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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY  SUMMARY OF PH.D THESIS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY INDUSTRY AT GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LOGISTICS AND ENGINEERING (MINISTRY OF PUBLIC SECURITY) Branch: Economics Major: International economics Code: 9.31.01.06 TRAN TUAN MINH Hanoi – 2019 THE THESIS IS COMPLETED AT FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY Scientific Instructor: Assoc Prof Ph.D Nguyen Van Hong Opponent 1: Opponent 2: Opponent 3: The Thesis will be defensed in front of the Board of Judges of university level at At hour day month year The Thesis can be referred at: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of Foreign Trade University LIST OF WORKS OF THE AUTHOR Tran Tuan Minh, 2014, Research on establishing the plan of connection and supervision of temperature and humidity parameters in the archives, storage of the Ministry via the Internet, scientific and public themes and Ministry of Public Security Tran Tuan Minh, 2017, Effectiveness of Technology Transfer in Security Industry, Journal of Finance, 2nd period of December 2017, p 31- 33 Tran Tuan Minh, 2018, Factors Affecting Technology Transfer in the Security Industry, Journal of Finance, 1st period of March 2018 (677), p 29 - 32 INTRODUCTION The urgency of the theme: At the request of the country's renewal and development, in the context of international economic integration, the scientific capacity and potential of our country, of the Ministry of Public Security in general and the General Department of Logistics – Engineering in particular has been improved constantly The technological content of many products has increased the quality and created added value for products and services to improve the competitiveness of units inside and outside the public security branch Scientific staff are better equipped with research infrastructure and facilities through the investment programs of the State and the Ministry of Public Security The system of scientific and technological organizations is supported and facilitated to transform the management structure to suit the situation of each unit.Technological market has been gradually formed, promoting application and transfer of technology, boosting the commercialization of scientific research results, linking scientific research results with practical activities of the public security branch To meet the increasing demands of the industrialization and modernization of the country in the new period, effectiveness of resources for investment in science and technology, science and technology shall be developed in the direction of considering the development and application of technology transfer results as one of the most important driving forces for developing socio-economy, defending the fatherland and maintain the political security and social safety and order According to the functions and tasks of the units in the General Department of Logistics and Engineering of the Ministry of Public Security, a number of specialized technical equipment must be mass-produced in the country and the concept of «security industry» is set and considered as a key industry, play an important role in the sustainable development of the cause of national security protection in the current situation However, our security industry has been facing more opportunities and challenges than ever before In general, the current system of research and production facilities of the security industry has a small scale, not in line with the requirements of fighting and development of the public security forces in the new period The professional facilities, specialized weapons and supportive tools equipped to units and localities are shortage of quantity and their quality is not high; material facilities, equipment and technological level of the majority of research and production establishments have low technological content At present, the technical equipment of the new security industry meets 50% - 60% of the demand The question is how to have a strong security industry to develop sustainably to meet the increasing demands of the national security protection Many technology transfer deals from abroad into Vietnam are to serve the activities of public security forces, ensure the national socioeconomic security However, in most of these deals, Vietnam does not have access to the countries that own the technology, limiting the ability of absorbing and developing technological capabilities from international transfer technologies Therefore, the research student forcibly studies the theme of «Technology transfer in the field of security industry at General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security)», aimed at promoting technology transfer activities at General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) in a young industry as the security industry, thereby contributing to socio-economic development and ensuring social order and security in the current situation in Vietnam Objectives of the research, Questions and Tasks of the study: Objectives of the study: The study objective of the Thesis is to study the scientific foundation and propose solutions to improve and promote international technology transfer in the field of security industry in the Ministry of Public Security Study questions: - What is the technology transfer in the field of security industry? Why transfer technology in the field of security industry? - How is the current state of technology transfer in the field of security industry through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security)? - What are the factors that affect the international technology transfer in the field of security industry? - What measures should be taken to promote the technology transfer in the field of security industry at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) ? Study tasks: To carry out empirical studies and to achieve objectives and answer study questions, specific tasks have been identified as follows: (i) Systematize and supplement theories on technology transfer (defining connotation, channels for technology transfer and the necessity for technology transfer in the field of security industry) (ii) The current situation of technology transfer in the field of security industry is implemented through the General Department IV of the Ministry of Public Security (iii) Identify factors that affect international technology transfer in the field of security industry using case studies and questionnaires Analyze factors affecting the technology transfer in the field of security industry (iv) Provide recommendations on measures to promote the technology transfer in the field of security at General Department IV Objects and scope of the study: 3.1 Study objects: The thesis studies international technology transfer activities in the field of security industry through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) 3.2 Study scope: - Regarding space: technology transfer activities of units inside and outside the General Department of Logistics and Engineering under the Ministry of Public Security For projects of units outside the General Department of Logistics and Engineering under the Ministry of Public Security, the thesis will only research the technology transfer projects authorized to the General Department to perform - Regarding time: The thesis studies the technology transfer activities in the field of security industry at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering under the Ministry of Public Security in the period from 2009 (the official time of establishing the General Department of Logistics and Engineering) to 2017 During this period, almost all technology transfer activities in the security industry are carried out through the Department of Security Industry and Enterprises, which is a part of the General Department of Logistics and Engineering In 2018, although the organizational structure of the General Department of Logistics and Engineering has changed, but the Department of Security Industry and Enterprises is still responsible for management of security industry Therefore, the results of research on industrial transfer activities in the security industry in the Ministry of Public Security are still valuable both in practice and reasoning - Regarding content: The thesis deals with the technology transfer from the perspective of the technology recipient rather than the transferor, because the units in the General Department of Logistics - Techniques of the Ministry of Public Security usually play a role as a recipient or as an intermediary in international technology transfer activities Study method: 4.1 Data source: * Secondary data: The documents used for reference in the Thesis include: Statistical figures and data on projects of receiving technology transfer from abroad of units under the General Department of Logistics – Engineering – Ministry of Industry Security and projects that the General Department carried out under the authorization of units outside the General Department The statistics were taken from 2009 to 2017 The analyses and comments in the Thesis are also based on the legal documents on the security industry of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Ministry of Public Security and the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) In addition, the author also relies on statistical data, as well as research arguments of the reports and research papers of domestic and foreign authors about the situation of technology transfer in the field of security industry * Primary data Primary data is collected through questionnaire survey Conduct the survey by questionnaires to the units in the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) such as: enterprises, research institutes, hospitals and departments for state management, partners and customers inside and outside the armed force sector of General Department IV - The information in the questionnaire: The research student developes a questionnaire to find out the technology transfer activities of the units in the General Department of Logistics and Engineering and who their customers are, find out what these units has been learned, how to innovate and renew transfer technology, the costs of technology transfer in the technology transfer projects, the capacity of operation and the capacity of renewal of transfer technology, the quantity of technology transfer and smooth running rates, number of solutions and development initiatives from the technology transfer projects 4.2 Study method * Method of collecting data: - Destop study (Method of document research): To collect secondary data, the research student uses this method to search and synthesize from sources such as books, journals, scientific seminar summary records, synthesized reports of Ministry of Public Security, General Department of Logistics and Engineering, websites of agencies and enterprises in the industry as well as domestic and foreign magazines - Method of survey: + Study Sample: To conduct the study, the author conducted a survey with the sample of 300 survey forms The objects of the survey are individuals involved in technology transfer projects in the field of security industry The number of survey forms obtained is 251, reaching the rate of 83.67% The author used a method of cluster sampling, thereby each unit participating in the survey is considered as a cluster The author conducted the survey with 35 units inside and outside the General Department, equivalent to 35 clusters of survey For clusters with few technology transfer projects, the author issued 10 survey forms for each cluster For units regularly implementing technology transfer activities, the number of survey forms issued is 20 Thus, the survey sample covers most objects involved in technology transfer activities in the field of security industry (implemented through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) + Objects of the survey: enterprises in Department H59 (Department of Security Industry and Enterprise Management), research institutes, hospitals, departments in charge of state management and units under the departments at General Department of Logistics and Engineering, customers and partners of General Department of Logistics and Engineering (including armed force units inside and outside the industry such as: public security of units, localities; customs; army) The respondents are those who have been involved in security technology transfer projects + The survey period is months, from July 2017 to November 2017 As a result of the post-cleansing survey, 251 survey forms were obtained to conduct the EFA and regression analysis using SPSS 20 software * Method of data analysis The thesis uses a combination of study methods such as: - Qualitative method: (Method of statistics, description, analysis and synthesis) The research student uses data analysis software tool SPSS 20 to synthesize and analyze data The author uses this method with criteria such as number of average, frequency, percentage to describe the current state of technology transfer and evaluate the results of technology transfer in the field of security industry at General Department of Logistics – Engineering The evaluation of the current status of technology transfer in the security industry is also based on a number of judgments, reports and self-assessments of units in the General Department of Logistics - Technology (Ministry of Public Security) over time - Quantitative Method: The research student uses the method of checking the reliability of scale (Cronbach's alpha factor), Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) method, and then performs multi-linear regression to see if there is a linear relationship between a single dependent variable (technology transfer result) and different independent variables (influencing factors) to estimate and test the factors affecting the transfer technology in the field of security industry Structure of the theme: Apart from lists of tables, acronyms, conclusions, appendices, references, the Thesis is structured in five chapters as follows: - Chapter Overview of study situation related to the Thesis - Chapter Overview of technology transfer in the field of security industry - Chapter Current status of technology transfer in the field of security industry at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering of the Ministry of Public Security - Chapter Analysis of factors affecting the technology transfer in the field of security industry at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering of the Ministry of Public Security - Chapter Solutions of completing technology transfer in the field of security industry at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering of the Ministry of Public Security CHAPTER OVERVIEW OF STUDY SITUATION RELATED TO THE THESIS 1.1 Foreign study situation There are many foreign studies that deal with technology transfer such as some authors: Tyhanyi and Roath (2002), Mascus ( 2003 ), Li.Q (2014); Sanjay Kumar et al., (2015); Astrid Szogs (2010); Rashid Ali Al-Saadi (2010), Bozeman, (1994); Geisler and Clements (1995); Sandelin (1994); Phillip H Phan and Donald S Siegel (2004), Schlie et al (1987), approaching on many different aspects Regarding the technology transfer model, many authors approached the qualitative model Behrman and Wallender (1976), Dahlman and Westphal (1981), Chantramonklasri (1990) However, many authors studied the quantitative model, assessing the factors affecting the technology transfer such as Li.Q ( 2014 ); Sanjay Kumar et al ( 2015 ) ; Astrid Szogs ( 2010 ) ; Rashid Ali AlSaadi (2010); Tang Ming Feng (2009); Jean-francois Eck ( 2011), Kneller et al ( 2010) There are not many studies on the security industry and technology transfer in the field of security industry, mainly from the studies from the perspective of security and defense The main authors mainly in this issue include: ASIS Foundation (2013) ; Vincent Boulanin (2012) ; Ecorys research and Consulting (2009) ; Martí Sempere, C (2010), James B Rose, B.S ( 1995), Wayne M Johnson (1998) These studies not address public civil security (of the armed forces) or merely cover the general technology transfer for the economy in general, of which a small portion related to national security, not mentioning the effectiveness of technology transfer in the field of security industry These are gaps in the study that the research student can take advantage In the study, the research student only approaches in the respect of the security industry in the armed forces, (notably at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering under the Ministry of Public Security), not in terms of military (defense) or at private security service companies This is also a new topic and has not been studied by many authors so this can also be considered a new point in the study The research student depends on models of Schlie et al., and analyses of some other authors such as Li.Q to establish the research model on the basis of quantitative analysis to determine the factors that influence the outcome of transfer technology in the field of security industry, then propose appropriate solutions 1.2 Domestic study situation There are quite many study works on technology transfer in Vietnam, authors or group of authors through their own study works such as books, textbooks, theses, articles, etc (of authors such as Ho Sy Hung (1996), Pham Duc Nghiem et al (2011), Dang Kim Nhung (1994 ) ; Shoichi Yamashita; Luu Quy Tan ( 1994 ), Phan Xuan Dung (2004), Ngo Van Que (2001), Ha Thi Ngoc Oanh (2006), Vu Chi Loc (2016), Phan Xuan Dung (2017) etc But most of the works haven’t established the model of technology transfer and in the qualitative aspect, only a few in quantitative aspect such as of Nguyen Van Anh (2012), Pham Duc Nghiem et al (2011) The studies generally refer to technology transfer in Vietnam, not technology transfer in a particular sector such as security industry Regarding security industry and technology transfer in the security industry, there are almost very little domestic studies mentioning these contents, except for a number of management agencies such as Ministry of Public Security, General Department of Logistics and Engineering In addition, there are a number of separate studies on the security and security industry of many authors compiled and published by the Theoretical Council of Vietnam Ministry of Public Security in 2014 and some studies of Tran Dai Quang, Nguyen Quang Yem (2015) outlined some issues of security industry product and definition of security industry The arguments and research data of these authors are also used as reference materials in the Thesis However, the arguments about technology transfer in the field of security industry have been still very lacking, the research student has not found any study that covers, in a systematic and comprehensive way, the technology transfer in the field of security industry Through the review of study works in Vietnam, it can be seen that there are no study themes on technology transfer in the field of security industry in Vietnam and the General Department of Logistics – Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) These are the gaps that the research student can use up to carry out the study 1.3 Study gap of the theme In the above study works, the author finds some gaps in the study such as: (i) Regarding study content: There are not many studies in the world 22 Secondly, the modernity of technology in the industry increases compared to the current level; Thirdly, the study capacity of the units in General Department IV is enhanced by the application and renewal of technology transferred from abroad; Fourthly, increase the production capacity of professional means for the works and fighting of units inside and outside the branch; Fifthly, improve the quality of professional technical products, ensuring the performance of the industry b, Cause of the above results: Firstly, the units in General Department IV have actively searched for sources of technology transfer; Secondly , the units in General Department IV have implemented many professional training measures for human resources in their units; Thirdly, the State has a policy of support and preference of finance, capital, tax and administrative procedures related to the acquisition of transfer of modern technologies from abroad to Vietnam; Fourthly, technology transferees have taken the initiative in negotiating and concluding technology transfer contracts with foreign partners to reduce transfer costs as well as gain control and development as well as brand of technology after the deployment Fifthly, the Ministry of Public Security has a lot of policies of encouraging officiers in the branch to intensify study and experiment of new solutions and innovations and apply scientific and technical achievements 3.4.2 Limits and causes a, Limits In addition to the results, achievements and technology transfer activiy at the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) also encountered many obstacles, such as: Firstly, depend on the transferor; Secondly, the cost of technology transfer is still high due to failure to access technology supply focal point Thirdly, the duration of the transfer lasts long, which makes the application to mass production and commercialization become slow Fourthly, the modernity of technology is not high; Fifthly, the quality of technology is not commensurate with the cost of purchasing technology; Sixthly, Vietnamese parties still have limited access to know-how, which limits the ability to innovate, research and develop the technology b) Causes of above mentioned shortcomings Firstly, regarding the State side 23 (i) The legal system of the State on security industry and technology transfer in the field of security industry has been lacking (ii) The technology transfer process is still cumbersome, making it limited in accessing technology patenting organizations (iii) Lack of policies to support enterprises, especially security industry enterprises Secondly, regarding the transfer environment (i) Transfer partners: Most of Vietnam's technology receiving units depend on some certain partners (ii) Negotiation environment: Negotiation with partners still faces difficulties due to the unwillingness to transfer the know-how of many foreign partners, resulting in the fact that the terms of know-how transfer or trademark transfer are almost less stipulated in the contract (iii) Technology recipient: The capacity of the transfer recipient (including the units in the General Department and beneficiaries of the transferred technology) remains weak Technological facilities in the industry are equipped asynchronously, many devices are outdated, can not be used, in some cases, there is a difference between the old equipment system and modern equipment system Restriction on investment capital for receiving new technological systems from technology transfer Thirdly, due to the characteristics of the security industry The characteristics of the industry is confidential, so access to the foreign core technologies is difficult Many products and technologies are transferred to the country only to produce a limited quantity of products due to the particularity of technology or products Fourthly, due to different natural environment and human conditions, thinking and customs This is also the reason why many technologies when transferred into Vietnam are not suitable when not carefully tested The technologies are usually designed in accordance with foreign standard conditions while the standard system of Vietnam is lacking or different In short, our production units are not large specialized production units but mainly are assembly units, many units are invested in equipment but still at small and single production level without large scale, high localization capacity as well as their technology is still backward Thus, the factors affecting technology transfer in the security industry can be attributed to main groups, including: transfer technology factors, government (with policies to support technology transfer) in CNAN or CNAN market formation and development mechanisms.), group of factors of communication environment between the two parties, the characteristics of the technology transferee, the characteristics of the technology transferor 24 and factors on external environment (such as natural, political and social environment) These factors will be analyzed more specifically by method of analyzing factors in chapter CHAPTER ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY INDUSTRY AT GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LOGISTICS AND ENGINEERING 4.1 Survey sample and statistical result of survey sample 4.1.1 Survey sample According to the principle of sampling, the number of survey sample is calculated by the formula: N = 5*m In which: N is sample size, m is the number of questions in the paper With 36 questions on independent variables and 11 questions on dependent variables, the sample size of the thesis will be: N = 5*47 = 235 The author of the Thesis issues 300 survey forms and collects 251 valid survey forms (more than the minimum number as required) 4.1.2 Objects and methods of the survey The author sent questionnaires directly by official dispatch to the units within and outside the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (including 35 units) involved in the process of technology transfer in the field of security industry The surveyed objects are members of technology transfer projects on security industry performed through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering 4.1.3 Encryption of scale and statistical result 4.1.3.1 Scale encryption: * Dependent variable is the result of technology transfer, expressed through the targets of added value in economy, added value in knowledge and added value in production * Independent variable includes factors affecting the technology transfer in the field of industrial security The author measures and encrypts variables under the Likert scale To run the regression model, to determine the impact of factors on technology transfer results in the field of security industry, the dependent variable will take the mean values of the scales 4.1.3.2 Statistical results of survey form * Regarding gender: Due to the characteristics of the security industry, most of the staff involved in technology transfer projects are usually male The proportion of women engaged in technology transfer projects in the field of security industry is only 19.5%, equal to one quarter of male counterparts 25 * Regarding age: Due to the complexity of the technologies transferred in the technology transfer project, most of the participants in the project are of a certain maturity According to the survey, more than 60% of participants in the field of security industry are from 31 to 40 years old, the number of people over 50 years of age is less (only 6.8%) * Regarding the degree 100% of cadres involved in technology transfer projects , according to the result of the survey, have a university degree or above, of which the number of cadres with postgraduate qualifications is slightly higher, reaching 50.2% * Regarding working seniority: Over 53% of the staff involved in the technology transfer project have worked for 11 years or more, of which 18.3% have been working for more than 20 years These are also experienced staffs in the field of work, contributing to the success of the technology transfer projects * Regarding working position Among the staff involved in the technology transfer project, there are managers of security enterprises (under the Department of Security Industry and Enterprise Management ), officers and technical staff of the research departments, units in the General Department and some research partners such as lecturers from Hanoi University of Technology, Hanoi University of Industry, Military Technical Academy, National University, beneficiaries of transferred technology such as Navy High Command, Techpal Joint Stock Company, Department Of Armed Forces This is the experienced staff of science and technology and have the authority to review, evaluate and decide on the acquisition of transferred technologies in the projects * Regarding the position involved in the project Among the individuals involved in the technology transfer projects, in addition to the cadres of the General Department of Logistics and Engineering, the beneficiaries also send their staff to directly participate in the projects to evaluate the suitability of the technology with the actual needs and situation of their units This is also a factor leading to the success of technology transfer projects 4.2 Results of statistical analysis of independent variables 4.2.1 Group of transfer technology factors Under the evaluation of survey participants, the complexity is the main factor leading to the need for technology transfer (obtaining 3.72 points) The transfer technology is mainly used to produce products for works in the people’s public security branch, only a few can serve the civilian, because the particularity of security tools is to ensure the confidentiality Hence, the 26 characteristics of double application and inheritance or the suitability with current technological status of the organization/ unit is underestimated (with a mean point of 3.63 and 3.48 respectively) These are also weaknesses of the technologies in the field of security industry today in Vietnam 4.2.2 Group of factors on characteristics of the technology transferee The attitude of readiness to receive and learn the technology (4.06 points), encouragement and creating learning environment for the staff of the organization/unit receiving the technology (3.93 points) and the ability to clearly understand and know about the transferor and transferred technology (3.9 points) are the most important factor affecting the outcome of technology transfer in the field of security industry The results also show the current reality in technology-receiving units, investment in research and development (R&D), the creation of new technologies, applications in various fields is incomplete 4.2.3 Group of factors on characteristics of technology transferor Most transfer technology recipients are interested in cooperative attitude, technology transfer experience and ownership of the technology of the transferor Most technology transfer partners in the field of security industry are reputable partners in the technology market in the region and in the world, but the Vietnamese partners are not the owners of intellectual property for technology or ownership of source technology by limitation in the ability of access and restriction to financial resources 4.2.4 Group of factors on the Government The Government has a major impact on the security industry because most security units/ enterprises are state-owned However, this is a factor that creates barriers in the technology transfer in the field of security industry in Vietnam The biggest constraints are the regulations on financing, the support activities in the search for sources of technology and the support for promoting the acquisition of transfer technology, standards in the industry are not compatible with the stormy change of technologies in the world There is a lack and unclarity on the documents specifying the security industry and standards of security industry The protection mechanism of Vietnamese enterprises in technology transfer contracts is weak and the system of protection of intellectual property rights is not really strong At the same time, the security industry market has not yet been established, although the state is currently undertaking and equitizing security enterprises 4.2.5 Group of factors of communication environment between two parties Under the survey results, the communication environment between the Vietnamese party and foreign transferors is considered to be quite favorable when both Parties wish the technology transfer project to be successfully 27 implemented However, a limitation of the communication environment between two Parties that the majority of technologies received by Vietnamese party through intermediaries isn’t imported directly from the owners of original technology, affecting the control of technology after import by the Vietnamese party, import costs and quality of transfer technology 4.2.6 Group of factors on external environment Most of the respondents agreed that political stability would be a factor in ensuring a successful technology transfer transaction In another view, the stable politics is also a manifestation of a secure and safe economy, which generally becomes a guarantee of the quality of security technology The choice of the transfer partner should also look at the political and social environment of the transfer country 4.3 Result of statistical analysis of dependent variables 4.3.1 Added value in economy The acquisition of technology transferred from abroad, under the evaluation of survey participants, will bring the technology beneficiaries a competitive advantage over other enterprises or units in the industry The shortcoming in technology transfer projects in Vietnam is that the value of technology acquired by the Vietnamese party is not commensurate with the costs of technology import Most of the technologies in the field of security industry transferred to Vietnam cost relatively high, even some technology transfer projects worth millions of dollars, but the technologies imported are mostly technologies that are new but not suitable with workmanship and conditions in facilities in Vietnam, or just technologies of types 2, Therefore, it is necessary to improve the efficiency of quality inspection as well as valuation skills of the staff involved in international technology transfer activities 4.3.2 Value added in knowledge Technology transfer from abroad in the field of security industry leads to the creation of added value in knowledge and workmanship for labors in the security enterprises and the technology beneficiaries The survey results also show that, due to restrictions on technology ownership, confidentiality in the technologies transferred to the Vietnamese party is not highly appreciated The fact that technology beneficiaries are restricted by ownership (as often entered in the form of product transfer) does not guarantee technological confidentiality Vietnamese party should have access to source technologies or intensify research and technological transformation to increase confidentiality in security products and equipment, especially for technologies preventing from high-tech crimes 4.3.3 Added value in production 28 Products manufactured from the technology transferred from abroad often ensure the modernity and suitability with the needs in the industry, allowing the Vietnamese party to apply to mass production and improve production capacity of products However, the factors of transfer time and putting the technology into mass production are often not highly appreciated by the technology transfer process in the field of security industry in Vietnam Nevertheless , the added value in industrial production is still a factor that is higher than the economic values and improve the knowledge and workmanship brought by the technology transferred from abroad to Vietnam 4.4 Results of testing and regression analysis 4.4.1 Testing of scale reliability: Conducting the Cronbach's Alpha test for independent variables, it’s found that the MTGT7 variable is excluded from the model because total correlation coefficient is less than 0.3 (Corrected Item-Total Correlation of MTGT7 only reaches 0.151 < 0.3) The remaining variables meet the condition of Corrected Item-Total Correlation greater than 0.3 and had a Cronbach's Alpha (Cα) coefficient greater than 0.5 It can be seen that all variables of affecting factor have coefficient Cα greater than 0.5, so all six factors with 35 observation variables and factors of dependent variables greater than 0.5 can be accepted, so it can be included in the model for analysis 4.4.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) * For independent variables: For EFA analysis, the author uses the method of Principles Components with the revolution of Varimax factor The author must perform the revolution method three times and remove some unsatisfactory variables (due to presence of multiple groups at the same time or non-presence in any group because the load factor is less than 0.5) The removal of variables is conducted as follows: The remaining variables include: CN1, CN2, CN3, CG1, CG2, CG3, CG4, CG5, NCG2, NCG5, NCG6, MTCP1, MTCP2, MTCP3, MTCP5, MTCP6, MTCP8, MTCP9, MTTCT5, MTCXV1 , MTCXV2 * Re-performance of EFA and analysis of KMO coefficient and Bartlett test The EFA result shows that: The KMO coefficient of the model is 0.903 > 0.5; The sig coefficient in the Bartlett test (0.000) is less than 0.05, indicating the fit of the model, the variables in the model are interrelated; Load factor of all factors is greater than 0.5 Total variance of the model was 70.844% > 50% showing that the factors contain 70.844% of the number of initial variables, qualifying for EFA analysis * Rotation matrix of independent variables 29 The factors after re-performing EFA generating groups, different from the original groups The author will rename the groups and create representative variables for running the regression model The rotation matrix of independent variables is shown in Figure 4.22 * Implementation of taking representative variable: The author re-statistics the number of variables of each group, renames the groups (a) Group – Transfer environment between two Parties (Transfer matrix) Include the variables of communication environment and characteristics of transferor and transferee, including 10 elements: CG1 ; CG3 ; CG4 ; CG2 ; CG5 ; NCG2 ; NCG5 ; NCG6 ; MTGT2 ; MTGT5 (b) Group - Government Environment Include elements: MTCP1 ; MTCP2 ; MTCP3 ; MTCP5 ; MTCP6 ; MTCP8 ; MTCP9 ; MTCP10 (c) Group - Technology Include elements: CN1; CN2 ; CN3 (d) Group - Socio-cultural and politic environment Include elements: MTCXV1; MTCXV2 * For dependent variables * Performance of EFA and analysis of KMO coefficient and Bartlett test The result of performing EFA of dependent variables shows that the variables can be used for regression analysis The EFA result show that the KMO coefficient is 0.783 > 0.5 ; Sig coefficient reaches 0.000 < 0.5; The FL load factor of all factors is greater than 0.5 Total variance of the model was 64,987%> 50%, qualifying for EFA analysis * Rotation matrix of dependent variables After the performance, the dependent variables still rotate into groups, but the composition of the groups has changes * Take the representative variable These variables are grouped into groups: (a) Group 1: Added value in production Include variables: GTGTSX1 ; GTGTKTH3 ; GTGTSX2 ; GTGTSX3 ; GTGTKTH4 (b) Group 2: Added value in competition Include variables: GTGTKTH1; GTGTKT1; GTGTKT2; GTGTSX4 (c) Group 3: Added value in ownership (Value Added Tax) Include variables: GTGTKT3; GTGTKTH2 To facilitate the performance of the regression model, the author takes the representative variables of three groups of GTGTSX, GTGTCT, GTGTQSH, and obtains dependent variable as GTGT 30 4.4.3 Pearson correlation analysis Conducting the test of correlation among variables to measure the close correlation between variables reveals that the technology factor is weakly correlated with the technology transfer result (Pearson correlation coefficient is less than 0.3) The result of technology transfer is most dependent on the government, followed by the transfer environment between the Parties (including the characteristics of the transferor, the transferee and the communication environment between two parties), and depends on the external political, cultural and social environment The sig value (1-tailed) is less than 0.05, indicating a positive and statistically significant correlation between independent variables and dependent variables 4.4.4 Regression analysis and suitability assessment of regression model * Regression model The author uses multivariate regression and Stepwise method Based on the regression result, the government variable has a greatest influence on the result of technology transfer in the field of security industry This is also understandable because now the field is still monopoly, the change of regulations will change the results of the technology transfer The model is written under the following formula: GTGT = 0,321* MTCG + 0,332*CP + 0,249*MTCXV + 0,048*CN Of factors affecting technology transfer results in the field of security industry, the technology factor has the weakest and least statistically significant effect (because the sig value is greater than 0.05) * Assessment of suitability of regression model The adjusted R2 value of the model is 0.567, indicating that the independent variables have a 56.7% effect on the dependent variables The Durbin-Watson coefficient is also close to 2, ensuring the suitability of the model in measuring the factors that affect the results of the technology transfer in the field of security industry The value of VIF (variance inflation factor) of all independent variables is in the range of to This result shows that there is no multicollinearity phenomenon in the model Based on the table of ANOVA analysis, the statistical significance F of the model has Sig value = 0.000 < 0.01, showing that new independent variables are associated with the results of technology transfer (GTGT) as well as explain the change of outcome variable (GTGT) Comment: The above results show that this regression model is suitable for explaining the general model in which the independent variables are related to the dependent variables 31 GTGT = 0,321* MTCG + 0,332*CP + 0,249*MTCXV + 0,048*CN This also means: + When the factors of MTCG increase, the added value of the technology transfer projects increases by 0.321 + When the factors of CP increase to 1, the added value of the technology transfer projects increases by 0.332 + When the factors of MTCXV increase by 1, the added value of the technology transfer projects increases by 0.249 + When the factors of the CN increase to 1, the added value of the technology transfer projects increases by 0.048 These results show that the government is the most influential factor in technology transfer results in the field of security industry performed through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering The factor of transfer environment is also an important factor affecting the technology transfer in the field of security industry in Vietnam The analysis shows that the factors of experience, management capacity, attitude of willingness to cooperate, support and implement the transfer contract of technology transferor will have a positive impact on the result of technology transfer in the field of security industry Political stability will determine the choice of partners and cultural intimacy will also make the transfer technologies to Vietnam not become more costly for other changes in line with the environment and condition of human resources of Vietnam In terms of technology, although it is, theoretically, the most important factor in deciding whether to import technology into Vietnam or not However, as the security industry in Vietnam remains a state-owned sector, complex transfer rules and transfer procedures often last long, so many technologies imported to Vietnam are no longer new before the rapid change of global industrial revolution CHAPTER SOLUTIONS TO PROMOTE THE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY INDUSTRY TO BE CARRIED OUT BY GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LOGISTICS AND ENGINEERING (MINISTRY OF PUBLIC SECURITY) 5.1 Domestic and international socio-economic context, opportunities and challenges for technology transfer in the field of security industry 5.1.1 Domestic and international socio-political and social context (i) The development of a complex world economy with trend of mixed confliction and co-operation; (ii) Trend in the development of modern technology; (iii) The issues on environmental pollution become increasingly more serious, making the lives of people all over the world face difficulties 32 5.1.2 Opportunities and challenges for technology transfer in the field of security industry * Opportunities: (i) access to new technologies, thus narrowing the technological gap between Vietnam and the world; (ii) promote study capacities, thereby researching new technologies, creating their own technologies, securing confidentiality, a characteristic of the security industry ; (iii) allow the application of new technologies in the development activities of the public security branch, increasing the efficiency of the investigation, forensic , stabilizing the economy, help the economy grow steadily * Challenges: (i) the obsolescence possibility is increasingly further than the countries in the world because of the rapid development of the Industrial Revolution 4.0; (ii) require a large amount of capital for research and development; (iii) staffs and personnel of the public security branch are still weak, lack many leading scientific and technical staff, business administrative expert, skilled workers 5.2 Viewpoint, objective and direction of promoting technology in the field of security industry 5.2.1 Viewpoint and objective of promoting technology in the field of security industry * Viewpoint: (i) Strengthen the equipment for Vietnamese party of the capacity of research, manufacture of equipment, technical equipment and supportive tools; (ii) Link to national industry and defense industry, ensuring practicality and efficiency, avoiding duplication and waste; (iii) Focus on research, transformation and improvement of transfer technologies in order to advance the production of hi-tech products with confidentiality, specificity and dual-use products * Objectives: General objective: (i) Invest in the research and production of equipment, technical and professional tools and supportive tools and other products for security with high technical and quality features, meeting the requirements of work and fighting of the public security force in the immediate and long term; (ii) Create the capacity of mastering the science, technique and technology; (iii) Create a high quality human resource, create modern and advanced management skill and technology, industrial engineering infrastructure; (iv) Serve the needs of protection, security and safety for people; Contribute to the cause of building and developing the national economy Specific objectives by 2025 : (i) Promote the system of research and production establishments of the police force to reach the advanced and modern level in the region; (ii) The production meets 50% to 70% of the demand for equipment for work, fighting and establishment of people’s public 33 security forces; (iii) Develop the planning and make plan for developing research, production and repair establishments by 2030, form clusters of production establishments in three regions (Northern, Central and Southern region), have the corresponding system of uniform apparatus and management of the public security branch; (iv) Establish research centers specialized in science, technique and technology of international standard 5.2.2 Orientation to 2030 (1) The system of research and production establishments, professional technical facilities and supportive tools integrates into the national industry and defense industry and integrate deeply and widely with the world economy (2) The system of research and production establishments, professional technical facilities and supportive tools has a high technology capacity and development speed with sustainable development, ensuring proactive response to the strategic requirement equipped to people’s public security forces, capable of adapting to economic fluctuations and international circumstances (3) Create some products with high scientific capacity that are deeply and widely involved in the export market in the world (4) Set up an apparatus, system of systematic research and production management from the central level to local level, in-depth, professional and high qualification training of staff related to science and technique, technology to meet the increasingly high demand of work, fighting of the public security branch 5.3 Solutions to improve and promote technology transfer in the field of security industry through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering (Ministry of Public Security) As analyzed in Chapter 3, there are groups mainly impacting the technology transfer in the field of security industry, including: the Government, the Communication Environment among the parties, external environment (politics, culture, society), Technology The above issues will be addressed by the author in two solution groups, including solution groups related to the Government (macro solutions) and solution groups for the enterprises/ organizations receiving transfer technology (micro solutions) 5.3.1 Group of macro solutions Technology transfer in the field of security industry is essential for Vietnam today Due to the nature of the industry, most enterprises and units that carry out international technology transfer in the field of security industry are state-owned Therefore, the government has the greatest impact on technology transfer result in the field of security industry In order to achieve good results in technology transfer activity in the field of security industry, the following issues shall be paid attention to: 34 5.3.1.1 Finalize the mechanisms and policies on technology transfer in the field of security industry, ensuring a stable political and social environment 5.3.1.2 Carry out activities of supporting enterprises and people’s public security units in technology transfer 5.3.1.3 Issue a mechanism for forming the domestic security industry market 5.3.1.4 Renew and rearrange the system of security enterprises 5.3.1.5 Ensure a safe and sound political, social and cultural environment for technology transfer activities in the field of security industry 5.3.1.6 Solution of human resource development 5.3.1.7 Invest in modern technical infrastructure for high science and technology research 5.3.2 Group of micro solutions 5.3.2.1 Enhance the capacity of the technology transferee 5.3.2.2 Diversify the transfer partners 5.3.2.3 Solutions on capital and method of raising capital 5.3.2.4 Prepare conditions for material and technical facilities and human resources for receiving and operating the technology 5.3.2.5 Carefully review the terms of the technology transfer contract 5.3.2.6 Create an environment of certain commitment, knowledge and willingness to transfer between two parties, remove cultural and social barriers between two Parties 5.3.2.7 Diversified technology transfer CONCLUSION In order to ensure the development of the security industry in the context of limited human and technical resources, the activity of receiving technology transferred from abroad is one of the interested solutions The economic, political, cultural and social context leads to the need to transfer technology in the field of security industry to ensure the tasks of ensuring security and order in the country, serving the living needs of people and socio-economic stability Therefore, the author selects the topic "Technology transfer in the field of security industry at General Department of Logistics and Engineering of Ministry of Public Security" with the desire to recognize and evaluate technology transfer activity in the field of security industry implemented through units of the General Department of Logistics and Engineering ofMinistry of Public Security, considering the factors affecting technology transfer activity in the field of security industry, thereby propose some solutions to promote this activity 35 To conduct the assessment of technology transfer activity in the field of security industry, the author conducted the survey on about 300 individuals involved in technology transfer projects, from 35 units inside and outside the industry The number of survey forms obtained is 251, ensuring the eligibility of the sample to carry out the analysis From the secondary data and the data obtained from the survey, the author draws some following conclusions: From the analyses, the system of viewpoints on technology, technology transfer, security industry, the author built the model of factors that affect the technology transfer in the field of security industry, in which there are main groups of factors with main impact, namely technology characteristics, government factor, factor on characteristics of the transferor, characteristics of the recipient of the transferred technology, factor on communication environment among two Parties and factor on the external political and social environment The author analyzes the current status of technology transfer in the field of security industry, which is implemented through the General Department of Logistics and Engineering of Ministry of Public Security The analysis result showed that the activities of acquiring technology transfer at the units inside and outside the security force performed through the General Department of Logistics – Engineering of Ministry of Public Security also took place regularly The number of technology transfer contracts, including transfer of technical know-how that increases, approaches more and more to the economies of modern science and technique such as USA, Germany, Japan, Israel, the Netherlands, Russia, etc helps units in the General Department improve the quality of technology and transfer technology products, strengthen the response to high-tech crimes that have been increasingly sophisticated However, the application of scientific and technological achievements in the world through technology transfer is still limited such as the it depends on technology transferors, costs of technology transfer are still quite high compared to the actual quality of transfer technology, the transfer time still lasts long, which increase the costs and slows the application of technology transfer to mass production Moreover, the capacity of technological research, development and innovation of the units in the General Department of Logistics – Engineering of Ministry of Public Security in particular, and the public security branch in general remains limited, which reduces the effectiveness of technology transfer The survey result showed that groups of impact factors mentioned in Chapter became groups, affecting the result of technology transfer in the field of security industry, including: governmental factor, transfer environment (including the characteristics of the transferor, transferee and communication environment between two parties), external environment and the 36 characteristics of the technology In these groups, the government factor prevails and the factor of transfer environment also has a significant impact on the transfer result, technology is the least impact factor, not statistically significant due to be affected by the government side Two groups propose micro solution (from the perspective of the State) and micro solution (from the perspective of the enterprise and beneficiaries of the transferred technology) with many smaller additional solutions The measure groups focus on solving problems stated from the current situation in Chapter and the groups of impact factors analyzed in Chapter as well as analyze the context, opportunities, and challenges in the Chapter These groups of solutions hope to suggest that technology managers and beneficiaries can propose some solutions to improve and promote technology transfer activity, bring real effectiveness for the development of security industry Due to limited time and knowledge, the Thesis certainly has many shortcomings, the author expects to receive feedback and contribution from scientists and units in the people’s public security forces in order that the author can complete the contents of the Thesis Sincerely thank! ... implementation and ultimate success of any project of technology transfer, including the transferors, the transferees, the technology and transfer mechanism, the environment of the transferor and the transferee... Nghiem et al (2011), Dang Kim Nhung (1994 ) ; Shoichi Yamashita; Luu Quy Tan ( 1994 ), Phan Xuan Dung (2004), Ngo Van Que (2001), Ha Thi Ngoc Oanh (2006), Vu Chi Loc (2016), Phan Xuan Dung (2017) etc... transfer model, many authors approached the qualitative model Behrman and Wallender (1976), Dahlman and Westphal (1981), Chantramonklasri (1990) However, many authors studied the quantitative model,
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