Quan hệ liên bang nga – việt nam (2001 – 2018) ttn tiếng anh

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION VU THI HONG CHUYEN RUSSIAN FEDERATION VIETNAM RELATION (2001 2018) Major : The World History Code: 9.22.90.11 SUMMARY OF HISTORY DOCTORAL THESIS HANOI - 2019 THIS THESIS IS COMPLETED AT THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION Scientific instructors: Prof Ph.D Tran Thi Vinh Assoc Prof PhD Nguyen Thi Huyen Sam Thesis reviewer 1: Assoc Prof PhD Bui Thanh Nam University of Social Sciences and Humanities Vietnam National University, Hanoi Thesis reviewer 2: Assoc Prof PhD Le Trung Dung Institute of History Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences Thesis reviewer 3: Assoc Prof PhD Van Ngoc Thanh Hanoi National University of Education The thesis will be defended in front of University Thesis Examiners’ Council, Hanoi National University of Education, at on / / The thesis is available at the National Library, Hanoi and the library of Hanoi National University of Education OPENING Reasons for choosing the subject In Vietnam’s diplomatic hictory, the Vietnam Soviet Union relation in the past and Vietnam Russian Federation in the present has a particularly important position During the past 70 years, since Vietnam and the Soviet Union officially established diplomatic relation, the two sides’ relation has gone through many ups and downs Entering the 21st century, in the world and region’s fluctuations and the adjustment of foreign policies of each nation, Vietnam- Russian Federation relation has seen important changes From the first decade of the 21st century, Vietnam and Russian Federation established the “strategic partnership” relation ( in March 2001) In the second decade, the two countries’ relation was leveled to “ comprehensive strategic partnership” ( in July, 2012) The fact shows that Russian Federation Vietnam relation has strategic meaning for both nations For the Russian Federation, although Vietnam is not the top priority in their Asia Pacific policy, Vietnam still has a crucial political position in ASEAN Russia’s comprehensive strategic partnership with Vietnam is Russia’s strategic property in the “ big chessboard” which has been formed in the world To make Russia integrated to the world’s new economy, the top priority idea of Russian President V Putin in foreign policies is to make full use of economic benefits Only a half year after he took up the Presidency, he announced the “foreign strategy of Russian Federation” with different priorities In which, Asia is Russia’s 4th priority ( after SNG the 1st priority, Europe 2nd priority and The United States 3rd priority) In Russia’s foreign policy with Asia, in addition to placing focus on its relations with big nations such as China, India and Japan, Russia pays attention to expanding and heightening the relations with ASEAN nations Vietnam plays the central role in this relation Russia considers Vietnam as the link to ASEAN, to facilitate Russia to penetrate into the regional market, expand Russia’s benefits in the Far East region To the Vietnam side, inheriting the fine relation from the past, the relation with Russia is always on top priority in the country’s foreign policy The comprehensive strategic relation between Russian Federation and Vietnam shows the two countries’ high trust in each other In that situation, the study on Russian Federation - Vietnam relation is essential, has scientific and practical significance The research on “Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018)” not only clarifies the changing and development of the two countries’ relation in different aspects of politics diplomacy, economy national defense, culture, education training but also analyzes and explains features and influence of this relation on each side Particularly, the research also contributes to clarifying the nature and level of Russian Federation -Vietnam comprehensive strategic relation To consolidate and develop the traditional relation to benefit the two nations in new situation, Russian Federation and Vietnam have made effort to level up the practical mutual relation However, this relation is not proportional with the scale of comprehensive strategic partnership The cooperation has not to the two sides’ expectations This is the issue of scientific and practical meaning that the thesis will make clear Russian Federation -Vietnam relation has specific features compared to other relations That is the relation between strategic allies who shared the same socialist ideology from the Cold War period to the cooperation relation based on equality and mutual benefits when the two countries are following different political paths The change in nature of Russian Federation -Vietnam relation is suitable with the common trend of international relations developed after the Cold War Meanwhile, it is an evidence for the development of bilateral relation between a big nation with a small nation on the basis of equality in the current international relation system Undergoing nearly 70 years with many challenges, Russian Federation Vietnam relation has developed both in depth and width It is necessary to study and review the two countries’ relation to inherit and uphold the fine heritages in the past It will be the foundation to boost the two sides’ relation at present and in the future With these scientific and practical meanings, we select “Russian Federation -Vietnam relation (2001 2018)” to be the subject of this History Doctoral Thesis Object and scope of the research 2.1 Object of the research: Studied object of the thesis is Russian Federation -Vietnam relation in period 2001 - 2018 2.2 Scope of the research: - Scope of space: Within the thesis research, the subject will mention the bilateral relation between Russian Federation and Vietnam relation, official relation between the two States and Governments - Scope of time: The thesis will study Russian Federation -Vietnam relation in the first decades of the 21 st century (2001- 2018) 2001 was the year Russian Federation and Vietnam identified their relation as strategic partnership This marked the improvement in the two countries’s relation after a quiet time in the last decade of the 20 th century 2018 is the ending year of the rd term of office of Russian President V.Putin The period from 2000 to 2018 also covered the terms of Russian Presidents: V.Putin (with two terms, 2000-2008 and 2012-2018); D.Medveded (one term 2008 2012) - Contents of research: The thesis focuses on studying the bilateral relation between Russian Federation and Vietnam in the field of politics diplomacy, economy, national defense, education- training, science technology, culture and tourism; then draws characteristics and analyzes the impact of this relationship on the two countries Target and tasks of the research: 3.1 Research target: The thesis’s target is to clarify the changing and development process of the Russian Federation and Vietnam diplomatic relation from 2001 to 2018 in the field of politics diplomacy, economy, national defense, education- training, science technology, culture and tourism On that basis, the thesis points out features, influence of the bilateral relation on each side 3.2 Research tasks: To achieve this target, the thesis needs to complete the following tasks: Firstly, analyzing factors affecting Russian Federation- Vietnam relation (2001 2018), including factors affecting already existing in the two sides’ relation as well as factors recently rising in the new context Secondly, systematizing the changing process of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in the field of politics diplomacy, economy, national defense, education- training, science technology, culture and tourism from 2001 to 2018 Thirdly, on the basis of generalizing achievements and limitations, the thesis pinpoints reasons for achievements and limitations, features , analyzes effects of the two countries’ relation in 2001-2018 period on each side’s development and the region as well Reference and research methods: 4.1 Reference: * Original documents: - Documents of diplomatic guidelines of the State of Russian Federation, reports of Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about Vietnam’s situation, annual National Security Strategies - Party’s documents, speeches, notes of Vietnamese Party and State leaders, Vietnam Diplomacy Bluebook 2015 ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs) - Joint statements, agreements and statistics of the States of Russian Federation and Vietnam about the two countries’ relation in different fields * Reference: Specialized researches, articles of Russian scholars, foreign scholars and Vietnamese scholars about Russia’s diplomatic policies in general and diplomatic policies for Vietnam in particular, relation between Russian Federation and Vietnam 4.2 Research methods: Based on the methodology of Marxism Leninism, Ho chi Minh’s ideas and the views of the Communist Party of Vietnam on international issues and foreign policies, the thesis mainly uses historical approach, combining with the interdisciplinary approach of international relations and political science to clarify the process and nature of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation from 2001 to 2018 The thesis mainly uses history research method and logical method to give an objective and scientifical overview of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation from 2001 to 2018 For history research method and logical method, the thesis analyses and explains phenomenon, events and factors that govern the development of the two countries’ relation, clarifies progress in the relation with changes in nature, scale and quality of relation The thesis also studies international relations to consider the development of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in the context the world and region are changing Moreover, other research methodologies such as classifying, comparing, collating, collecting, analyzing are used to make clear the relation nature and influence Contribution of the thesis The thesis is a specialized and systematic research on Russian Federation- Vietnam relation (2001 2018) from the view of Vietnamese researchers with specific contributions in science, reality and documents: - Clarify factors that govern the movement of the relation from 2001 to 2018; - Give an overall analysis of the status of the two countries’ relation in the field of politics diplomacy, economy, national defense, education- training, science technology, culture and tourism in two periods 2001-2012 and 2012-2018; Clarify achievements, limitations, features of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation (2001 2018), influence of this bilateral relation on the development of the two nations; - The thesis supplements documents to serve the study and lecture about the world history, history of modern international relations in general, Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in particular Thesis structure Besides the opening and conclusion, reference and appendix, the thesis comprises chapters: Chapter 1: An overview of the research Chapter 2: Factors affecting Russian Federation- Vietnam relation (2001 2018) Chapter 3: Development process of Russian FederationVietnam relation (2001 2018) Chapter 4: Some remarks on Russian Federation- Vietnam relation (2001 2018) Chapter AN OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH 1.1 Studies of local scholars 1.1.1 Studies related to Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) Firstly, we mention typical studies on Russia’s foreign policies and policies for Vietnam, such as: Russia in the international arena: Yesterday, today and tomorrow (2006) of Ha My Huong; Foreign Affairs Strategy of big nations and relation with Vietnam in the first decades of the 21st century (2006) of Nguyen Xuan Son and Nguyen Van Du; Society, economy of Russian Federation in the post- Soviet period (2009) of Nguyen Thi Huyen Sam; Russian Federation in the first decades of the 21st century (2011) of Nguyen An Ha; Looking back on 10 years of foreign policies of Russian Federation and Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in early 21st century of Nguyen An Ha, Europe Study, publication 3/2010; Deploying Asia Pacific policy in Russia’s strategy of balancing Asia Europe of Phan Thi Thu Dung, Europe Study, publication 6/2016; These studies and articles mention new foreign policies of Russia in the first decades of the 21 st century Although they not mention Russia’s foreign policies for Vietnam, via Russia’s foreign strategy for Asia- Pacific Region and ASEAN nations, we can see the goals and focal orientations of Russia’s foreign policies which identify Vietnam’s role as a “connection” Direct studies on Russian Federation’s policy for Vietnam in the post- Cold War period are not numerous We can mention the studies of Bui Thi Thao, namely: The adjustment in US and Russia’s policies for Vietnam (1991 2008) History Doctoral Thesis and article Russia Federation’s policy for Vietnam after the Cold War (1991 2008) Several main features which was posted on the Europe Research Journal, publication 5/2012 In this research and article, the author concentrated on analyzing Russia’s policy for Vietnam in periods: 1991 1993 and 1994 2008 To explain the fluctuations in the relation between the two countries in this period, the author also mentioned some reasons and pointed out some features in Russian Federation’s policy for Vietnam in this period Secondly, this research refers to typical studies on Vietnam’s foreign policies and policies for Russian Federation, such as: Vietnam’s strategic orientation for foreign affairs till 2020 (2012) of Pham Binh Minh; The study Vietnam’s renewal in foreign affairs and international economic integration (1986 2012) (2013) of Dinh Xuan Ly In the article entitled Russian Federation- Vietnam relation: Historical path and new height in the 21 st century (excerpted from the book Vietnam’s foreign affairs strategy and orientation till 2020), author Pham Binh Minh affirmed the consistency in Vietnam’s foreign policy as the country attached great importance and priority to the development of strategic partnership with Russian Federation Some typical articles involved this research contents are: Developing relations with big nations in the renewal foreign policy of Vietnamese Party and State, Nguyen Hoang Giap, A world study, publication 2/2005; Vietnam’s policy for Russian Federation (1991 2017) Several main features , Vu Thi Hong Chuyen, Europe Research, publication 5/2018 These studies and articles help the researcher identify Russian Federation’s position and role in Vietnam’s renewal foreign policy Thirdly, we mention researches on the cooperation relation between Russian Federation and ASEAN, including Vietnam Some outstanding works are: Forwarding to Russia- ASEAN comprehensive cooperation relation in the first years of the 21 st century (2007); “Russia ASEAN relation in the first decades of the 21 st century” (2008); Measures to develop Russia- ASEAN relation in new international context” (2009) of Nguyen Quang Thuan (Chief author).The studies analyzed the status and put forth measures to develop Russia- ASEAN relation in the first decades of the 21 st century They also mentioned Vietnam’s role and position in the Russia- ASEAN relation Typical scientific articles are New moves in Russia’s relations with ASEAN and the role of Vietnam of Nguyen An Ha, Europe Research, publication 3/2006; Reformed Russia and Russia ASEAN Vietnam relations in the first years of the 21 st century of Dinh Cong Tuan, Europe Research, publication 4/2007; Attempt to analyze Russia’s new strategy for ASEAN and the issues raised for Vietnam after the message of the Russian Federation dated November 12 th , 2009 of President D.Medvedev of Nguyen Canh Toan, Europe Research, publication 12/2009; These articles gave an overview of Russia- ASEAN cooperation relation, mentioned Vietnam’s position and role in Russia- ASEAN relation 1.1.2 Researches which directly mention Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) 1.1.2.1.An overview of Russian Federation Vietnam relation Mentioning Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in general, the most outstanding studies are Vietnam- Russia relation in new international context (2005) of Vo Dai Luoc and Le Bo Linh and Vietnam- Russia Strategic cooperation, viewpoints, status and prospects (2008) of Vu Đinh Hoe Nguyen Hoang Giap In the study Vietnam- Russia relation in new international context, the authors mentioned big changes in the world, Russia and Vietnam since the 90s of the 20 th century On that basis, they analyzed the status of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation with fluctuations from the dissolution of the Soviet Union to the first years of the 21 st century The book on Vietnam-Russia strategic cooperation- viewpoints, status and prospects of Vu Dinh Hoe Nguyen Hoang Giap gives an overview of Russian Federation- Vietnam strategic partnership in the first years of the 21 st century The study focused on solving basic issues: study the views of strategic partners, contents and requirements, status of Russian Federation- Vietnam relation; analyzes factors influencing the two sides’ relation development to strategic partnership; gives petitions to boost Russia- Vietnam strategic cooperation development in some fields by the year 2008 Moreover, many scientific workshops were held to discuss, study the bilateral relation between Russia and Vietnam and the multilateral relations between Vietnam- ASEAN and Russia, such as the international scientific workshop on the topic: Russian Federation- Vietnam relation: History, status and prospects held in January/2010 by the Europe Research Institute under Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences; workshop Development cooperation between Vietnam ASEAN and Russian Federation: Status and Prospects held by Ho Chi Minh Political Academy in celebration of the 65th anniversary of Vietnam- Russia diplomatic relation (January/1950 January/2015) Presentations in the workshop illustrated various aspects of the Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in different cooperation fields In addition, there are some articles about Russian Federation- Vietnam relation posted on specialized journals, such as: New developments in Vietnam- Russia relation, Le Thanh Van, International research, publication 5/2000; Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in the Asia- Pacific Region Cooperation context, Vu Đinh Hoe and Nguyen Tat Giap, Southeast Asia study, publication 2/2007 These studies focused on analyzing the relation between the two nations with new moves in the region’s fluctuating period 1.1.2.2.Cooperation fields between Russian Federation and Vietnam - In the field of economy: Firstly, we mention Ph.D theses which studied the Vietnam- Russia economic relation- Process of expanding trade relation between Vietnam and Russia Federation in the international integration (Trinh Thi Thanh Thuy, 2007) and Russia’s international trade policy and possibility of Vietnam- Russia trade relation development (Dang Hung Son, 2012) Studying these two works, we see several issues related to the status and solutions to boost Russia- Vietnam economic relation in period 1991 2005; Russia’s international trade policy in period 2000-2010 and prospects of Vietnam- Russia trade relation till 2020 Secondly, we studied articles posted on specialized journals, such as: Advantages and difficulties, some measures to boost economic ties between Vietnam and Russian Federation, Nguyen Van Lich, A study on the World, publication 2/2010; Looking back on Vietnam- Russia economic relation (1991 2010), Le Van Thinh, Party History Journal, publication 5/2013; Vietnam- Russia Trade and Economic Cooperation in new context , Nguyen An Ha, Europe Research, publication 4/2015; All of these articles have updated information The studies reflected the slow development of Vietnam- Russia economic relation, not deserve the scale of strategic partnership, the traditional economic ties as well as potential and aspiration of the two sides - Regarding to the relation in the field of national defense, science and technology, education and training, culture, tourism there are many articles posted on specialized journals, such as: National Defense relation between Vietnam and Russia in the first years of the 21st century, Hoang Dinh Nhan, Europe Research, publication 9/2016; Vietnam- Russia cooperation in education, Tran Anh Tai, Europe Research, publication 1/2004; Vietnam- Russia cooperation in tourism in the first years of the 21st century: Status and rising issues, Vu Thi Hong Chuyen, Europe Research, publication 10/2017 These studies give us basic understanding of the status and prospects for developing the two sides’ cooperation relation in some fields A survey on these studies showed that they mentioned just some aspects of the two countries’ relation There is no in-depth and general study of Vietnam- Russian Federation relation from 2001 to 2018 1.2 Studies of foreign scholars 1.2.1 Russian scholars 1.2.1.1 Studies related to Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) These are studies on foreign book of President V.Putin’s administration in the early years of the 21st century, including foreign policies for Vietnam and Russian Federation Vietnam relation Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences M.L Titanrenko is a prominent scientist and expert of Oriental and Chinese studies He wrote many books about Russia in the early years of the 21 st century, the most outstanding one is the book Россия и ее азиатские партнеры в глобализирующемся мире_ Стратегическое сотрудничество: проблемы и перспективы (Russia and Asian partners in a globalized world Cooperation strategy: issues and prospects) published in 2012 in Moscow and the study Meaning of political geography of Russia, China and other Asian nations translated to Vietnamese by Do Minh Cao, Encyclopedic Dictionary Publishing House, Hanoi in 2012 In these studies, the authors clarified the political geography importance of the Asia- Pacific Region for Russia They also opened up the basics in Russia’s foreign policies towards countries in the region, including Vietnam There are several intensive researches on Russia’s policy for the Asia- Pacific region We can mention some typical works of Russian scholars as: Aleksey Fenenko, The situation in the Asia- Pacific and Russia’s policy for this region, Europe Research, publication 4/2014; L.A Gladchenko, Expanding strategic partnership with Vietnam and cooperation with ASEAN Priorities in Russia’s policy for Asia- Pacific region, Europe Research, publication 7/2014 We can see that these articles refer to different aspects, such as contents, benefits, meaning of Russia’s new strategy for Asia- Pacific Region Other researches are specialized studies, articles, essays on the relation between Russian Federation and ASEAN, including Vietnam The most outstanding ones are: «АСЕАН — Россия: основания и перспективы лартнерства (ASEAN Russia: Cooperation basis and prospects) published in 2011 by the ASEAN Center in celebration of the 15th anniversary of Russia ASEAN partnership relation This is a specialized research of Russian scientists, giving an overall study on the bilateral and multilateral relations between Russia and ASEAN in general and each nation in the region in particular since Russia has become an official partner of ASEAN (1996) Several Russian scholars had articles in specialized journals, such as: Gubarev V.A with Prospects and possibilities of Russia’s cooperation with ASEAN nations in high-tech economic fields, Europe Research, publication 3/2007; Gubin A.V with Issues and expectations for Russia’s military technical cooperation with Southeast Asian nations: Priorities for Vietnam, Europe Research, publication 11/2014; Besides, some international scientific workshops were held by Russia and Vietnam, such as the workshop Mechanism and solutions to boost Russia- ASEAN relation in the first decades of the 21st century, Moscow, 9/2006; Forwarding to Russia ASEAN comprehensive cooperation relation in early decades of the 21st century, HCMC, 3/2007; Development cooperation between Vietnam- ASEAN and Russian Federation: Status and prospects, Hanoi, 9/2014, Several Russian scholars made presentations at the workshops, such as: Possibilities and prospects in expanding cooperation in foreign trade and science production in high-tech 11 Based on selective sources of materials, the results and recommendations of senior scholars, we continue to study systematically and concretely the process of developing Russia- Vietnam relation 1.3.2 Thesis issues that need to be addressed From the comments on the domestic and foreign studies, the thesis “ Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018)” will focus on clarifying the following issues: Factors affecting the Russian Federation- Vietnam relation, including: International and regional context, the condition of the two nations, the adjustment of foreign policies of each side in the early 21 st century, status of Vietnam- Russia relation before 2000, demand for establishing strategic partnership and comprehensive strategic partnership between Russia and Vietnam; The process of mobilization and development of the two countries’ relation went through periods (2001 2012) and (2012 2018) in the fields of politics diplomacy, economy, national defense, education- training, science technology, culture and tourism; Outlining the achievements and limitations, explaining characters, analyzing the impact of bilateral relation between Russia and Vietnam from 2001 to 2018 on each nation and region as well Via researching domestic and Russian material sources, the thesis collated and compared data to clarify the nature of this relation Inheriting the results of previous studies and supplementing new material sources, the thesis will study systematically and comprehensively to clarify the mobilization and development process of Vietnam- Russia relation from strategic partnership to comprehensive strategic partnership The thesis author hopes to contribute an objective, multidimensional and systematic research on Russian Federation and Vietnam relation from 2001 to 2018 Chapter FACTORS AFFECTING RUSSIAN FEDERATION- VIETNAM RELATION ( 2001-2018) 2.1 International and regional context in the first decades of the 21st century 2.1.1.International contex When the Cold War ended, the world shifted from the bipolar to multipolar order The trend of polarization continued to be shaped as the human entered the 21 st century Peace, cooperation for mutual development has become the mainstream and aspiration of all nations in the world Relent international relations have created opportunities for nations to break down barriers and engage in interrelationships Therefore, nations have to adjust their domestic and foreign policies in line with the new situation At the same time they seek for their own benefits Besides, the regional association trend has developed robustly Scientific and technological revolution with marvelous 12 accomplishments has brought many opportunities and challenges to every country The financial crisis in 2008 has had a serious impact on global economic growth The most effective way to revitalize and develop economy is to strengthen cooperation with the outside world 2.1.2 Asia- Pacific region context 2.1.2.1 Economic, political, security condition 2.1.2.2 Cooperation and competition between Russia and China, Russia and the United States * Russia China relation * Russia the United States relation 2.2 Russian Federation condition and foreign policy for Vietnam 2.2.1 Russian Federation’s social economic reform and foreign policies adjustment In May, 7th, 2000, V Putin took over the presidency, marking a turning point in his life and making basic changes in Russia in the new century President V Putin set out the direction of social- economic development with the goal of restoring the economic potential and international status of Russian Federation The first targets of all were to build a democratic society, ensure material and spiritual life for all social strata To achieve this goal, President V.Putin took comprehensive measures in all fields of economy, politics, society, culture- education In which, economic reform was a key step in the reform cause Thanks to drastic measures, Russia escaped the perpetual crisis of the 1990s and entered a period of “ recovery and rise” in the early decades of the 21st century However, in 2014-2015, Russia’s economy fell into recession Confronting with this situation, Russia took measures to restructure the economy so that it would not rely too much on the export of energy and fuels, expanded market to the East as well as countries in the post- Soviet region instead of its traditional markets in Europe After assuming the presidency of Russia (2000), V.Putin announced that the country’s foreign policy should take the direction of balancing independence, self- reliance and multilateralisation and placing national interests as the ultimate goal In this foreign strategy, Russia implemented the order of priorities sorted as follows: 1- SNG nations; the United States; Europe; Asia- Pacific; Middle East nations, Africa, Latin America Entering the second decade of the 21 st century, Russia proceeded with new adjustments in foreign policy when President D Medvedev announced the Eastbound policy on October 2010 Since then, Russia further strengthened its presence and influence in the Asia Pacific This was clearly demonstrated in the country’s active participation in regional organizations and strengthened ties with nations in the region with top priorities given to China, Japan, Korea, India and ASEAN nations 2.2.2 Vietnam in Russia’s foreign policy In Russia’s policy for Asia- Pacific, its partnership relation with ASEAN is one of the priorities due to this region’s important strategic position in both 13 geography and politics In Russia’s relation with ASEAN, Vietnam has become its top priority in Southeast Asia, because Vietnam is one of the nations which have been affirming more and more important role and position in the region and have traditional friendly relation with Russia In its strategy to head to Southeast Asia, Russia has many advantages in Vietnam Firstly, Russia’s promotion in economic ties with Vietnam will give the country more opportunities to exploit this densely populated market in investment fields which are Russia’s strong points, such as petroleum, energy, military defense equipment, aerospace Secondly, Vietnam is strategically located in Southeast Asia Vietnam can control the navigable and arterial routes through the East Sea which relates to Russia’s strategic benefits in security, economy and maritime Thirdly, since joining ASEAN (1995), Vietnam has been an active and responsible member which made many initiatives and contributions to the robust development and unity of the Association Recognizing Vietnam’s position in ASEAN, Russia identified Vietnam as a connection to help Russia return to Southeast Asia and Asia- Pacific This is where Russia is trying to expand its influence over China and the United States, which are two of Russia’s strong opponents 2.3 Vietnam’s situation and foreign policy for Russian Federation 2.3.1.Vietnam’s foreign policies and international integration in renewal period Vietnam’s renewal cause ( since 1986) has brought vivid changes in the fields of economy, politics, culture- society in the country In the early years of the 21st century, Vietnam not only broke the embargo of hostile forces, but also expanded its foreign relations Vietnam actively participated in regional and international economic integration organizations, became one of the leading countries in international economic integration with the participation in many newgeneration FTA agreements Vietnam’s economy made constant growth, the people’s living condition was improved Social- political situation was stabilized, national security and defense was strengthened Vietnam has become one of the favorite destinations of foreign tourists in the recent years Reality showed that many nations and international organizations highly appreciated the achievements of Vietnam’s renewal cause, the country’s role in ASEAN as well as important strategic position in Southeast Asia The th Congress (December/1986) of Vietnamese Communist Party initiated a comprehensive renovation that opened a new era with significant changes in social, economic and political life as well as in foreign policy of Vietnamese Party and State The th Congress of Vietnamese Communist Party ( April, 2001) affirmed strongly the country’s foreign policy of independence, autonomy, openness, multilateralisation and diversification of international relations.That was the first time Vietnamese Communist Party had introduced the concept of “ partner” in the country’s foreign policy and foreign relations After the 11 th and 12 th Party congresses, Vietnam’s foreign policy in the renewal 14 period was supplemented and developed in a bid to realize the target “to ensure the supreme interests of the nation” 2.3.2 Russian Federation in Vietnam’s foreign policy For Vietnam, Russia is a great nation in the region, which not only firmly keeps but also develops great potential in politics, economy and military, and in fact, Russia might be a good opportunity for Vietnam to balance relations with other great nations in the world Strengthening relation with Russia, Vietnam can court the support from external sources to serve the country’s development, Russia’s support in the United Nations to solve international issues related to Vietnam Russian Federation is a friend of Vietnam The consolidation and further improvement in the relation with Russia will contribute to preserve and uphold fine heritages from the past It also shows Vietnam’s gratitude and loyalty to the old friend - the Soviet Union, which is Russia today 2.4 Russian Federation Vietnam relation before 2001 2.4.1 Soviet Union Vietnam relation in 1950 1991 period In January 30 th 1950, the Soviet Union was the first socialist State to officially recognize and establish diplomatic relations with Vietnam Since then, Vietnam received tremendous material and spiritual support from the Soviet Union and socialist countries It contributed to the victory of the anti-French and antiAmerican resistance wars The success of Vietnam’s revolution in 1975 made a great part to the development of the Soviet Union at the time when the Cold War between the Soviet Union and United States was at its peak After Vietnam was liberated, (1976 1991), the country continued to receive support and effective cooperation from the Soviet Union In the face of the upheaval when the Soviet Union dissolved (1991), there were changes and adjustments in the two countries’ relation to suit with the new situation The Soviet Union- Vietnam friendly relation is a heritage, an active factor which affects the two sides’ relation at present and in the future 2.4.2 Vietnam- Russia relation in 1991 2000 period In December 1991, the disintegration of the Soviet Union had a big impact on Vietnam- Soviet Union relation This relationship has shifted from strategic alliance on the basis of the same ideology to the mutually beneficial cooperation of two different political institutions From 1991 to 2000, the mobilization and development process of Vietnam- Russia relation was divided into periods 1991 1993 and 1994 2000 From late 1991 to 1993: This was the period when the two countries were in a state of stagnation, especially in the field of economy- trade From 1994 to 1999: the two countries endeavored to create a ew cooperation framework to direct the Russian Federation- Vietnam relation to a stable and long-term development strategy 15 Chapter DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION VIETNAM RELATION (2001 -2018) 3.1 Russian Federation Vietnam strategic partnership relation (2001 2012) 3.1.1 Russian Federation Vietnam established strategic partnership relation Russia was the first country that Vietnam established strategic partnership At that time, with the development of the world, region and domestic fluctuations, each nation had strategic adjustments and their own foreign policies that the two sides shared the same strategic benefits; the Russian Federation- Vietnam relation in 1991- 2000 period did not achieve results as expected Therefore, both Russia and Vietnam were in demand of developing this relation to strategic partnership to reach targets in strategic and long-term benefits as well as in specific fields as economy, national defense, education- training, science and technology In the context the world and the two countries were making new moves, the bilateral relationship between Russian Federation and Vietnam saw active changes In the State visit of Vietnamese Prime Minister Phan Van Khai to Russia (September, 2000), and Russian President V Putin’s first visit to Vietnam (from 28/2 to 2/3/2001), the two sides signed in a joint statement on strategic partnership The statement pinpointed the two side’s determination to continue consolidating and further boosting the traditional friendly relation and multi-sided cooperation relation in the 21st century on the basis of the existing strategic partnership between the two sides This event marked the establishment of the two countries’ strategic partnership relation, ushered into a new development period of Vietnam- Russia relation which is more comprehensive, deeper and wider On the basis of affirming the same determination and further development of the traditional friendship and multi-sided cooperation between Russian Federation and Vietnam in the 21st century, the joint statement comprised 17 articles, focused on the main issues of bilateral cooperation in different fields, shared the same ideas about international issues, security and cooperation in Asia- Pacific and Southeast Asia The Vietnam- Russia joint statement also reflected the demand for integration of each nation in the region and the world, suitable with the adjustment and selection of priorities in each side’s foreign policy, international and regional context The signing of this joint statement also revealed that each side was clearly aware of other’s position and role for their own national interests Meanwhile, to some extent, the signing of the joint statement contributed to boosting the Russia Federation- Vietnam relation in all fields However, it is necessary to clarify whether the implementation of this relationship in reality has reached the goals set in the joint statement or not 3.1.2 Status of deploying Russia- Vietnam strategic partnership 3.1.2.1 Political- diplomatic relation In the first 10 years of the 21 st century (since the signing of the joint statement in March, nd , 2001), the two sides’ political- diplomatic strategic partnership has been developed constantly This is the go-ahead field that paved 16 the way for other areas of collaboration so it has gained a number of outstanding results The two sides’ political diplomatic activities were promoted regularly via meetings at all levels ( State, branches, sectors, localities) Cooperation forms and mechanisms were diversified The development of Russia Federation Vietnam diplomatic political relation in the first 10 years of the 21 st century was not only demonstrated in the number but also the results and significance of State visits between leaders of the two nations 3.1.2.2 Economic cooperation a) Commercial relations • Import- export activities The trading, import- export activities between the two countries in the first years of the 21st century made vivid changes The two-way export turnover was on the rise If in period 1996 - 2000, the total export turnover between the two sides hit USD 363,1 million, this figure in 2005 reached over USD billion and continued to hit roughly USD billion in 2011 However, the increase was not even Particularly, in 2003, the two-way export turnover reduced compared to 2002, and in 2006, the amount was only under USD billion (while in 2005, the figure was USD 1,079, 830) Since 2011, Vietnam started exporting goods to Russia valued roughly USD 0.6 billion • Import- export goods structure Export goods of the two countries were strong items of each side Vietnam goods exported to Russia were mainly farm produces, fishery products and light industrial products Taking the greatest proportion was farm produces (rice, coffee, rubber, cashew nuts, pepper ) and fishery products (making up 60% of Vietnam’s total exports to Russia) Whereas, Russia’s main export items to Vietnam were billet steel, petrol, iron, steel, fertilizer, automobile, spare parts, materials b) Investment cooperation The signing of many agreements and treaties was the legal basis to create momentum to boost the bilateral relation in the early years of the 21 st century Russian direct investment in Vietnam tended to increase, and vice versa, Russia was one of the best destinations of Vietnamese investors Although the two sides’ cooperation potential in the field of investment was huge, it had not yet been exploited fully In spite of the increase in investment capital, the two sides’ investment proportion in the each country’s FDI was relatively modest 3.1.2.3 Cooperation in national defense For the highest purpose in foreign policy , which is the assurance of sovereignty and independence , Russian Federation and Vietnam attached much importance to strengthening cooperation in the field of defense via the purchase of weapons and training military personnel 17 Regarding to cooperation in arms trading, value of weapon trading contracts between the two countries was on constant rise, from around USD 500 million in 2002 2007 period to over USD billion in 2008, to a record high of USD 3.5 billion in 2009 Regarding to the military officials training, Russia and Vietnam signed many cooperation agreements, such as framework contract on training Vietnamese soldiers at Russia’s military schools ( April, 2002); giving priority to boosting cooperation in military training ( 2007) 3.1.2.4 Cooperation in education training, culture, science and technology, tourism a) Cooperation in education and training The cooperation in education and training between the two countries focused on such issues as cooperating in training, transferring and improving professional skills for cadres; setting up programs and projects; exchanging students, postgraduate students, trainees and cadres of educational sector The training forms included: training at the State level and bilateral training between universities and educational establishments of the two sides At State level, Russia was one of the grantors of many educational scholarships for Vietnam Several universities of the two sides regularly conducted exchanges and cooperation In this period, the two sides signed an agreement to establish Vietnam- Russia Technology University (24 th October, 2011) on the basis of upgrading Le Quy Don Technical University in Vietnam b) Cooperation in culture On the basis the two sides signed Russia- Vietnam culture cooperation agreement (2000), cooperation program in the field of culture in 2010 2012 period and the opening of Russian Culture and Science Center in Hanoi ( September /2003), the two countries’ cooperation in culture in the early years of the 21st century was diversified in different aspects, such as culture and art exchanges, language exchanges, events organization c) Cooperation in science and technology Along with the development of Russian Federation Vietnam relation in general, the cooperation in the field of science and technology between the two countries was tightened with the signing of statements, agreements and conventions This was the legal basis for both sides to deploy cooperation contents, such as coordinating in implementing common projects, technological transference, cooperation and exchanges, science official training in basic sciences and some high-tech industries ( Aerospace technology, energy technology, electronic technology, defense technology, biological and medical technology ) d) Cooperation in tourism This is a potential cooperation field which made a robust growth in the st 21 century The number of Russian tourists to Vietnam made a year-on-year increase, from 0,3% (2000 2003), 0,35% (2004), 0,42% (2005), 0,72% (2006), 18 0,81% (2007), an increase of over 1% from 2008 to 2010, the highest was 1,8% (2009) One of the most important reasons for the surge of Russian visitors to Vietnam compared to previous years was that Since January 1st, 2009, Vietnam has given visa exemption for Russian travellers to the country in 15 days Moreover, Vietnam has taken many measures and campaigns to attract Russian tourists 3.2 Russian Federation Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership (2012 2018) 3.2.1 Russian Federation Vietnam heightened bilateral relation to comprehensive strategic partnership Effort to boost Russia- Vietnam relation after the meeting between leaders of the two countries in 2001 has paved the way for new development in the bilateral relation from partners to strategic partners However, confronting with unexpected fluctuations of the world and region as well as demands for cooperation to suit with the new situation, leaders of the two countries were tasked to actively seek for measures to further boost the relation The two sides realized that they needed to consolidate and tighten the strategic partnership Besides, in late the first decade of the 21 st century, some new factors emerged: active moves in Vietnam- US relation; breakthrough development in Russia- ASEAN relation This has motivated Russia- Vietnam relation To bring mutual benefits, the two sides saw the neccesity of enhancing the relation from strategic partnership to comprehensive strategic partnership * From the 26 th to 30 th of July, 2012, during President Truong Tan Sang‘s State visit to Russia, leaders of the two countries agreed to sign in the joint statement to level Russian Federation Vietnam relation to comprehensive strategic partnership The statement content focused on promoting cooperation in all fields, from economy, national security and defense to science and technology, humanities, and cooperation between Vietnamese and Russian localities (with emphasis on economic cooperation) and shared ideas about international, regional issues of mutual concern The signing of this joint statement showed that both nations were better aware of the bilateral strategic partnership, national interests and new factors which needed a “ leverage” to boost the development of the two nations’ relation Via the joint Statement signed in 2012, Russian Federation Vietnam relation has become comprehensive strategic partnership, which is the highest of bilateral relations 3.2.2 Status of Russian Federation- Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership 3.2.2.1 Political diplomatic relation Political diplomatic relation at the State level was upgraded via visits and exchanges to bring contents of signed agreements to reality The frequency of high-level visits of the two sides’ leaders increased Only in a short time, from 19 2012 to March 2013, there were visits and working sessions between Russian President, Prime Minister and their Vietnamese counterparts At these visits and working sessions, the two sides signed agreements, conventions and treaties ,creating a firm legal foundation for the development of other cooperation fields This reflected both sides’ great attention, trust and hope for constantly consolidating and tightening the bilateral relation 3.2.2.2 Economic cooperation In this period, the two sides identified that trade, investment, petroleum and electrical energy are important fields for economic cooperation between Russia and Vietnam This is the basis for both sides to boost trading activities and investment projects a) Commercial relation * Import- export activities After 2011, Vietnam started exporting goods to Russia In 2012, 2013, the export made growth However in 2014, 2015, the two countries’ import-export turnover was declined This was due to the plunge of the world oil prices, led to the devaluation of RUB Russian economy was in recession due to Ukraine crisis and sanctions of US, EU and other nations against Russia Since 2016, import-export turnover between the two sides has prospered again * Structure of import-export items Main products were still given priority for import-export, such as farming produces, fishery and seafood, footwear, garment of Vietnam and petroleum, fertilizer, iron and steel of Russia The export-import activities was further promoted after free trade agreements between Vietnam and EAEU were signed and enforced b) Investment cooperation The highlight in this period’s investments was the increase in projects of both Russia and Vietnam Among investment fields, energy still occupied the first position in Russian investment in Vietnam, including oil and gas, electricity and atomic energy The outstanding result in oil and gas cooperation between the two sides in this period was the expansion of petroleum exploration and production areas in Vietnam, Russia and the third country Regarding to cooperation in the field of atomic energy, the two countries officially signed an intergovernmental agreement on the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Vietnam (October/2010) However, this project was not a success In November 22 nd , 2016, Vietnam decided to stop the nuclear power project in Ninh Thuan province 3.2.2.3 Defense cooperation As the two countries identified military technical cooperation as one of the important fields in Russia- Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership, the military cooperation in this period made new development compared 20 to previous time, from supplying complete products to transferring technology and building weapon maintainance and production workshops in Vietnam 3.2.2.4 Cooperation in education, training, culture, science, technology and tourism a) Cooperation in education and training The education and training cooperation between the two countries made active changes, marked by the launching of the long-term educational project "Russian universities” which was jointly organized by Russian Federation Cooperation Agency and Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training (March/2014) This was a long-term educational cooperation program which targeted at establishing and developing the direct relation among universities, attracting young Vietnamese citizens to study in Russia, keeping relations with Vietnamese people graduated from Russian schools and universities b) Culture cooperation The highlight of culture cooperation in this period was literature translation, printing and publication The two sides made effort to boost cooperation proactively and actively in different fields, from literature to performing art, painting, films through various channels, levels and forms, from State level to organizations, sectors, branches, mass organizations, individuals c) Cooperation in science and technology In this period, cooperation in the field of science and technology between the two countries quickly expanded, particularly in nuclear energy technology, defense technology, transport, biological technology and medicine Cooperation mainly focused on Russia’s promotion in training Vietnamese human resources in science and technology, diversifying cooperation forms, boosting mutual cooperation among universities and research institutes; focusing on social sciences and humanities Besides achieved results, science and technology cooperation between the two countries had not made full use of each side’s potential ( particularly Russia) d) Cooperation in tourism As the two sides deployed contents of Russia- Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership and cooperation plans in tourism in 2013-2015, 2016-2018 periods, cooperation in the field of tourism continued gaining knowledgable results The number of Russian tourists to Vietnam has soared since 2012 ( especially from 2016 to now) This number was among Vietnam’s top seven highest international tourist arrivals However, the number of Vietnamese holidaymakers traveled to Russia was limited They mainly went to Russia to visit relatives, study, work combined with traveling Chapter SOME REMARKS ABOUT RUSSIAN FEDERATION VIETNAM RELATION (2001 -2018) 4.1 Achievements and limitations of Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) 4.1.1 Achievements Firstly, the two countries’ relation has been gradually expanded in periods, from strategic partnership (2001 2012) to comprehensive strategic partnership (2012 2018) 21 Russian Federation Vietnam strategic partnership in 2001 2012 period made positive outcomes compared to the period under the presidency of President B.Yelsin (1991 1999) The two-way trade relation made good growth : from USD 350 400 million in the 90s of the 20th century to over USD 500 (2001) and roughly USD billion in 2010 In the field of national defense, education- training, science and technology, culture the two sides made great effort to seek for effective cooperation to serve Russia’s social- economic reform and Viernam’s industrialization and modernization cause In Russian Federation Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership in period 2012 2018, the two countries boosted the relation in comprehensive direction with priorities to gain practical effectiveness Accordingly, the two sides focused on heightening the economic cooperation In this period, leaders of the two countries identified trade, investment, petroleum and power energy as the main fields for Russian FederationVietnam economic ties Other cooperation fields, particularly cooperations in national defense and tourism have been promoted and expanded constantly Secondly, cooperation fields made active changes Regarding to politics diplomacy, the bilateral relation has developed with mutual high trust; In economic field, the cooperation has been further boosted on the basis of making full use of each country’s advantages In the field of national defense, the cooperation has been maintained and developed via effort to seek for new cooperation opportunities when the world and region are facing with many fluctuations; Cooperation in the fields of culture, tourism, education- training, science and technology have been highlights in bilateral relation 4.1.2 Limitations Firstly, in spite of identifying the comprehensive strategic partnership, Russian Federation and Vietnam have not truly shared long-term benefits, support and trust at strategic level Secondly, economic relation is identified as cooperation field of great importance and priority, but it has not met the two sides’ requirements and fully made use of the two sides’ potential Thirdly, other cooperation fields have seen progress, but no breakthrough was made, even declined compared to previous time of Soviet Union- Vietnam relation There are many reasons to claim for the shortcomings in the two countries’ relation from 2001 to 2018, the most basic ones are: Firstly, the difference in each country’s strategic priorities Secondly, the influence of Russia- China relation and Russia US competition on Russia Vietnam relation development Thirdly, Vietnam’s potential and competitiveness is limited compared to other partners of Russia Fourthly, Russia’s limitations in economic and financial potential compared to other partners of Vietnam 4.2 Characteristics of Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) 4.2.1 Vietnam Russian Federation relation has developed to the highest level 22 of bilateral relation on the basis of the traditional friendly relation and the principle of equality and mutual benefits 4.2.2 Vietnam Russian Federation relation developed robustly: from strategic partnership to comprehensive strategic partnership, developed in the upward direction 4.2.3 Russian Federation Vietnam relation was asymmetrical, but there was no conflict and always moving in a positive direction 4.2.4 Among factors impacting Vietnam Russian Federation relation, Russia’s policy “Balancing the East and West” had great influence 4.2.5 Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001-2018) did not really match the nature and potential of the two countries 4.3 Influence of Russia Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) 4.3.1 Influence on Russia Firstly, Russian Federation Vietnam relation facilitated Russia to integrate deeper to Asia Pacific, Southeast Asia and heightened its position in these regions Secondly, Russian Federation Vietnam relation brought practical benefits, increased Russia’s power in restoring the position of a great country In economy, in the relationship with Vietnam, Russia had great benefits In military field, with the increasing number of Vietnam’s contracts to purchase weapons, Russia not only gained huge foreign exchange earnings, but also affirmed the position of a world’s leading nation in military field In culture field, the comprehensive strategic partnership helped Russia restore Russian culture value in the Vietnamese community which was underdeveloped in the 1990s, then spread Russian culture influence over ASEAN nations Besides positive impacts, Russia- Vietnam relation still revealed several limitations for Russia in specific fields with imbalance in level and benefits 4.3.2 Influence on Vietnam Firstly, Vietnam courted Russia’s great potential to serve the national industrialization and modernization cause Secondly, the development of Vietnam’s relation with Russia facilitated the country to implement the “ balancing” policy with big nations, created favorable condition for the effective deployment of Vietnam’s foreign policy of autonomy, multilateralisation and diversification Thirdly, the development of Vietnam’s relation with Russia helped Vietnam exploit “ Russian factor” in international relations, heighten the country’s position in the region and the world However, in addition to active influences, Vietnam Russian Federation relation has still not had positive impacts on Vietnam in some areas Russia’s viewpoint over the disputes on the East Sea which directly involve Vietnam’s benefits is the most vivid evidence That is Russia viewpoint of “ standing out of the way” in territorial disputes on the East Sea related to the interests of Vietnam and China 23 Russia’s silence in China’s act of infringing upon Vietnam’s sovereignty of territorial waters is a challenge for Vietnam Russian Federation relation, posing a difficult task for Vietnam in asking China to end its aggression against Vietnam’s sea and islands sovereignty CONCLUSION Studying about Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018), we draw the following conclusions: Firstly, the movement of Russian Federation Vietnam relation (2001 2018) is an upward trend with no conflict, seeking for appropriate form of cooperation to meet the needs of each side on mutual benefits Established in March, nd, 2001, Russian Federation Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership developed in periods: a period of establishing, mobilizing, seeking and studying about strategic partner (2001 2012) and a period of expanding the comprehensive strategic partnership (from 2012 to now) This was based on the two sides’ joint statement of strategic partnership (2/3/2001) and joint statement of strengthening Russian Federation Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership (27/7/2012) The actual Russian Federation Vietnam relation during the past 20 years showed that, the two sides have made constant effort to seek for solutions to boost the indepth cooperation relation which should is more practical and effective A series of agreements and conventions have been signed, created a firm legal basis for the two countries to promote strong cooperation for mutual benefits Secondly, studying this relation, we can see that it was built on the traditional basis and similarities in national interests For Russia, comprehensive strategic partnership with Vietnam, in the one hand facilitated Russia to deploy effectively its “Asia- Pacific” and “Look East” policy, in the other hand affirmed the position of a strong nation in the region before regaining its position of a great nation in the world That Russia considers Vietnam as a connection to Southeast Asia has facilitated Russia to expand influence and further raise the country’s position in this region, and restrained the rise of China and the United States in the power competition Russia’s strategic partnership with Vietnam also brought to Russia economic and defense benefits For Vietnam, in term of objectivity, the relation with Russia brought many benefits in politics, economy, military field, science and technology Vietnam not only effectively implemented the “ balancing” policy in the relations with big nations, but also took the brunt of Russia’s voice as one of the five power giants of the largest multilateral organization in related international and regional issues Vietnam also had great revenue from effective traditional cooperation with Russia in the field of oil and gas, basic sciences and technology Thirdly, the two sides’ relation has developed and gained knowledgable outcomes, but the achievements have not matched the potential and historical traditions of the two countries Although the two sides endeavored to promote bilateral relation, due to limitations 24 and impacts of objective regional and international factors, many agreements were not concreted or deployed effectively as expected The most basic one was the difference in each nation’s views of strategic benefits Although Vietnam and Russia were strategic partners, they haven’t truly put each other on top priority in foreign strategy The two countries have not had a long-term vision and strategy for developing the bilateral relation as well as specific programs and plan to boost the relation Fourthly, the heritage left from the Soviet Union- Vietnam relation (1950 1991 period) has had a remarkable imprint on the two sides’ relation after the Cold War Inheriting that, Russia and Vietnam have developed from the friendly relation between allies which had the same socialist ideology to comprehensive strategic partnership between two countries different in political system in the principle of equality and mutual benefits and gained remarkable achievements in the first decades of the 21 st century The two sides tried to affirm the position in the region and the world, particularly Russia, when it is gradually proving the role of a powerful nation as the multipolar world order is taking shape Fifthly, regarding to prospects, reality showed that Russia- Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership has favorable factors for further development and stabilization in different aspects, particularly economy However, it is hard for this relation to make breakthrough development in the near future In the complicated and unexpected happenings of the world and the region, peace and development are dominant trends that govern the development and situation of the world The two countries are in stable development: Vietnam renewal cause is expanding, the country’s position in the world and region is heightened; Russian Federation is developing stably, economy is growing, Russia’s position of a big nation is strengthened The achieved results in the two sides’ relation over the past time have created a good foundation and condition for expanding the relation in the future To further develop the bilateral relation, the two countries need to change awareness, give priorities to the relation in the spirit of strategic partnership However, it is hard for this relation to make breakthrough development Sixthly, with the hope to boost the two sides’ relation to develop more effectively, the achieved results in bilateral cooperation are basics and motive force for new development in the bilateral relation in the time to come In which, both sides’ demands for cooperation and active support for each other will be important factors to promote the relation in the future The two countries need to change awareness, give priority to the relation in the spirit of comprehensive strategic partnership Vietnam needs to set up and perfect longterm general policies for Russia, work out measures to boost the relation in each field of cooperation with focus on economic cooperation This will not only benefit Vietnam, but also facilitate Russia on its path to restore the position of a powerful nation in the world It also reflects the nature of Russian Federation Vietnam comprehensive strategic partnership LIST OF SCIENTIFIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE THESIS Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2015), (co-writer) “ Cooperation relation in Vietnam- Russia Public Science (1991 2014)”, Summary record of international workshop “Renewing Vietnam’s cooperation model of science and technology with SNG nations: opportunities, challenges and prospects”, Hanoi Social Sciences Publishing House, ISBN: 978 604 - 944 - 399 2, page 93 107 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2015), “ Factors leading to the establishment of diplomatic relation between Vietnam and Soviet Union (which is now Russian Federation) Haiphong University Science Journal, ISSN: 1859 2368, Publication 03 (10), page 16 25 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2015) (author), Russian Federation Vietnam cooperation relation in culture, education and training, science and technology from 1991 to 2015, University- level research topic (Haiphong University - Haiphong), Code: ĐT.XHVN.2015.44 (Test- accepted in March, 2016) Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2016) “Russian Federation Vietnam cooperation in education and training (1991 -2016): achievements and prospects”, Summary record of National Science workshop, Political Theory Publishing House, Hanoi, ISBN: 978-604-901-663-9, page 577 594 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2016), “Process of building and developing Vietnam- Russia comprehensive strategic partnership (2001- 2016)”, Haiphong University Science Journal, ISSN: 1859 2368, Publication 04 (19), page 17 31 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2017), " Factors affecting Vietnam- Russia relation in the early years of the 21 st century (2000 - 2016)", Social Sciences Journal, Hanoi National University of Education, ISSN: 2354 1067, publication 62, page 126 134 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (co-writer) (2017), "economic cooperation prospects between Vietnam and Russia (when FTA between Vietnam and Eurasian Economic Union is enforced", Summary record of International workshop “ Developing Vietnam economy in international integration process”, Hanoi Publishing House, ISBN: 978 -604 -55 -2337-7, page 574 588 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2017), “Vietnam Russia tourism cooperation Status and problems”, Europe Research Journal, ISSN: 08683581, publication 10 (205), page 80 91 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2017), “Vietnam Russia defense cooperation (2001 2016)”, Haiphong University Science Journal, ISSN: 1859 2368, publication 25 (11/2017), page 12 10 Vu Thi Hong Chuyen (2018) “Vietnam’s policy for Russian Federation (1991 2017) Some main features”, Europe Research Journal, ISSN: 0868-3581, publication (212), page 65 78 ... Vietnam relation (2001 – 2018) Chapter 3: Development process of Russian FederationVietnam relation (2001 – 2018) Chapter 4: Some remarks on Russian Federation- Vietnam relation (2001 – 2018). .. SOME REMARKS ABOUT RUSSIAN FEDERATION – VIETNAM RELATION (2001 -2018) 4.1 Achievements and limitations of Russian Federation – Vietnam relation (2001 – 2018) 4.1.1 Achievements Firstly, the two... Vietnam’s position and role in Russia- ASEAN relation 1.1.2 Researches which directly mention Russian Federation – Vietnam relation (2001 – 2018) 1.1.2.1.An overview of Russian Federation – Vietnam
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