–68 trenches, 57 oligomictic lakes, defined, 74 oligotrophic lakes, fertility, 77 oolite formation, carbonate deposition model, 168 ore deposits iron mobilization, 325–326 manganese, 378–379 lake depositions, 379–383 microbial mobilization, 397–398 metal sulfide ores bioleaching, 507–511 complexation-based extraction, 513–514 uraninite ore, bioleaching, 511–512 organic geochemistry, evolutionary theory and, 30–31 organic matter manganese reduction and mineralization, 401–402 microbial mineralization of, 108–110 organic soils, classification of, 49–50 organic soup theory evolution and, 16–18 Precambrian era evolution, 21–27 organomercurials, geomicrobial decomposition, 270 orogeny, plate tectonics and, 7–8 osmotic pressure, seawater, 65 osmotic water potential, mineral soil and, 44–45 oxidation ammonia, 235–236 anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), 236–237 antimony, compound oxidation, 256–257 arsenic aerobic oxidation, dissolved arsenic, 245–247 microbial reduction of, 250–251 calcium carbonate precipitation, 164–165 chromium, 422 geomicrobial catalysts, 94–97 iron enzymatic activity, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, 289–292 ferrous iron, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans energetics, 288–289 ferrous iron, nonenzymatic oxidation, 316–317 manganese, 352–363 enzymatic oxidation, 352–353 group oxidizers, 354–359 group oxidizers, 359–362 group oxidizers, 362 nonenzymatic oxidation, 362–363 metallic mercury, 270–271 metal sulfides, 498–504 direct oxidation, 499–503 indirect oxidation, 503–504 microbial organisms and biooxidation, 498–499 pyrite oxidation, 504–507 methane aerobic methanotrophs, 545–546, 548–549 anaerobic methanotrophs, 547–548 molybdenum, 427–428 nitrite, 236 phosphorus, geomicrobial reduction of, 227–228 selenium, 528 sulfur-microbial interaction elemental sulfur, 451–452 inorganic sulfur compounds, domain bacteria, 456 10/21/2008 11:48:26 AM 602 oxidation (contd.) reduced sulfur oxidizers, 442–446 sulfides, 449–451 sulfites, 452–453 tetrathionates, 456 thiosulfate, 453–456 tellurium, reduced compounds, 532 uranium(IV)-microbial interaction, 429–430 vanadium-microbial interaction, 428–429 oxidative phosphorylation aerobic respiration, geomicrobial catalysts, 94–96 phosphorus assimilation, 221–222 oxisols, classification of, 45–46 oxygen seawater chemistry and, 66–67 tolerance, sulfate-reducing bacteria, 464 oxygenic photosynthesis, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 24–27 ozone formation, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 26–27 P Pangaea, plate tectonics and, panspermia hypothesis, evolution and, 15–16 peat, 550–552 basic properties, 550–551 microbial activity and formation of, 552 pellicular water, mineral soil and, 44 perched aquifer, defined, 80 percolation columns, reconstruction of natural geomicrobial activity, 128–132 petroleum, 556–563 aerobic/anaerobic microbial degradation, 560–563 basic properties, 556 degradation and microbial activity, 559–560 microbial activity and formation of, 556–557 microbial-based prospecting, 563 migration in reservoir rock, 557–558 secondary/tertiary oil recovery, microbial activity, 558–559 shale oil and microbial activity, 563 sulfur removal, 559 phosphates deposition of, 226–227 geomicrobial activity immobilization, 223–226 solubilization, 222–223 organic-inorganic phosphorus conversion and synthesis of, 220 phosphate-silicate exchange, bacterial activity and, 193–195 phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles community-based isotope techniques, 145–146 geomicrobial organism identification, 139–140 phosphorite authigenic formation, 224–226 deposition, 223–224 diagenetic formation, 226–227 occurrences of, 226 polonium in, 432 phosphorus assimilation of, 221–222 biological importance of, 219 CRC_7906_Index.indd 602 Index deposits of, 226 geomicrobial activity immobilization, 223–226 mineral solubilization, 222–223 oxidation reduction, 228–229 oxidized forms, 227–228 phosphorus cycle and, 229 global occurrence, 219 organic-inorganic conversion of, 220–221 phosphate mineral deposition, 226–227 phosphorus cycle, geomicrobial role in, 229 phosphorylation, phosphorus assimilation, 221–222 photoheterotrophs carbon assimilation, 108 geomicrobial agents as, 90–91 photolithoautotrophy anabolism and, 105–108 geomicrobial agents, 90–91 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 23 photophosphorylation, energy generation and power reduction, 103–104 photosynthesis autotrophs, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 23 ferrous iron oxidation, 317 geomicrobial agents, energy generation and power reduction, 103–105 seawater, 67–68 photosynthetic autotrophy, sulfur carbon dioxide fixation, 457–458 phototrophic oxidation, ferrous iron, 302–303 pH profile ferric compound solubility, 315–316 geomicrobial agents, 111 seawater, 64–65 phytoplankton in lakes, 77–78 oceanic distribution dominant phytoplankters, 71–72 seawater chemistry and, 67–68 in water column and sediments, 68–70 pistolites, geomicrobial activity and formation of, 212–214 plankton oceanic, 57 geomicrobial plankters, 72 petroleum formation and, 556–563 in rivers, 79 plants coal formation and, 553–554 mineral soil formation and, 42 selenium and tellurium in, 527 plate tectonics, Earth’s crust and, 5–6 polonium, bacterial interaction with, 432 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), geomicrobial organism identification, 140–141 metabolic gene probing, 147 microfluidic digital PCR, 144 polymictic lakes, defined, 74 polysilicate depolymerization, silicon bioweathering, 202 polythionates, geochemistry, 439–440 Precambrian era evolution during, 20–27 microfossils from, 28–31 milestones of evolution in, 31–32 10/21/2008 11:48:27 AM Index precipitation, microbial iron, 318–320 manganese lake deposits, 382–383 manganese seawater column precipitation, 396–397 primary minerals, defined, 37 primary producers, autotrophs as, 23 prokaryotes calcium carbonate deposition, 169–171 geomicrobial agents basic properties, 89–90 metabolic activity, 110 physiological properties, 90–91 iron function in, 280 in mineral soils, classification and distribution, 47–49 oceanic distribution of, 71 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 22–27 vanadium occurrence in, 428 protein synthesis, oceanic microbial distribution and, 71 Proteus mirabilis, silicon bioconcentration in, 193–195 proton motive force (PMF) geomicrobial catalysts, energy generation, 102–103 manganese oxidation, group bacterial oxidizers, 354–359 protozoa, in mineral soils, 48 Pseudomonas bacteria chromium(VI) bioreduction, 423–426 manganese oxidation, 354–359 psychrophiles oceanic distribution of, 70–71 temperature range for, 111 psychrotrophs, temperature range for, 111 purple sulfur bacteria, photophosphorylation, 105 pyrite oxidation coal desulfurization, 555 metal sulfides, 504–507 pyruvates, methanogenesis and, 542–544 Q quantitative analysis geomicrobial organism identification, metabolic gene probing, 147 geomicrobial surface growth, 132–134 R radioisotopes, in situ geomicrobial research, 126–128 radiolarian oozes, defined, 59 reaction products, geomicrobial activity, 134–135 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), geomicrobial organism identification, metabolic gene probing, 147 redox reactions antimony minerals, 257 phosphorus, geomicrobial reduction of, 227–228 reduction aluminum, iron reduction in bauxites, 214 arsenic arsenite oxidation and arsenate in situ reduction, 254–256 oxidized reduction, 250–251 chromium(VI), 422–426 CRC_7906_Index.indd 603 603 dissimilatory iron reduction anaerobic respiration, 306–308 bioenergetics, 314 defined, 304 electron transfer, 313 ferric compound solubility, 315–316 ferric iron respiration dissimilatory reduction bioenergetics, 314 dissimilatory reduction iron(III) reduction, 315–316 enzymatic reduction, metabolic evidence, 308–309 fermentation and reduction, 304–306 fungal reduction, 315 manganese, 363–372 anaerobic organisms, 364–365 combined aerobic/anaerobic organisms, 365–370 manganese(III) reduction, 370–372 nonenzymatic oxide reduction, 371–372 organic matter, 401–402 molybdenum, 427–428 phosphorus, 228–229 photosynthetic microbes, energy generation and power reduction, 103–105 selenium, oxidized compounds, 528–530 sulfate-reducing bacteria, calcium sulfate, 165–166 sulfur-microbial activity elemental sulfur, 462–463 thiosulfate, 463 tellurium oxidation, 533 uranium(IV)-microbial interaction, 430–431 respiration, bacterial arsenic, 251–254 ferric iron respiration, 304–316 current status, 309–313 dissimilatory reduction bioenergetics, 314 dissimilatory reduction iron(III) reduction, 315–316 early history, 306–308 as electron sink, 314 electron transfer, 313 enzymatic reduction, metabolic evidence, 308–309 fermentation and reduction, 304–306 fungal reduction, 315 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 25–27 reverse electron transport, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans iron oxidation, 293 Rhodophyta, in seawater, 68 ribozymes, aqueous organic soup theory of evolution and, 17 ring currents, oceanic, 59–62 rivers, basic properties of, 78–79 RNA aqueous organic soup theory and, 17 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 22–27 rock in lithosphere, 37–39 manganese deposition, 377–378 molybdenum occurrence in, 427 petroleum reservoir formation in, 557–558 uranium occurrence in, 429 vanadium occurrence in, 428 rock weathering aluminum-geomicrobial activity and, 210–212 bauxite formation and, 210 geomicrobial agent activity and, 92–93 limestone biodegradation, 178–180 mineral soil formation, 39–40 10/21/2008 11:48:27 AM 604 S salinity oceanic microbial distribution and, 70–71 seawater, 62–68 salt domes, sulfur deposits and, 472–474 salvaging action, surface metabolism theory of evolution, 18–19 sampling, geomicrobial activity observations, 120–125 aquatic sampling, 121–122 culture isolation and characterization, 124–125 storage techniques, 122–124 terrestrial surface/subsurface sampling, 121 saprozoic protozoa, in mineral soils, 48 scanning electron microscopy, geomicrobial activity observations, 118–120 seamounts, 58–59 seawater chemical and physical properties, 62–68 columns manganese precipitation in, 396–397 microbial distribution in, 68–70 density, oceanic currents and, 59–62 iron assimilation in, 281–282 manganese oxidation in, 384–385 uranium occurrence in, 429 secondary ion mass spectrometry, geomicrobial organism identification, fluorescence in situ hybridization-secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-SIMS), 143–144 secondary minerals, defined, 37 sedimentary rock iron deposits, 322–325 in lithosphere, 37 sediments geomicrobial agent activity and accumulation of, 93 metal sulfides, biogenic distribution, 493–494 microbial iron mobilization, 325–326 mineral soil formation, 40 oceanic, 59 manganese deposition, 387–392 water column distribution of, 69–70 selenate bioreduction, 528–530 reduction products of, 530–531 selenite bioreduction, 528–530 reduction products of, 530–531 selenium biological importance, 527 environmentally-based reduction, 531–532 global occurrence, 527 oxidation, reduced compounds, 528 reduction of oxidized compounds, 528–530 selenate/selenite products, 530–531 summary of properties, 533 toxicity, 528 selenium cycle, 532 self-reproduction evolutionary theory and role of, 17–19 organic soup evolutionary theory and, 21–27 shale oil, microbial activity and, 563 sheathed encapsulated bacteria, iron oxidation, 301–302 Shor-Su sulfur deposit, 474–475 CRC_7906_Index.indd 604 Index Sicilian sulfur deposits, 472 siderite, ferrous carbonate deposition, 176–177 siderophores, assimilation mechanisms of, 281–282 silica cycle aluminum weathering and, 210–213 microbial activity, 202–203 silica deposition vesicles (SDVs), diatomic silicon bioconcentration and, 198 silicates bioweathering constituents, 198–202 diatomic silicon bioconcentration and, 197–198 distribution and chemical properties, 191–192 silicon bacterial bioconcentration, 193–195 biological properties and compounds, 192–193 bioweathering and silicate constituents, 198–202 acid solubilization, 200–201 alkali solubilization, 201–202 extracellular polysaccharide solubilization, 202 ligand solubilization, 198–200 polysilicate depolymerization, 202 diatomic bioconcentration, 195–198 distribution and chemical properties, 191–192 fungal bioconcentration, 195 geomicrobial-bauxite interactions and, 214–215 microbial interaction and silica cycle, 202–203 siloxane linkages, in silicates, 191–192 single-cell techniques, geomicrobial activity observations isotopic techniques, 142–144 metabolite analysis, 144–145 site-directed mutagenesis, geomicrobial analysis, 149–151 skeletal formation models, calcium carbonate deposition, 171–173 smectites, geomicrobial activity and formation of, 213–214 sodium carbonate, microbial formation, 173–175 soils iron mobilization, 325–326 manganese deposition, 375–377 microbial mobilization, 396–397 mineral soil classification of, 45–47 deep subsurface, 50–51 microbial distribution and classification in, 47–49 microbial effects on evolution, 42 nutrient availability in, 44–45 organic soils, 49–50 origins of, 30–40 plants and animals and evolution of, 42 structural properties, 40–41 structure, 40–42 water and erosion of, 43 water distribution in, 43–45 Solar Lake, sulfur deposition, 470 solubilization, metal sulfide formation, 494–495 solvent extraction, metal sulfide ores, bioleaching, 509–511 spodosols, classification of, 45–46 spooling wire microcombustion (SWIM), geomicrobial organism isolation, 146 springs groundwater formation and, 80 manganese oxidation in, 379 sulfur deposition, 470–472 10/21/2008 11:48:27 AM Index 16S ribosomal RNA analysis, geomicrobial organism identification, 139–141 microfluidic digital PCR, 144 stable isotope probing (SIP), geomicrobial organism identification community techniques, 145 single isotope techniques, 143–144 stenohaline microorganisms, oceanic distribution, 71 stoichiometry bacterial oxygen uptake, arsenic oxidation, 245–246 methanogenesis and, 542–544 strata, mineral soil structure, 40–42 strengite, geomicrobial activity and deposition of, 226–227 stromatolites, organic soup evolutionary theory and, 22–27 strontium carbonate, microbial formation of, 177 structural carbon deposition, microbial activity and, 168–171 substrate phosphorylation aerobic respiration, geomicrobial catalysts, 94–96 coal formation, 554–555 sulfate-reducing bacteria arsenic respiration, 251–254 autotrophs, 446–448, 464–465 calcium sulfate reduction and, 165–166 dissimilatory sulfate reduction, 459–460 enzymatic mercury methylation, 268 ferrous carbonate deposition, 176–177 heterotrophs, 465 iron oxidation, enzymatic oxidation, Acidithiobacillus (Thiobacillus) ferrooxidans, 289–292 mixotrophs, 465 oxygen tolerance, 464 sodium carbonate deposition and, 174 structure and properties, 446–448 sulfur isotope fractionation, 461–462 sulfide-bearing hydrothermal solution, iron monosulfide bubbles and evolutionary theory, 19 sulfides aerobic attack, 449–450 anaerobic attack, 450 heterotrophic/mixotrophic oxidation, 451 metal sulfides acid coal mine drainage, 514–517 batch cultures, 495–496 biogenic origin, 493–498 bioleaching kinetics, 513 biooxidation, 498–499 column experiments, 497–498 direct oxidation, 499–503 formation mechanisms, 494–495 future research, 517–518 heterotrophic uranium mobilization, 512 hydrothermal origin, 491–493 indirect oxidation, 503–504 ores, bioextraction, 513–514 ores, bioleaching, 507–511 pyrite oxidation, 504–506 uraninite leaching, 511–512 sulfites, bacterial reduction of, 448 Sulfobacillus acidophilus, iron oxidation, 296 Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, iron oxidation, 295 Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, iron oxidation, 298 sulfur anaerobic respiration, 459–464 CRC_7906_Index.indd 605 605 dissimilatory sulfate reduction, 459–460 elemental sulfur reduction, 462–463 isotope fractionation, 461–462 oxidized sulfur reduction, 459 sulfate-reducers, oxygen tolerance, 464 terminal electron acceptors, 463–464 thiosulfate reduction, 463 assimilation, 441–442 autotrophic growth carbon dioxide fixation, 457–458 energy coupling in oxidation, 456–457 biological importance, 440 coal desulfurization, 555 consortia communities, 458–459 epigenetic deposits, 472–475 Gaurdak sulfur deposit, 474 Kara Kum sulfur deposit, 475 salt domes, 472–474 Shor-Su sulfur deposit, 474–475 Sicilian sulfur deposits, 472 geochemistry, 439–440 geomicrobial interactions autotrophy, 464–465 elemental sulfur aerobic/anaerobic attack, 451 elemental sulfur disproportionation, 451–452 elemental sulfur reduction, 448 heterotrophy, 465 inorganic sulfur reduction, 456 mixotrophy, 465 reduced sulfur oxidizers, 442–446 sulfate reduction, 446–448 sulfide aerobic attack, 449–450 sulfide anaerobic attack, 450 sulfide heterotrophic/mixotrophic oxidation, 451 sulfite oxidation, 452–453 sulfite reduction, 448 tetrathionate oxidation, 456 thiosulfate disproportionation, 455–456 thiosulfate oxidation, 453–454 lake depositions, 466–472 Cyrenaican lakes, 466–468 Lake Eyre, 469–470 Lake Senoye, 469 Solar Lake, 470 thermal lakes and springs, 470–472 mineralization, 440–441 mixotrophic growth, free-living bacteria, 458 native sulfur biodeposition, 466 occurrence of, 439 removal in petroleum, 559 synthetic deposition, 466–472 sulfur cycle, geomicrobial interaction, 475–476 surface metabolism theory of evolution, 18–19 early evolution scenario, 27 synergism, geomicrobial activity and, 118 syngenetic sulfur deposition, 466–472 T tar sands, microbial activity and, 563 tavertine carbonate crust, formation of, 167–168 tellurium biological importance, 527 10/21/2008 11:48:27 AM 606 tellurium (contd.) global occurrence, 527 oxidation, reduced compounds, 532 reduction of oxidized compounds, 533 summary of properties, 533 toxicity, 528 temperature in freshwater lakes, 74–75 geomicrobial agents and, 110–111 oceanic microbial distribution and, 70–71 rivers, 78–79 seawater, 65–66 terminal electron acceptors, anaerobic respiration dissimilatory sulfate reduction, 459–460 elemental sulfur reduction, 462–463 ferric iron reduction, 309–313 sulfate reduction and oxygen tolerance, 464 sulfur isotope fractionation, 461–462 sulfur oxidation, reduction, 459 terminal electron acceptors, sulfur interactions, 463–464 thiosulfate reduction, 463 terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP), geomicrobial organism identification, 140–141 terrestrial surface/subsurface sampling, geomicrobial activity observations, 121 tetrathionate oxidation, 456 Thauera selenatis, selenium bioreduction, 529 thermal lakes, sulfur deposition, 470 thermoacidophiles, geomicrobial agents as, 90 thermocline in freshwater lakes, 74–76 seawater temperature and, 65–66 thermophiles iron oxidation Archaea, 296–298 bacteria, 295–296 sulfur-microbial interaction, 443–446 temperature range for, 111 Thiobacillacae, sulfur-microbial interaction, 442–446 Thiobacillus prosperus, iron oxidation, 294 thiosulfate disproportionation, 455 microbial oxidation, 453–454 reduction, 463 tidal movement, oceanic currents and, 59–62 toxicity arsenic, 244 selenium and tellurium, 528 transmission electron microscopy (TEM), geomicrobial activity observations, 118–120 transposons, geomicrobial analysis, genetic techniques, 148–151 trenches, oceanic, 57 tundra soil, classification, 45 CRC_7906_Index.indd 606 Index turbidity currents, oceanic canyon formation, 57–58 turnover, in freshwater lakes, 74–76 U unconfined aquifer, defined, 80 unicellular bacteria, iron oxidation, 298 upwelling, oceanic currents, 60–62 uraninite ore, bioleaching, 511–512 uranium heterotrophic mobilization, 512 microbial bioremediation of uranium pollution, 431–432 occurrence and properties, 429 uranium(IV) oxidation, 429–430 uranium(IV) reduction, 430–431 urea hydrolysis ammonification and, 234 ammonium carbonate formation and, 166–167 V vadose zone, groundwater formation and, 79–80 vanadium, microbial interactions, 428–429 variscite, geomicrobial activity and deposition of, 226–227 vivianite, geomicrobial activity and deposition of, 226–227 W wall-less iron bacteria, iron oxidation, 301–302 warm monomictic lakes, defined, 74 washout rates, reconstruction of natural geomicrobial activity, 131–132 water distribution in mineral soil, 43–45 manganese oxidation in water distribution systems, 383–384 mineral soil erosion, 43 water activity, mineral soil and, 44 water potential, mineral soil and, 44 watershed, formation of, 73 water table, groundwater formation and, 80 weathering, silicon biomobilization, 198–200 white smokers, manganese oxidation, 393–396 Wickert-Gutenberg discontinuity, wind, oceanic currents and, 59–62 Z zooplankton, oceanic distribution, 71–72 10/21/2008 11:48:27 AM ... CRC_7906_Ch001.indd 11/5/2008 5:11:45 PM Geomicrobiology Geomicrobiology Biogeochemistry Microbial ecology Microbial biogeochemistry FIGURE 1.1 Interrelationships between geomicrobiology, microbial ecology,... Ehrlich, Henry Lutz, 192 5Geomicrobiology / Henry Lutz Ehrlich 5th ed / and Dianne K Newman p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-8493-7906-2 (alk paper) Geomicrobiology I Newman,... of Geomicrobiology timely Henry Lutz Ehrlich, author of the earlier four editions, has been joined by Dianne K Newman for this fifth edition to lend her expertise in the area of molecular geomicrobiology
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Xem thêm: Geomicrobiology Ebook, Geomicrobiology Ebook, Chapter 2. Earth as a Microbial Habitat, Chapter 3. Origin of Life and Its Early History, Chapter 4. Lithosphere as Microbial Habitat, Chapter 5. The Hydrosphere as Microbial Habitat, Chapter 6. Geomicrobial Processes: Physiological and Biochemical Overview, Chapter 7. Nonmolecular Methods in Geomicrobiology, Chapter 8. Molecular Methods in Geomicrobiology, Chapter 9. Microbial Formation and Degradation of Carbonates, Chapter 10. Geomicrobial Interactions with Silicon, Chapter 11. Geomicrobiology of Aluminum: Microbes and Bauxite, Chapter 12. Geomicrobial Interactions with Phosphorus, Chapter 13. Geomicrobially Important Interactions with Nitrogen, Chapter 14. Geomicrobial Interactions with Arsenic and Antimony, Chapter 18. Geomicrobial Interactions with Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Uranium, Polonium, and Plutonium, Chapter 20. Biogenesis and Biodegradation of Sulfide Minerals at Earth's Surface, Chapter 21. Geomicrobiology of Selenium and Tellurium, Chapter 22. Geomicrobiology of Fossil Fuels

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