Advances in agronomy volume 83

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VOLUME 83 Advisory Board John S Boyer University of Delaware Paul M Bertsch University of Georgia Ronald L Phillips University of Minnesota Kate M Scow University of California, Davis Larry P Wilding Texas A&M University Emeritus Advisory Board Members Kenneth J Frey Iowa State University Eugene J Kamprath North Carolina State University Martin Alexander Cornell University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee Diane E Stott, Chair Lisa K Al-Almoodi David D Baltensperger Warren A Dick Jerry L Hatfield John L Kovar David M Kral Jennifer W MacAdam Matthew J Morra Gary A Pederson John E Rechcigl Diane H Rickerl Wayne F Robarge Richard Shibles Jeffrey Volenec Richard E Zartman Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Amsterdam · Boston · Heidelberg · London · New York · Oxford · Paris · San Diego San Francisco · Singapore · Sydney · Tokyo ELSEVIER B.V Sara Burgerhartstraat 25 P.O Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands ELSEVIER Inc 525 B Street Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101-4495, USA ELSEVIER Ltd The Boulevard Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK ELSEVIER Ltd 84 Theobalds Road London WC1X 8RR UK q 2004 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved This work is protected under copyright by Elsevier Inc., and the following terms and conditions apply to its use: Photocopying Single photocopies of single chapters may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws Permission of the Publisher and payment of a fee is required for all other photocopying, including multiple or systematic copying, copying for advertising or promotional purposes, resale, and all forms of document delivery Special rates are available for educational institutions that wish to make photocopies for non-profit educational classroom use Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com Requests may also be completed on-line via the Elsevier homepage (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions) In the USA, users may clear permissions and make payments through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; phone: (+1) (978) 7508400, fax: (+1) (978) 7504744, and in the UK through the Copyright Licensing Agency Rapid Clearance Service (CLARCS), 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP, UK; phone: (+44) 20 7631 5555; fax: (+44) 20 7631 5500 Other countries may have a local reprographic rights agency for payments Derivative Works Tables of contents may be reproduced for internal circulation, but permission of the Publisher is required for external resale or distribution of such material Permission of the Publisher is required for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations Electronic Storage or Usage Permission of the Publisher is required to store or use electronically any material contained in this work, including any chapter or part of a chapter Except as outlined above, no part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Publisher Address permissions requests to: Elsevier’s Rights Department, at the fax and e-mail addresses noted above Notice No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made First edition 2004 ISBN: 0-12-000781-9 ISSN: 0065-2113 (Series) The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper) W Printed in Great Britain Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi EFFECTS OF FUMIGANTS ON NON -TARGET ORGANISMS IN SOILS A Mark Ibekwe I Introduction II Mode of Action III Effects on Biological Processes A Enzyme Activities B Substrate-Induced Respiration C Nitrogen Transformation IV Effect on Microbial Activities and Composition A Changes in Community-Level Carbon Source Utilization by Biolog B Changes in Microbial Biomass C Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure and Composition D Analysis of Soil Microbial Community Structure by Molecular Techniques V Impact of Recommended Fumigants on Soil Microbial Communities and Agricultural Practices A Methyl Bromide B Methyl Isothiocyanate C 1,3-Dichloropropene D Chloropicrin VI Effect on Specific Microbial Populations VII Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References 5 8 10 12 15 20 22 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 SORGHUM IMPROVEMENT —INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NEW TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE IMPROVED GENOTYPES W L Rooney I Introduction II Variation in Sorghum ssp III Sorghum Improvement—from Landraces to Cultivars v 38 39 40 vi CONTENTS IV Mechanisms of Controlled Pollination A Hand Emasculation B Genetic Male Sterility C Hot-Water Emasculation D Control of Anther Dehiscence Control E Cytoplasmic –Genetic Male Sterility V Improvement Methodology A Population Improvement B Cultivar and Inbred Line Development C Hybrid Development D Use of Exotic Germplasm—Sorghum Conversion VI Trait-Based Breeding Efforts A Yield and Adaptation B Biotic Stress C Abiotic Stress D Grain Quality E Forage Sorghum F Sweet Sorghum for Syrup G Broomcorn VII Biotechnology in Sorghum Improvement VIII Conclusion References 42 43 44 44 45 46 49 51 52 52 56 59 60 63 75 86 89 92 93 93 95 96 CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE SCIENCE AND OPTIONS FOR REDUCING CADMIUM IN TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.) AND OTHER PLANTS N Lugon-Moulin, M Zhang, F Gadani, L Rossi, D Koller, M Krauss and G J Wagner I Introduction II Cadmium in the Environment III Cadmium in the Tobacco Plant A Cadmium Tolerance in Tobacco B Root-to-Shoot Transport C Root and Shoot Distribution D Cadmium in Field-Grown Tobacco Leaves E Stalk Position Versus Cadmium Accumulation F Developmental Stage Versus Cadmium Accumulation G Variation Within the Leaf H Sub-cellular Localization I Differences Between Varieties J Summary IV External Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentration in Tobacco Leaves A Soil Characteristics 112 113 114 115 117 119 120 121 123 123 124 124 126 127 127 CONTENTS B Agronomic Practices C Additional Factors D Summary V Options to Reduce the Cadmium Content in Tobacco Leaves A Molecular and Biochemical Approaches B Breeding Strategies to Reduce Cadmium C Soil Cadmium Remediation VI Conclusion Acknowledgments References vii 130 135 137 137 137 153 154 161 162 162 THE IMPACT OF GRAZING ANIMALS ON N2 FIXATION IN LEGUME -BASED PASTURES AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT John C Menneer, Stewart Ledgard, Chris McLay and Warwick Silvester I Introduction II Animal Treading A Plant Damage and Burial by Hoof Action B Soil Compaction: Mechanical Impedance Effects on Legumes C Soil Compaction: Aeration and/or Waterlogging Effects on Legumes D Significance of Plant and Soil Factors, and Limits of Pasture Tolerance III Animal Grazing A Diet Selection and Defoliation Effects B Direct Effects of Defoliation on N2 Fixation IV Animal Excretion A Increased Soil N and Grazing Avoidance of Excreta-Affected Areas B Direct Effects of Excreta N on N2 Fixation V Strategies to Minimise the Impacts of Grazing Animals A Pasture Management to Aid Legume Production B Choice of White Clover Cultivar and Companion Grasses C Tactical Use of N Fertiliser VI Farm-Scale Management Practices A Soil Management: Preventing Treading and Compaction B Restricted Grazing and Supplementary Feeding in Winter/spring C Technical Based Decision Making for Improved Management VII Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References 182 184 186 188 192 198 200 201 204 205 207 209 211 211 216 219 221 222 222 224 227 228 228 viii CONTENTS SEED -FILL DURATION AND YIELD OF GRAIN CROPS Dennis B Egli I Introduction II Seed Filling: Definition and Measurement III Variation in Seed-Fill Duration A Temperature B Water Stress C Assimilate and Nutrient Supplies D Flower and Fruit Development E Photoperiod F Plant Growth Substances G Genetic IV Regulation of Seed-Fill Duration A Regulation by the Seed B Regulation by the Plant C Senescence V Seed-Fill Duration and Crop Productivity A Yield B Future Yield Improvement VI Conclusions References 244 245 248 248 249 250 251 252 252 253 254 255 256 257 262 262 265 267 268 INDEX 281 Contributors Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin D EGLI (243), Department of Agronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0312 F GADANI (111), Philip Morris USA RD&E Department, PO Box 26583, Richmond, VA 23261 A M IBEKWE (1), USDA-ARS-George E Brown, Jr Salinity Lab, 450 W Big Springs Road, Riverside, CA 92507 D KOLLER (111), Philip Morris USA RD&E Department, PO Box 26583, Richmond, VA 23261 M KRAUSS (111), Philip Morris USA RD&E Department, PO Box 26583, Richmond, VA 23261 S LEDGARD (181), AgResearch Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton, New Zealand N LUGON-MOULIN (111), Philip Morris International R&D, c/o Philip Morris Products SA, 200 Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland C MC LAY (181), Environment Waikato, PO Box 4010, Hamilton, New Zealand J C MENNEER (181), University of Waikato, Private Bag, Hamilton, New Zealand W L ROONEY (37), Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474 L ROSSI (111), Philip Morris International R&D, c/o Philip Morris Products SA, 200 Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland W SILVESTER (181), University of Waikato, Private Bag, Hamilton, New Zealand G J WAGNER (111), University of Kentucky, Agronomy Department N212 ASCN, Lexington, KY 40546-0091 M ZHANG (111), Philip Morris USA RD&E Department, PO Box 26583, Richmond, VA 23261 ix 276 D B EGLI Nicolas, M E., Gleadow, R M., and Dalling, M J (1984) Effect of drought and high temperature on grain growth in wheat Aust J Plant Physiol 11, 553– 566 Olesen, J E., and Bindi, M (2002) Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use and policy Eur J Agron 16, 239 –262 Pan, W L., Kamprath, E J., Moll, R H., and Jackson, W A (1984) Prolificacy in corn: its effect on nitrate and ammonium uptake and utilization Soil Sci Soc Am J 48, 1101–1106 Pearson, C J., Larson, E M., Hesketh, J D., and Peters, D B (1984) Development and source–sink effects on single leaf and canopy carbon dioxide exchange in maize Field Crops Res 9, 391 –402 Peaslee, D E., Ragland, J L., and Duncan, W G (1971) Grainfilling period of corn as influenced by phosphorus, potassium, and the time of 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C., Egli, D B., Leggett, J E., and Reicosky, D A (1982) Cultivar differences in N redistribution in soybeans Agron J 74, 375 –379 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index biodegradation chloropicrin 27 –8 1,3-dichloropropene 26–7 methyl bromide 22–3 methyl isothiocyanate 25–6 Biolog Gram-negative microtiter plate assay 8– 10, 14 biomarkers 11, 12 –14 biomass 6, 10–12 biosorbents 160 biotechnology 93 –5 biotic stress 63– 75 breeding strategies and programs cadmium in tobacco 153–4 seed-fill duration 253, 264, 266 sorghum improvement 37–96 broomcorn 93 brown midrib sorghums 90, 91– bulk density of soils 188, 189 –92, 198– burial of plant (hoof action) see also treading effects 186 –8, 212 A 16S rRNA 12, 15–20 ABC see ATP binding cassette abiotic stress 75– 86 accumulation cadmium in tobacco 114–27 adaptation, sorghum improvement 60–3 adaptive cellular mechanisms 196 aeration, soil 185, 192–8, 199–200, 212 aerenchyma 193, 196 agricultural practices cadmium in tobacco 130–5 soil fumigants 20– air-filled porosity 199–200 aluminium-toxicity tolerance 84–6 amended soils cadmium in tobacco 130–1, 157–8 non-biological cadmium stabilization 157– sludges 130 –1 soil fumigants 19– 20, 21 amylopectin 89 animal excretion 183, 184, 205, 207–11 animal grazing see grazing animal stand-off areas 222–4 animal treading see treading effects anther dehiscence control 45–6 anthracnose resistance 59, 64– antiporter proteins 140, 144–5 apple roots 21 arbuscular mycorrhizae 158–60 assimilate 250–1, 256, 260, 262 Atherigona soccata (shoot fly) 72 atmospheric cadmium 113, 136 ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters 140, 141 –2 autumn pasture management strategies 214–15 C cadmium fertilizers 133 tobacco 111–62 agricultural practices 130 –5 atmospheric 113, 136 breeding strategies 153 –4 climatic conditions 135–6 concentration in field-grown leaves 120 –1 crop year variations 136–7 deposition on leaves 136 developmental stages 123 distribution within plants 114 –27 environmental cadmium occurrence 113 –14 reduction options 137 –61 root distribution 119 –20 root-to-shoot transport 117– 19 shoot distribution 119–20 soil cadmium remediation 154 –61 soil characteristics 127–30 stalk position versus accumulation 121 –2 B bacteria communities soil fumigant studies 14 gram-negative 11– 12, 14 gram-positive 11–12, 13, 14 soil cadmium remediation 159, 160–1 bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) 15 beringite 157 bioavailability of cadmium in soil 114 281 282 INDEX sub-cellular localization 124 tolerance 115– 17, 146–52 variation within leaf 123 –4 variety differences 124 –6 transporters 139 –46 calcium channels 140, 145–6 carbon dioxide enrichment 251 carbon substrate utilization 8–10 cation antiporters 144–5 cation channels 145 –6 cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family 140, 143–4 cation exchange capacity 128 cattle see also grazing feeding style 201 –2 grazing management strategies 213 soil bulk density 189 CDE see cation diffusion facilitator CFUs see bacterial colony forming units charcoal rot 64 chelate-assisted phytoremediation 155–6 chloroform fumigation 13–14 chlorophyll fluorescence 82 chloropicrin (CP) biological process effects 5–8 degradation 27–8 microbial activities/composition effects 8–20 microbial communities/agricultural practice impacts 27– mode of action 3–4 structure chlorothalonil 13 Claviceps africana 70 climatic conditions, cadmium in tobacco 135–6 cold tolerance 83 collections, sorghum germplasm 57 Colletotrichum graminicola 64, 65 color, sorghum grains and plants 86–8 community-level carbon source utilization 8–10 compaction, soil 188–98, 222 competition 183, 209 continuous grazing management 213 controlled pollination mechanisms 42– conversion programs, sorghum 56–9 CP see chloropicrin CROPPGRO 249 crop productivity, seed-fill duration 262–7 crop rotation 135 crop year variations 136–7 cross-pollination methods 43 –9 cultivars grass species 218–19 seed-fill duration 253, 263 –4 sorghum improvement 40 –2, 52 tobacco cadmium accumulation 124– white clover 216–18 Curvularia lunata 66, 67 cutting management practices 211, 214, 224 cytoplasmic–genetic male sterility 46–9 D 1,3-D see 1,3-dichloropropene decision making, technical based 224–7 deer 201 defoliation nitrogen fixation in legume based pastures 183, 184, 200–5, 206, 216 seed-fill duration 250, 256 degradation chloropicrin 27–8 1,3-dichloropropene 26 –7 methyl bromide 22 –3 methyl isothiocyanate 25–6 dehydrogenase activities denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) 13, 14, 15–20, 23 –4 desiccation 256 detoxification, cadmium in tobacco 146–52 development stages cadmium accumulation in tobacco 123 seed-fill duration 246 sorghum drought stress 76–81 sorghum temperature stress 83 –4 DGGE see denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) biological process effects 5–8 degradation 26–7 microbial activities/composition effects 8–20 microbial communities/agricultural practice impacts 26–7 mode of action –4 structure diet selection 201–2 diffusion, oxygen in soil 199–200 dinoterb 15 disease resistance 63– 72 distribution, cadmium within tobacco plants 114–27 INDEX DNA molecular marker technology 153–4 downy mildew resistance 59, 68–9 drainage 222 drought stress see water stress dung pats 205, 207 E EDTA 155–6 effective filling period 245–6, 259 emasculation hand 43–4 hot-water 44–5 plastic bag 45–6 emergence sorghum cold tolerance 83 sorghum drought stress 77 environmental cadmium occurrence 113–14 environmental effects on seed-fill duration 248 –50, 252, 253–4, 263 enzyme activities 5–6 ergot 70–1 Escherichia coli O157:H7 23, 28 ethanol production 89 excretion 183, 184, 205, 207–11 exotic germplasm–sorghum conversion 56–9 exudates, root 138–9 F fallowing 135 family-based sorghum population improvement programs 51 farmer study groups 224 –5, 226 farm-scale management practices 212, 221–8 fatty acids 10, 11–13, 14 feeding styles 201 feed pad system 223–4 feeds, supplementary 222–4 fenpropimorph –4 fertilizers 133 –4, 219–21 fingerprinting 15 –20 flag leaf photosynthesis 255 flooding 193 flower development 251– forage sorghum 89–92 fruit development 251–2 fumigants, soil 1– 29 fungi biomarkers 11–12 soil cadmium remediation 158–60 283 Fusarium moniliforme sensu lato 64, 66, 67 fusarium stalk rot 64 G genetics bacteria for soil cadmium remediation 160 cadmium phytoextraction 156 –7 male sterility 44 microbial community structure 15 –20 seed-fill duration 253 –4, 263 genomic analysis, sorghum improvement 62, 67, 68, 80, 93–5 genotypes, sorghum improvement 37–96 germination 76, 77, 83 germplasm 56–9 glutamine-binding protein 149 g-glutamylcysteine synthetase 148, 149 glutathione 146–52 glutathione synthetase 148 goats 201 –2 grain see also seed-fill duration color 86–8 mold resistance 59, 66– quality 86–9 gram-negative bacteria 11– 12, 14 gram-positive bacteria 11–12, 13, 14 grass-legume pasture systems 181– 228 grass selection 216 –19 grazing animal excretion 183, 184, 205, 207–11 defoliation 183, 184, 200–5, 206, 216 diet selection 201 –2 intensity 184 nitrogen fixation impact 181– 228 restricted 222–4 strategies to minimize impacts 211 –21 treading effects 183, 184–200, 212, 222 green bug (Schizaphis graminum ) 74– growth stages see development stages guinea corn 41 H hand emasculation 43 –4 harvest index 264 –5 head smut resistance 59, 69– 70 heat tolerance 82–4 herbage rejection 203, 205, 207, 209, 212 herd houses 223 284 INDEX hoof action see also treading 186 –8 hot-water emasculation 44–5 hybrids cytoplasmic–genetic male sterility 46–9 seed-fill duration 253, 254, 263–4 sorghum improvement 41–2, 49, 52–6 hydrous iron oxide 157 hydrous manganese oxide 157 hyperaccumulators 154–5 I improvement methodology, sorghum 49–59 inbred line development 52 insect pest resistance 72–5 intensive grazing 184 iron 130 iron oxide 157, 158 irrigation cadmium in tobacco 134 –5 seed-fill duration 263 J johnsongrass 95 K Klebsiella mobilis 160 L landraces, sorghum 40 late-summer pasture management strategies 214–15 LCT1 see low affinity cation transporter leaf firing ratings 82 leaves see also tobacco, leaves size of white clover 212, 216, 218 legume-based pasture systems 181–228 lenticels 193, 196 ligand protein 148 light competition 209 lignin 92 liming 132 lithospheric cadmium concentration 113 lodging disease 64 logistic model, seed-fill duration 245 low affinity cation transporter (LCT1) 140, 145 M Macrophomena phaseolina 64 macroporosity test 222 maize hybrids 253, 254 management farm-scale practices 212, 221–8 nitrogen fixation in legume-based pastures 181–228 manganese oxide 157 manure-amended soil 19 –20 marker-assisted technology 153 –4 MATE see multidrug and toxic compound extrusion maturity, sorghum hybrids 60 –2 MeBr see methyl bromide mechanical impedance 188 –92, 212 metallothioneins 146– 52 metam sodium 3, 4, 25 methyl bromide (MeBr) biological process effects 5–8 degradation 22–3 microbial activities/composition effects 8–20 microbial communities/agricultural practice impacts 22–4 mode of action –4 structure methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) biological process effects 5–8 degradation 25–6 microbial activities/composition effects 8–20 microbial communities/agricultural practice impacts 25–6 mode of action –4 structure microorganisms see also biodegradation biomass 6, 10 –12 soil cadmium remediation 158–61 soil fumigant effects 1–29 mid-spring pasture management strategies 215–16 mid-summer pasture management strategies 215–16 MITC see methyl isothiocyanate molecular approaches cadmium reduction in tobacco 137–53 soil microbial community structure 15–20 morphology, white clover 216 –18 MRP see multidrug-resistance-related proteins INDEX multidisciplinary on-farm study groups 224 –5, 226 multidrug-resistance-related proteins (MRP) 141 –2 multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family 140, 145 mutagenized populations 154 Mycobacteria, soil fumigants 29 mycorrhizae 158–60 285 O organic acids 138– organic amendments 21 oxygen diffusion in soil 199–200 reduction in compacted soils 192–8, 199 –200 P N natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family 140, 142 –3 Nicotiana tabacum see tobacco nitrilotriacetate 156 nitrogen fertilizers 134, 219–21 fixation in legume-based pastures 181 –228 animal excretion 205, 207–11 animal grazing 183, 184, 200–5, 206, 216 animal treading 184 –200 defoliation 183, 184, 200– 5, 206, 216 farm-scale management practices 221– grass selection 216 –19 pasture management 211–16 restricted grazing 222– soil compaction 191–2, 196–8 soil management 222 strategies to minimize grazing impacts 211 –21 supplementary feeding 222–4 technically based decision making 224 –7 white clover cultivars 216 –18 seed-fill duration 251, 257, 258 –62, 263 transformation nitrogenase activity 204–5, 206 nodulation 191–2, 196 –8 non-biological soil amendments 157– non-target soil organisms 1– 29 nopaline synthase promoter 150 Nramp see natural resistance-associated macrophage protein nutrients cycling seed-fill duration 250 –1 stress 84–6 nutritional value 86 participatory farmer study groups 224 –5, 226 pasture management strategies 211 –21 pasture tolerance to treading 186, 198–200 Peronosclerospora sorghii 68 pH 127–8 phosphate fertilizers 133–4 phospholipid fatty acid profiles (PLFA) 10, 11– 13, 14 photoperiod seed-fill duration 252 silage hybrids 92 sorghum germplasm collections 57, 58 sorghum–sudangrass hybrids 91, 92 photosynthesis nitrogenase activity 204 seed-fill duration 255, 256, 257, 267 phylogenetic trees 18–19 physical impacts on soil 184 –200 phytoavailability enhancement 155 phytochelatins 146 –52 phytochelatin synthase 147 phytoextraction 138, 154–7 phytoremediation 154–7 phytosiderophores 138–9 phytotoxicity 115 –17 pigmented testa 86, 88 plant growth substances 252 plants color/sorghum end use 87, 88 density/seed-fill duration 250–1 height/grain yield relationship 62 seed-fill duration regulation 256 –7 treading effects 186 –8, 212 plastic bag emasculation 45 –6 PLFA see phospholipid fatty acid profiles pollination control 42–9 population improvement programs for sorghum 51– porosity, air-filled 199–200 post-flowering drought stress 78, 79–81 286 INDEX potentially remobilized nitrogen pool 260 poured crossing 45–6 pre-flowering drought stress 77–9, 80–1 productivity, seed-fill duration 262–7 protein grain sorghum 89 seed protein concentrations 259 proton antiporters 144–5 P-type ATPase 140, 143 puddling 198 pugging 188, 225, 226 pure-line sorghum cultivars 41, 49, 52 Q QLTs see quantitative trait loci quantifiable assessment tools 221 quantitative trait loci (QLTs) sorghum grain mold resistance 67, 68 sorghum grain yield 62 sorghum improvement biotechnology 94–5 sorghum post-flowering drought stress 80 staygreen 80 quinone profile analysis 10, 11, 13 R races of sorghum 39 –40 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers 153–4 regression model, seed-fill duration 245 remediation, soil cadmium 154– 61 resistance disease 59, 63–72 insects 72–5 multidrug-resistance-related proteins 141–2 natural resistance-associated macrophage protein family 140, 142 –3 respiration restricted grazing 222–4 rhizosphere cadmium reduction in tobacco 138, 139 colonizers 21, 23, 28 –9 16S rRNA 12, 15 –20 roots cadmium in tobacco 117 –20, 138 –9 exudates 138 –9 penetration impedance 185 root-to-shoot cadmium transport 117– 19 soil compaction effects 189–91, 193 –6 rotational grazing 202–3, 213, 216 S Saccharomyces cerevisiae 143, 147 sacrifice paddocks 223 saline soils 84 Schizaphis graminum (green bug) 74 –5 seed-fill duration 243–68 assimilate 250–1 crop productivity 262–7 definition 245–8 environmental effects 248–50, 252, 253–4, 263 flower development 251 –2 fruit development 251–2 future yield improvements 265–7 genetic variations 253–4, 263 measurement 245–8 nitrogen 251, 257, 258–62, 263 nutrient supplies 250 –1 photoperiod 252 photosynthesis 255, 256, 257, 267 plant growth substances 252 regulation 254– 62 senescence 250, 251, 256– 62 temperature 248 –9, 263 variation within/between species 246, 247 water stress 249–50, 263 yield 244, 253 –4, 262 –7 seed-growth curves 245, 246, 247 seedlings sorghum cold tolerance 83 –4 sorghum drought stress 77 seeds moisture levels 246 number reduction 250 seed-fill duration regulation by seeds 255 –6 selective breeding seed-fill duration 253, 264, 266 white clover 216 senescence 250, 251, 256 –62 shade 209, 224, 250 Shannon–Weaver index of diversity 13, 17 –18, 19, 20–1 sheep see also grazing feeding style 201– grazing management strategies 213 soil bulk density effects 189 INDEX shoot fly (Atherigona soccata ) 72 shoots cadmium distribution in tobacco 119 –20 root-to-shoot cadmium transport 117–19 soil compaction effects 189 –91, 193– silage sorghum 90 –2 silking 246, 247 sludge amendments 130–1 smuts resistance 69–70 sodium methyldithiocarbamate soil aeration 185, 192 –8, 199 –200, 212 air-filled porosity 199–200 amendments 19–20, 21, 130– 1, 157–8 bulk density 188, 189– 92, 198–9 cadmium concentrations in soil 113 –14 concentrations in tobacco leaves 127–30 microorganism effect on plant uptake 158 –61 remediation 154–61 stabilization 157–8 cation exchange capacity 128 characteristics 127–30 compaction nitrogen fixation 191–2, 196–8 root growth 189 –91, 193 –6 shoot growth 189–91, 193–6 soil management 222 treading effects 188 –98 fumigants agricultural practices 20–8 biological processes 5–8 microbial activities/composition effects –20 mode of action 3–4 non-target soil organisms 1–29 soil microbial communities impact 20– specific microbial population effects 28 –9 health indicators 2, management 212, 222 microbial communities fumigant effects –29 non-biological amendments 157–8 nutrient stress 84–6 pH 127–8 physical condition indicators 222 phytoremediation 154–7 remediation 154–61 salinity 84 287 treading effects 184 –200, 212 waterlogging 185 somaclonal variation 154, 155 sorghum abiotic stress 75–86 biotechnology 93– biotic stress 63–75 broomcorn 93 controlled pollination mechanisms 42 –9 conversion program 56–9 forage sorghum 89–92 germplasm collections 57 grain quality 86 –9 historical developments 40 –2, 49 improvement 37– 96 methodology for improvement 49–59 races 39–40 sweet sorghum for syrup 92– taxonomic classification 39 trait-based breeding 59– 93 trait variations 39–40 uses 38 world production 38 yield and adaptation 60–3 sorghum midge (Stenodiplosis sorghicola ) 72– sorghum–sudangrass hybrids 90–1, 92 source–sink ratios 251 sowing date 263 space competition 209 Sporisorium relianum 69 spring pasture management strategies 215– 16 16S rRNA 12, 15–20 stabilization, cadmium in soil 157 –8 stalk lodging resistance 64 stalk position 121 –2 stalk rot resistance 64 stand-off areas 222 –4 staygreen 79, 80, 81 steel shots 157– Stenodiplosis sorghicola (sorghum midge) 72– sterility 46–9 stocking rates 202, 210 stolon fragmentation and burial 187 strategic grazing 211 strawberries 21–2, 28 stress abiotic stress 75–86 biotic stress 63–75 nutrient 84–6 288 INDEX temperature stress 82–4 water 75–81, 249–50, 263 Striga hermonthica 71 striga resistance 71–2 sub-cellular localization 124 substrate-induced respiration sub-tropical sorghum adaptation 62 sucrose 255 sulfur reductive assimilation pathway 152 summer pasture management strategies 214 –16 supplementary feeding 222–4 sward composition modification 201–2 height 201 sweet sorghum 92–3 syrup 92 –3 T tannins 86, 87 tannin sorghums 86, 87 taxonomic classification of sorghum 39 technical based decision making 224– Telone see 1, 3-dichloropropene temperate sorghum adaptation 62 temperature seed-fill duration 248–9, 263 sorghum improvement 82–4 stress 82 –4 testa, pigmented 86, 88 testcrossing 54 –5 Thomas phosphate basic slags 157 tillage 135, 222 tobacco cadmium reduction 111 –62 leaves cadmium distribution 119–20, 123–4 cadmium in field-grown 120 –1 external factors affecting cadmium concentration 127–37 stalk position versus accumulation 121–2 virus interactions 117 tolerance cadmium in tobacco 115 –17, 146 –52 pasture treading 186, 198 –200 phytochelatin role in cadmium tolerance 151–2 total growth cycle 260, 261, 265–6 total organic carbon in the microbial biomass (biomass C) 10 total seed growth rate 263 trait-based breeding 59–93 transgenic sorghums 95 transport, cadmium root-to-shoot in tobacco 117–19 transporters, cadmium 139–46 treading effects mechanical impedance 188– 92, 212 nitrogen fixation in legume-based pastures 183, 184 –200, 212, 222 plant damage and burial 186– 8, 212 significance of effects 198–200 soil aeration 192 –8, 199 –200, 212 soil compaction 188 –98 soil management 222 waterlogging of soil 192– trichloronitromethane see chloropicrin Trifolium repens see white clover U under grazing 216 urine 205, 207–11 V varieties cadmium accumulation in tobacco 124–6 sorghum 39–40 virus interactions 117 W water see also irrigation cadmium concentrations 113 waterlogged soils 185, 192–8, 222 water status, tissue 256 water stress drought stress screening 81 seed-fill duration 249–50, 263 sorghum improvement 75 –81 waxy endosperm sorghums 89 wheeled agricultural machinery compaction 191 white clover (Trifolium repens ) cultivars 216–18 grass associations 181–228 INDEX Y year variations 136 –7 yellow endosperm sorghum 88 yield seed-fill duration 244, 253–4, 262–7 sorghum improvement 53– 6, 60–3 289 Z zeolites 157 zinc 129–30 zinc regulated transporter- and iron regulated transporter- like proteins (ZIP) family 140 –1 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... Management: Preventing Treading and Compaction B Restricted Grazing and Supplementary Feeding in Winter/spring C Technical Based Decision Making for Improved... roles in sustaining the health of natural and agricultural soil systems The ability of soil microorganisms to recover after treatment with pesticide is critical for Advances in Agronomy, Volume 83. .. diversity, ecosystem sustainability, and function are being increasingly recognized as sensitive indicators of soil health (Turco et al., 1994) Ultimately, the linking of information between microbial
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 83 , Advances in agronomy volume 83 , Chapter 1. Effects of Fumigants on Nin-Target Organism in Soils, III. Effects on Biological Processes, IV. Effect on Microbial Activities and Composition, V. Impact of Recommended Fumigants on Soil Microbial Communities and Agricultural Practices, VI. Effect on Specific Microbial Populations, IV. Mechanisms of Controlled Pollination, VII. Biotechnology in Sorghum Improvement, III. Cadmium in the Tobacco Plant, IV. External Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentration in Tobacco Leaves, V. Options to Reduce the Cadmium Content in Tobacco Leaves, Chapter 4. The Impact of Grazing Animals on N2 Fixation in Legume-Based Pastures and Managment Options for Improvement, V. Strategies to Minimise the Impacts of Grazing Animals, II. Seed Filling: Definition and Measurement, III. Variation in Seed-Fill Duration, IV. Regulation of Seed-Fill Duration, V. Seed-Fill Duration and Crop Productivity

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