collins tim correct your english errors 2018

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Copyright©2018byTimCollins Allrightsreserved PrintedintheUnited StatesofAmerica ExceptaspermittedundertheUnitedStatesCopyrightActof 1976,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformor byanymeans,orstoredinadatabaseorretrievalsystem,withouttheprior writtenpermissionofthepublisher ISBN:978-1-26-001922-3 MHID: 1-26-001922-5 ThematerialinthiseBookalsoappearsintheprintversionofthistitle:ISBN: 978-1-26-001921-6,MHID:1-26-001921-7 eBookconversionbycodeMantra Version1.0 Alltrademarksaretrademarksoftheirrespectiveowners Ratherthanputa trademarksymbolaftereveryoccurrenceofatrademarkedname,weusenames inaneditorialfashiononly,andtothebenefitofthetrademarkowner,withno intentionofinfringementofthetrademark Wheresuchdesignationsappearin thisbook,theyhavebeenprintedwithinitialcaps McGraw-HillEducationeBooksareavailableatspecialquantitydiscountstouse aspremiumsandsalespromotionsorforuseincorporatetrainingprograms To contactarepresentative,pleasevisittheContactUspageat www.mhprofessional.com TERMSOFUSE ThisisacopyrightedworkandMcGraw-HillEducationanditslicensorsreserve allrightsinandtothework Useofthisworkissubjecttotheseterms Exceptas permittedundertheCopyrightActof1976andtherighttostoreandretrieveone copyofthework,youmaynotdecompile,disassemble,reverseengineer, reproduce,modify,createderivativeworksbasedupon,transmit,distribute, disseminate,sell,publishorsublicensetheworkoranypartofitwithout McGraw-HillEducation’spriorconsent Youmayusetheworkforyourown noncommercialandpersonaluse;anyotheruseoftheworkisstrictlyprohibited Yourrighttousetheworkmaybeterminatedifyoufailtocomplywiththese terms THEWORKISPROVIDED“ASIS.”McGRAW-HILLEDUCATIONAND ITSLICENSORSMAKENOGUARANTEESORWARRANTIESASTO THEACCURACY,ADEQUACYORCOMPLETENESSOFORRESULTS TOBEOBTAINEDFROMUSINGTHEWORK,INCLUDINGANY INFORMATIONTHATCANBEACCESSEDTHROUGHTHEWORKVIA HYPERLINKOROTHERWISE,ANDEXPRESSLYDISCLAIMANY WARRANTY,EXPRESSORIMPLIED,INCLUDINGBUTNOTLIMITED TOIMPLIEDWARRANTIESOFMERCHANTABILITYORFITNESSFOR APARTICULARPURPOSE McGraw-HillEducationanditslicensorsdonot warrantorguaranteethatthefunctionscontainedintheworkwillmeetyour requirementsorthatitsoperationwillbeuninterruptedorerrorfree Neither McGraw-HillEducationnoritslicensorsshallbeliabletoyouoranyoneelsefor anyinaccuracy,errororomission,regardlessofcause,intheworkorforany damagesresultingtherefrom McGraw-HillEducationhasnoresponsibilityfor thecontentofanyinformationaccessedthroughthework Underno circumstancesshallMcGraw-HillEducationand/oritslicensorsbeliableforany indirect,incidental,special,punitive,consequentialorsimilardamagesthat resultfromtheuseoforinabilitytousethework,evenifanyofthemhasbeen advisedofthepossibilityofsuchdamages Thislimitationofliabilityshallapply toanyclaimorcausewhatsoeverwhethersuchclaimorcausearisesincontract, tortorotherwise CONTENTS Introduction UsingThisBook Acknowledgments Pretest PronunciationandSpelling Pronunciation Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Grammar Nouns Numbers Determiners Pronouns Adjectives PossessiveWords Verbs Be:SimplePresentTense SimplePresentTense PresentProgressiveTense Imperatives Be:SimplePastTense SimplePastTense PastProgressiveTense PresentPerfectTense FutureTensewithGoingtoandWill ModalVerbs Subject-VerbAgreement PassiveVoice Two-WordVerbs ReflexiveandReciprocalVerbs Infinitives,Gerunds,andParticiples Adverbs Prepositions ConditionalSentences ImpersonalExpressions Vocabulary ReviewExercises CatchtheErrors IrregularVerbList Hard-to-SpellWords AnswerKey IndexofWordsandExpressions SubjectIndex INTRODUCTION The purpose of this book is to identify the most common trouble spots for English language learners, to provide a basis for understanding why these troublespotscausedifficulties,andtoofferguidanceandpracticeforavoiding potentialerrors Manyerrorscommonlymadebyspeakersandlearnersofasecondlanguageare caused by transferring patterns and features of the native language to the new language This happens in all aspects of language from pronunciation to word formationtosentencestructure: DifficultysayinganEnglishsoundarisesbecausethefirstlanguagedoesnot havesuchasound Double letters are omitted from English words because the first language’s spellingsystemdoesnothavedoubleletters Verb endings to show tense or noun endings to show plurals are omitted becausethefirstlanguagedoesnotaddsuchsuffixestothesewords Adjectives are placed after, rather than before, nouns because the first languagefollowsthatpattern “Tallerfrom”issaidinsteadof“tallerthan”becausethat’sthepatterninthe firstlanguage Another source of error is the learning process itself That is, learners tend to overapply or misapply patterns and rules in the new language, not learn exceptions to the rules, or not apply the rules fully Here are examples of thesekindsoferrors: Applying the regular -ed past-tense ending to irregular verbs: I goed home earlyyesterday Usingmorewiththeadjectiveheavy(whichrequiresthe-erending)because therulethattwo-syllableadjectivesendingin-yuse-er,notmore,wasnotfully learned Usingasleepinfrontofanounbecausetherulethatacertainsmallgroupof adjectives, including asleep, are used only after a linking verb was not fully learned In this book, you will find help with these and many more common errors through explanation and example You will become aware of potential trouble spots and learn how to break the habits, learn the necessary rules, and correct yourmistakes Severalexamplesaregivenforeachtopic,followedbyexercises thattestyourunderstandingandhelpyouavoidthepitfalls This book is divided into two parts: Pronunciation and Spelling and Grammar ThelargestsectionisGrammar,whichidentifiesthevariouspartsofspeechin traditional terminology for ease of comprehension Each term is explained and illustratedwithmultipleexamples,providingnecessaryrevieworclarification Throughoutthisbook,allerrorsarepresentedinredtypeandmarkedbyan For maximum clarity, all errors are corrected, and each corrected version is presentedwitha The guidelines in this book are based on current standard usage in North America However, usage varies according to region and other variables, and language is constantly changing In cases where variants exist for formal and informalsituations,detailsareprovided Becauseindividualwordsofalanguageareusedinconnectionwithotherwords, youwillfindthatmanytopicsarementionedinmorethanoneplace Extensive cross-referencingwillhelpyoufindconnectionsbetweenrelatedtopics Topics and lists are presented in logical order For example, irregular verbs are presented in groups of verbs that follow similar patterns Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are presented in logical groupings according to how they are formed and spelled Verb tenses are presented in order from the present tense to modal verbs Complex syntactic patterns, such as the passive voice, are presented at the end of the volume, after all the prerequisite knowledge has been presented In addition, the back of the book includes a comprehensive and detailed index, which serves as a guide to locating all the referencestoeachtopic,aswellasakeywiththeanswerstoalltheexercises I hope that the materials presented in this book will help you improve your proficiencyinEnglishandavoidthemostcommonandvexingerrorsinEnglish USINGTHISBOOK Therearemanywaystousethisbook: TakethePretestatthestartofthebook(newtothissecondedition)anduse theAnswerKeystudyplanonpagesix-xxiitofindthetopicsandsectionsthat arethemostdifficultforyou Workthroughthosesectionsinorder Examinethe“AvoidtheError”headingsineachsection Readtheexamples andthentherelatedexplanations Usetheindextofindspecifictopics,asyouneedthem Usethetableofcontentstofindthespecificchaptersyouwanttostudy Work through the book in sequence from beginning to end for a complete overvieworreviewofEnglishgrammarandthemostcommonandvexingerrors thatlearnersmake Thisbookcontainsexercisesattheendofeachsection,andreviewexercisesat theendofthebook Followthesesuggestions CompletetheexercisesattheendofeachsectionandusetheAnswerKeyto check your work Then review any areas that were difficult for you, and completetheexercisesagain Usethereviewexercises(newtothisedition)attheendofthebooktoreview majortopics Youcancompletethereviewexercisesattheendofeachgroupof sections,orcompletethemallatonceafteryoufinishthebook UsetheAnswer Keytocheckyourwork Thenreviewanyareasthatweredifficultforyou,and completetheexercisesagain Usethe“CatchtheErrors”sectionattheendofthebookasafinalcheckof yourunderstandingofthemajortopicsinthebook taller,106 taste,102,121 teach/learn,275 telecommuting,249 teleworking,249 tell,216 than,92 that,85–86,97,110,207,245 the,55,79–84,113,115,116,228,254 the…-est,106–7 their,14,95,115,230 theirs,112 them,86,93,95 then,107 there,14,115,269–70 thereis/thereare,187,270 there/their/they’re,115,230 these/those,85–86,97 they,90,94,95 they’re,14,115,126,230 this/that,85–86,97 to,93,109,195,196,207–12,214,231,252,253 too,209 too…to,109 total,190 toward,252,253 try,217 turn,121 under,250–51 unless,262 until,71,244 useto/usedto,133,156,214 very,109,222,223,233 wanna,210 want,207,216 wantto,210 warn,216 was/were,147–48,159,160,192,193,197–98,262 wash,205 watch,217 wear/puton,276 weekend,242 well,225 well/better/best,234 werenot/weren’t,159 we’re/were,126 what,97 when,97,160 where,97 while,160,245,246 who,97,128,140 whose,55,118 whose/who’s,56,118,170 why,97 will,172–74,182 with,197,255 without,255 won’t,173 work,79 worse/worst,234 would,179–80,182,262 wouldhave,263 -y,224 yet,168,229 you/yourself,88–89,94,96 your,14 your/yours,113,115 you’re,14,115 yourself/yourselves,204,205 zero,62 zillion,64 SUBJECTINDEX Abbreviations,punctuationwith,31 Actionverbs,123 Actions,impersonalexpressionsfor,269 Addresses,67–68 Adjectives,101–110 adverbsmodifying,222 comparativeandsuperlativeformsof,106–8 followedbyinfinitiveorthatclause,110 formationof,102–4 andgerunds,213 nounsas,104 orderof,104–5 possessive,112–17 prepositionswith,255–56 presentandpastparticiplesas,218 punctuatingseriesof,36 so+adjective+that,108 so+adjective+to,109 too+adjective+to,109 Adverbs,222–36 comparativeandsuperlativeformsof,234–36 ofduration,229,233 formationof,223–27 offrequency,229,233 andgerunds,213 andinfinitives,208 introductory,39 ofmanner,227,232 orderof,232–34 andpassivevoice,196 ofplace,230,232 positionof,231–34 ofprobability,231,233 punctuationwith,223 ofpurpose,230,232 withsimplepresent-tenseverbs,133 so+adverb+that,236 spellingrulesfor,224–26 oftime,167–69,227–28,232 Apostrophe,48,127 Appositives,38,56 be(simplepasttense),147–48 formationof,147–48 questionswith,148 be(simplepresenttense),124–28 formationof,124–27 questionswith,127–28 Books,titlesof,26 Capitalization,21–28 daysofweek,26 earth/Earth,28 geographicregions,27–28 monthsofyear,26 nounsformedfrompropernouns,24 people’stitles,24–26 properadjectives,24 schoolsubjects,27 technologytools,277 titlesofbooks,movies,andTVshows,26 Cardinalnumbers,60–65 Centuries,73 Collectivenouns,187–88 Colon,41 Comma,34–40,43 Comparativesandsuperlatives adjectives,106–8 adverbs,234–36 usingwithnouns,56 Compoundelements,punctuationof,37 Compoundobjects,94 Compoundsubject,91–92,187 Compoundwords,15 Conditionalsentences,259–64 conditional1sentences,260–62 conditional2sentences,262 conditional3sentences,264–65 Conditions,impersonalexpressionsfor,269 Consonants pronunciationof,3–5 spellingof,10–11 Contractions,14,164 Contrastivestress,7–8 Countable/uncountablenouns,51–54,213–14 Danglingparticiples,219 Dates,71–72 prepositionsfor,241 punctuationof,40 writingandsaying,71–72 Daysoftheweek,26 asadverbs,228 prepositionsfor,241 Decimals,61,65–66 Demonstrativepronouns,97 Dependentclauses inconditionalsentences,259,260 punctuationwith,37 Determiners,75–86 a,an,75–78 some,78–79 the,79–84 this,that,these,those,85–86 zeroarticle,84–85 Doublecomparative(doublesuperlative),235 Duration,adverbsof,229,233 Exclamationmark,32–33 Fractions,61,65–66 Frequency,adverbsof,229,233 Futuretense,172–74,260 Geographicregions,capitalizationof,27–28 Gerundphrases,213,219 Gerunds,211–17,239 Homonyms,15–17 “ibeforee”rule,9–10 Imperative(s),143–45 inconditionalsentences,261 formationof,143–44 withhave,145 forpoliterequests,144–45 Impersonalexpressions,267–71 withit,266–70 subject-verbagreementin,187 withthere,270–79 Indefinitepronouns,94–95,188–89 Independentclauses inconditionalsentences,259,260 punctuationwith,36,37,41 Indirectobject,93 Infinitivephrases,208,226,230 Infinitives,207–17 afterprepositions,239 andpassivevoice,194 verbsfollowedby,215–17 Internet informalEnglishon,278 punctuationofaddresseson,32 spellingoftermson,18–19 Interrogativepronouns,98 Intransitiveverbs,121–22,192 Introductoryadverbs,punctuationwith,39 Introductoryparticipialphrases andadverbsofpurpose,231 punctuationwith,39,219 Irregularverbs pastparticiple,165–67 simplepasttense,153–55 Linkingverbs,101,102,105,122–23 Longvowels,9 Manner,adverbsof,227,232 Modalverbs,175–83 inconditionalsentences,261,263 formationof,175–76 andinfinitives,211 meaningsof,176–82 andpassivevoice,194 inquestions,182–83 Money,66–67 Months,26,240 Movietitles,26 Nouns,47–56 appositives,56 comparing,56 countableanduncountable,51–54 asmodifiers,104 possessive,54–56 singularandplural,47–51 Numbers,60–73 inaddresses,67–68 cardinal,60–65 forcenturies,73 dates,71–72 decimalsandfractions,65–66 money,66–67 ordinal,61,71–73 andsubject-verbagreement,190 telephonenumbers,67 temperature,66 intimeexpressions,68–71 Objectpronouns,88,93–94,193,195 Ordinalnumbers,61,71–73 Participialphrases,219 asadverb,226 asadverbofpurpose,230–31 punctuationwith,39,219 Participles,217–19 introductoryparticipialphrase,39 past,164–67 present,139 Partitives,53 Passivevoice,192–99 formationof,193–97 withget,198–99 usesof,197–98 Pastparticiples,164–67,263 Pastperfecttense,264 Pastprogressivetense,159–60 formationof,159 questionsin,160 whenandwhileclauses,160 Pasttense(simple) SeeSimplepasttense Period,30–32,43 Phrasalverbs SeeTwo-wordverbs Place,adverbsof,230,232 Pluralnouns,47–51 possessiveform,54–55 pronouncing,51 spelling,47–50 Politerequests,making,144–45,181–82 Politeness,simplepasttensefor,156 Possessivenouns,54–56 Possessivewords,112–18 Prefixes,12 Prepositionalphrases,38–39 asadverb,226 asadverbofpurpose,230 punctuationwith,240 Prepositions,239–56 withadjectives,255–56 fordirection,252–53 andgerunds,212 forlocation,246–52 punctuationwith,41 intimeexpressions,240–46 variousmeanings,253–55 Presentparticiples,139 Presentperfecttense,162–70 adverbsoftimewith,167–69 inconditionalsentences,260 formationof,162–64 andpassivevoice,194 questionsin,169–70 spellingofpastparticiples,164–67 Presentprogressivetense,137–40 inconditionalsentences,260 formationof,137–38 andpassivevoice,194 questionsin,140 spellingofpresentparticiples,139 fortalkingaboutfutureplans,172 Presenttense(simple) SeeSimplepresenttense Probability,adverbof,231,233 Pronouns,88–98 demonstrative,97 indefinite,94–95 interrogative,98 object,93–94 possessive,112–14,116 afterprepositions,239–40 reflexive,95–97 subject,89–92 Pronunciation,3–8 ofconsonants,3–5 ofdates,71–73 oflargenumbers,64,65 ofpluralnouns,51 ofquestions,8 ofsimplepast-tenseverbs,152 ofsimplepresent-tenseverbs,132–33 andstress,6–8 oftimeexpressions,69 ofvowels,5–6 ofzero,62 Properadjectives,24 Propernouns,21–24 Punctuation,30–43 withadverbs,223 withcolon,41 withcomma,34–40 withexclamationmark,32–33 withparticipialphrases,219 withperiod,30–32 withprepositionalphrases,240 withquestionmark,34,42–43 withsemicolon,41–42 Purpose,adverbsof,230,232 Questionmark,34 Questions withbe(simplepasttense),148 withbe(simplepresenttense),127–28 withgoingto,futuretense,174 withhowmuchandhowmany,53–54 withmodalverbs,182–83 inpastprogressivetense,160 inpresentperfecttense,169–70 inpresentprogressivetense,140 pronunciationof,8 risingintonationfor,8 insimplepasttense,155 insimplepresenttense,133–34 withthereexpressions,270 withwill,futuretense,174 Quotationmarks,42–43 Reciprocalverbs,205–6 Reciprocalwords,274–75 Reflexivepronouns,88,95–97,205 Reflexiveverbs,197,204–5 Schoolsubjects/classes,27 Seasons,27,240 Semicolon,41–42 Shortvowels,9 Silentletters,11–12 Simplepasttense,147–56 inconditionalsentences,262 formationof,147–50 irregularverbs,153–55 andpassivevoice,193 pastprogressivetenseusedwith,160 forpoliteness,156 pronunciationof,152 questionsusing,148,155 spellingof,151–52 withusedto,156 Simplepresenttense,124–28,130–34 adverbswith,133 inconditionalsentences,260,261 formationof,124–27,131–32 andpassivevoice,193 pronunciationof,132–33 questionsusing,127–28,133–34 spellingof,132 whentalkingaboutfutureactions,172 Singularnouns,47,54 Speculation,modalverbsfor,181 Spelling,9–19 commonerrors,18 compoundwords,15 consonants,10–11 contractions,14 homonyms,15–17 ofInternetterms,18–19 -lyadverbs,224–26 pastparticiples,164–67 pluralnouns,47–50 prefixes,12 presentparticiples,139 silentletters,11–12 simplepast-tenseverbs,151–52 simplepresent-tenseverbs,132 suffixes,12–14 vowels,9–10 Splitinfinitives,208 Stress(inpronunciation),6–8 Subjectpronouns,88–92 andcompoundsubjects,91–92 andpassivevoice,195 withthanandas,92 Subject-verbagreement,186–90 Subordinatingconjunctions,37,38 Suffixes,12–14 foradjectives,102–3 forverbs,121 Superlatives SeeComparativesandsuperlatives Telephonenumbers,67 temperature,66 Tense(s),120–21 future,172–74 pastperfect,264 pastprogressive,159–60 presentperfect,162–70,260 presentprogressive,137–40,260 simplepast,147–56,262 simplepresent,124–28,130–34,260,261 Time(timeexpressions),68–71 adverbsoftime,167–69,227–29,232 impersonalexpressionsfor,267–68 prepositionsfor,240–46 Titles(people),24–26 Titles(works),42 Transitiveverbs,121–22 TVshows,titlesof,26 Two-wordverbs,201–203 inseparable,201–202 separable,201–203 Uncountablenouns,51–54,189,213–14 Verbphrases,120 Verbs SeealsoTense(s) adverbsmodifying,222 be,124–28,147–48 followedbygerundsorinfinitives,214–17 gerunds,211–14 imperatives,143–45 infinitives,207–11 linking,122–23 modal,175–83 participles,217–19 passivevoice,192–99 reciprocal,205–6 reflexive,204–5 subject-verbagreement,186–90 withthereexpressions,270–71 transitiveandintransitive,121–22 two-word,201–203 Vocabulary andconfusingwordpairs,276–77 languageoftechnology,277–78 reciprocalwords,275–76 Voicedandvoicelessconsonantsounds,3–5 Vowels,9–10 ibeforee,9–10 long,9 short,9 Weather,impersonalexpressionsfor,268–69 Years,prepositionsfor,240 Zeroarticle,84–85 ... avoicelesssound, your vocal chordsdonotvibrate Tofeel your vocalchordsvibrate,place your handon your throatandsaywordpairssuchasfan/van,pill/bill,orSue/zoo Your vocalchords... the materials presented in this book will help you improve your proficiencyin English andavoidthemostcommonandvexing errors in English USINGTHISBOOK Therearemanywaystousethisbook:... illustratedwithmultipleexamples,providingnecessaryrevieworclarification Throughoutthisbook,all errors arepresentedinredtypeandmarkedbyan For maximum clarity, all errors are corrected, and each corrected version is presentedwitha The
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