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www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m This page intentionally left blank www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com ira nt s co m Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design c ga sp Tenth Edition Richard G Budynas w w w Professor Emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology www.cgaspirants.com J Keith Nisbett Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com SHIGLEY’S MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN, TENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121 Copyright © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Previous editions © 2011 and 2008 No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States co m This book is printed on acid-free paper RJC/RJC ISBN 978-0-07-339820-4 MHID 0-07-339820-9 w c ga sp ira nt s Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L Strand Vice President, General Manager, Products & Markets: Marty Lange Vice President, Content Production & Technology Services: Kimberly Meriwether-David Managing Director: Thomas Timp Global Publisher: Raghothaman Srinivasan Developmental Editor: Vincent Bradshaw Director, Content Production: Terri Schiesl Director of Development: Rose Koos Marketing Manager: Nick McFadden Project Manager: Judi David Production Supervisor: Jennifer Pickel Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St Louis, MO Cover Image: Adam Nisbett Compositor: Aptara®, Inc Typeface: 10/12 Times LT Std Printer: R R Donnelley All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page w Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data w Budynas, Richard G (Richard Gordon) Shigley’s mechanical engineering design.—Tenth edition / Richard G Budynas, professor emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, J Keith Nisbett, associate professor of mechanical engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology pages cm—(Mcgraw-Hill series in mechanical engineering) Includes index ISBN-13: 978-0-07-339820-4 (alk paper) ISBN-10: 0-07-339820-9 (alk paper) Machine design I Nisbett, J Keith II Shigley, Joseph Edward Mechanical engineering design III Title TJ230.S5 2014 621.8915—dc23 2013035900 The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites www.mhhe.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Dedication To my wife, Joanne, my family, and my late brother, Bill, who advised me to enter the field of mechanical engineering In many respects, Bill had considerable insight, skill, and inventiveness s co m Richard G Budynas J Keith Nisbett w w w c ga sp ira nt To my wife, Kim, for her unwavering support www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Dedication to Joseph Edward Shigley w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m Joseph Edward Shigley (1909–1994) is undoubtedly one of the most well-known and respected contributors in machine design education He authored or coauthored eight books, including Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (with John J Uicker, Jr.), and Applied Mechanics of Materials He was coeditor-in-chief of the well-known Standard Handbook of Machine Design He began Machine Design as sole author in 1956, and it evolved into Mechanical Engineering Design, setting the model for such textbooks He contributed to the first five editions of this text, along with coauthors Larry Mitchell and Charles Mischke Uncounted numbers of students across the world got their first taste of machine design with Shigley’s textbook, which has literally become a classic Nearly every mechanical engineer for the past half century has referenced terminology, equations, or procedures as being from “Shigley.” McGraw-Hill is honored to have worked with Professor Shigley for more than 40 years, and as a tribute to his lasting contribution to this textbook, its title officially reflects what many have already come to call it—Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design Having received a bachelor’s degree in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University and a master of science in Engineering Mechanics from the University of Michigan, Professor Shigley pursued an academic career at Clemson College from 1936 through 1954 This led to his position as professor and head of Mechanical Design and Drawing at Clemson College He joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Michigan in 1956, where he remained for 22 years until his retirement in 1978 Professor Shigley was granted the rank of Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1968 He received the ASME Mechanisms Committee Award in 1974, the Worcester Reed Warner Medal for outstanding contribution to the permanent literature of engineering in 1977, and the ASME Machine Design Award in 1985 Joseph Edward Shigley indeed made a difference His legacy shall continue vi www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com About the Authors co m Richard G Budynas is Professor Emeritus of the Kate Gleason College of Engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology He has more than 50 years experience in teaching and practicing mechanical engineering design He is the author of a McGraw-Hill textbook, Advanced Strength and Applied Stress Analysis, Second Edition; and coauthor of a McGraw-Hill reference book, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, Eighth Edition He was awarded the BME of Union College, MSME of the University of Rochester, and the PhD of the University of Massachusetts He is a licensed Professional Engineer in the state of New York w w w c ga sp ira nt s J Keith Nisbett is an Associate Professor and Associate Chair of Mechanical Engineering at the Missouri University of Science and Technology He has more than 30 years of experience with using and teaching from this classic textbook As demonstrated by a steady stream of teaching awards, including the Governor’s Award for Teaching Excellence, he is devoted to finding ways of communicating concepts to the students He was awarded the BS, MS, and PhD of the University of Texas at Arlington vii www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Brief Contents Preface xv Part Basics Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design Materials Load and Stress Analysis Deflection and Stiffness Part 41 Failure Prevention 85 161 226 Failures Resulting from Static Loading Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading 10 11 13 14 15 273 350 Shafts and Shaft Components 351 Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Nonpermanent Joints 401 Welding, Bonding, and the Design of Permanent Joints 467 Mechanical Springs 509 Rolling-Contact Bearings 561 Lubrication and Journal Bearings w 12 Design of Mechanical Elements w an w ts cg c a om sp i 227 r Part 3 609 Gears—General 665 Spur and Helical Gears 725 Bevel and Worm Gears 777 16 Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels 17 Flexible Mechanical Elements 18 Power Transmission Case Study 817 871 925 viii www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Brief Contents Part Special Topics ix 944 19 Finite-Element Analysis 945 20 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 969 Appendixes A Useful Tables B Answers to Selected Problems 1067 1073 w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m Index 1011 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design 4–33 (uO)y 0.0104 rad, (uO)z 0.00751 rad, (uC)y 20.0193 rad, (uC)z 20.0109 rad 4–36 d 62.0 mm 4–39 d 2.68 in 4–41 y 0.1041 in 4–43 Stepped bar: u 0.026 rad, simplified bar: u 0.0345 rad, 1.33 times greater, 0.847 in 4–46 d 38.1 mm, ymax 20.0678 mm nt s co m 4–51 yB 20.0155 in 4–52 k 8.10 N/mm 4–69 d 0.0102 in 4–73 Stepped bar: d 0.706 in, uniform bar: d 0.848 in, 1.20 times greater 4–76 d 0.0338 mm 4–78 d 0.0226 in 4–81 d 0.551 in 4–85 d 6.067 mm 4–90 (a) sb 48.8 kpsi, sc 213.9 kpsi, (b) sb 50.5 kpsi, sc 212.0 kpsi 4–92 RB 1.6 kN, RO 2.4 kN, dA 0.0223 mm 4–97 RC 1.33 kips, RO 4.67 kips, dA 0.00622 in, sAB 214.7 kpsi 4–101 sBE 20.2 kpsi, sDF 10.3 kpsi, yB 20.0255 in, yC 20.0865 in, yD 20.0131 in 4–106 (a) t 11 mm, (b) No 4–112 Fmax 143.6 lbf, dmax 1.436 in w B–4 Chapter c ga sp 3–80 (a) Critical at the wall at top or bottom of rod (b) sx 16.3 kpsi, txz 5.09 kpsi, (c) s1 17.8 kpsi, s2 21.46 kpsi, tmax 9.61 kpsi 3–84 (a) Critical at the top or bottom (b) sx 28.0 kpsi, txz 15.3 kpsi, (c) s1 34.7 kpsi, s2 26.7 kpsi, tmax 20.7 kpsi 3–95 xmin 8.3 mm 3–97 xmax 1.9 kpsi 3–100 po 82.8 MPa 3–104 sl 2254 psi, st 5710 psi, sr 223.8 psi, t1y3 2980 psi, t1y2 2870 psi, t2y3 115 psi 3–108 tmax 2.68 kpsi 3–110 dmax 0.021 mm, dmin 0.0005 mm, pmax 65.2 MPa, pmin 1.55 MPa 3–116 d 0.001 in, p 8.33 kpsi, (st)i 28.33 kpsi, (st)o 21.7 kpsi 3–120 si 300 MPa, so 2195 MPa 3–126 (a) s 68.02 kpsi, (b) si 210.1 kpsi, so 6.62 kpsi, (c) Ki 1.26, Ko 0.825 3–129 si 64.6 MPa, so 221.7 MPa 3–133 smax 352F1y3 MPa, tmax 106F1y3 MPa 3–138 F 117.4 lbf 3–141 sx 235.0 MPa, sy 222.9 MPa, sz 296.9 MPa, tmax 37.0 MPa ira 1068 www.cgaspirants.com w w pd 4G 1 a b, x 32 l2x l2x x T1 1500 , T2 1500 , l l (b) k 28.2 (10 ) lbf ? in/rad, T1 T2 750 lbf ? in, tmax 30.6 kpsi 4–7 d 5.262 in, % elongation due to weight 3.21% 4–10 ymax 225.4 mm, smax 2163 MPa 4–13 yO yC 23.72 mm, y x5550mm 1.11 mm 4–16 dmin 32.3 mm 4–24 yA 27.99 mm, uA 20.0304 rad 4–27 yA 0.0805 in, zA 20.1169 in, (uA)y 0.00115 rad, (uA)z 8.06(1025) rad 4–30 (uO)z 0.0131 rad, (uC)z 20.0191 rad 4–3 (a) k www.cgaspirants.com B–5 Chapter 5–1 (a) MSS: n 3.5, DE: n 3.5, (b) MSS: n 3.5, DE: n 4.04, (c) MSS: n 1.94, DE: n 2.13, (d) MSS: n 3.07, DE: n 3.21, (e) MSS: n 3.34, DE: n 3.57 5–3 (a) MSS: n 1.5, DE: n 1.72, (b) MSS: n 1.25, DE: n 1.44, (c) MSS: n 1.33, DE: n 1.42, (d) MSS: n 1.16, DE: n 1.33, (e) MSS: n 0.96, DE: n 1.06 5–7 (a) n 3.03 5–12 (a) n 2.40, (b) n 2.22, (c) n 2.19, (d) n 2.04, (e) n 1.92 5–17 (a) n 1.81 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Answers to Selected Problems B–6 Chapter w w w 6–1 Se 433 MPa 6–3 N 116 700 cycles 6–5 Sf 117.0 kpsi 6–9 (Sf )ax 162 N 20.0851 kpsi for 103 # N # 106 6–15 nf 0.73, ny 1.51 6–17 nf 0.49, N 4600 cycles 6–20 ny 1.66, (a) nf 1.05, (b) nf 1.31, (c) nf 1.32 6–24 ny 2.0, (a) nf 1.19, (b) nf 1.43, (c) nf 1.44 6–25 ny 3.32, using Goodman: nf 0.64, N 34 000 cycles 6–28 (a) nf 0.94, N 637 000 cycles, (b) nf 1.16 for infinite life 6–30 The design is controlled by fatigue at the hole, nf 1.48 6–33 (a) T 23.0 lbf ? in, (b) T 28.2 lbf ? in, (c) ny 2.14 www.cgaspirants.com nf nf nf nf 1.21, ny 1.43 0.56 6.06 1.40 6–51 nf 0.72, N 7500 cycles 6–57 P 4.12 kips, ny 5.29 6–59 (a) n2 000 cycles, (b) n2 10 000 cycles B–7 Chapter s co m 7–1 (a) DE-Gerber: d 25.85 mm, (b) DE-Elliptic: d 25.77 mm, (c) DE-Soderberg: d 27.70 mm, (d) DE-Goodman: d 27.27 mm 7–2 Using DE-Elliptic, d 0.94 in, D 1.25 in, r 0.0625 in 7–6 These answers are a partial assessment of potential failure Deflections: uO 5.47(10)24 rad, uA 7.09(10)24 rad, uB 1.10(10)23 rad Compared to Table 7–2 recommendations, uB is high for an uncrowned gear Strength: Using DE-Elliptic at the shoulder at A, nf 3.91 7–18 (a) Fatigue strength using DE-Elliptic: Left keyway nf 3.5, right bearing shoulder nf 4.2, right keyway nf 2.7 Yielding: Left keyway ny 4.3, right keyway ny 2.7, (b) Deflection factors compared to minimum recommended in Table 7–2: Left bearing n 3.5, right bearing n 1.8, gear slope n 1.6 7–28 (a) v 883 rad/s (b) d 50 mm (c) v 1766 rad/s (doubles) 7–30 (b) v 466 rad/s 4450 rev/min 7–34 14 -in square key, 78 -in long, AISI 1020 CD 7–36 dmin 14.989 mm, dmax 15.000 mm, Dmin 15.000 mm, Dmax 15.018 mm 7–42 (a) dmin 35.043 mm, dmax 35.059 mm, Dmin 35.000 mm, Dmax 35.025 mm, (b) pmin 35.1 MPa, pmax 115 MPa, (c) Shaft: ny 3.4, hub: ny 1.9, (d) Assuming f 0.8, T 2700 N ? m ira c ga sp 5–68 (a) Fi 16.7 kN, (b) pi 111.3 MPa, (c) st 185.5 MPa, sr 2111.3 MPa (d) tmax 148.4 MPa, s9 259.7 MPa, (e) MSS: n 1.52, DE: n 1.73 5–74 no 1.84, ni 1.80 5–76 n 1.91 5–84 (a) F 958 kN, (b) F 329.4 kN 6–35 6–38 6–46 6–47 nt 5–19 (a) BCM: n 1.2, MM: n 1.2, (b) BCM: n 1.5, MM: n 2.0, (c) BCM: n 1.18, MM: n 1.24, (d) BCM: n 1.23, MM: n 1.60, (e) BCM: n 2.57, MM: n 2.57 5–24 (a) BCM: n 3.63, MM: n 3.63 5–29 (a) n 1.54 5–34 (a) n 1.54 5–40 MSS: n 1.29, DE: n 1.32 5–48 MSS: n 13.9, DE: n 14.3 5–53 MSS: n 1.30, DE: n 1.40 5–58 For yielding: p 934 psi, For rupture: p 1.11 kpsi 5–63 d 0.892 in 5–65 Model c: n 1.80, Model d: n 1.25, Model e: n 1.80 5–67 Fx 2p f Ty(0.2d) 1069 B–8 Chapter 8–1 (a) Thread depth 2.5 mm, thread width 2.5 mm, dm 22.5 mm, dr 20 mm, l p 5 mm 8–4 TR 15.85 N ? m, TL 7.83 N ? m, e 0.251 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design 9–31 9–34 75 9–45 9–47 9–48 9–51 F 5.04 kN All-around square, four beads each h mm, mm long, Electrode E6010 tmax5 25.6 kpsi tmax5 45.3 MPa n 3.48 F 61.2 kN B–10 Chapter 10 nt s co m 10–3 (a) L0 162.8 mm, (b) Fs 167.9 N, (c) k 1.314 N/mm, (d) (L0)cr 149.9 mm, spring needs to be supported 10–5 (a) Ls 2.6 in, (b) Fs 67.2 lbf, (c) ns 2.04 10–7 (a) L0 1.78 in, (b) p 0.223 in, (c) Fs 18.78 lbf, (d) k 16.43 lbf/in, (e) (L0)cr 4.21 in 10–11 Spring is solid safe, ns 1.28 10–17 Spring is not solid safe, (ns , 1.2), L0 68.2 mm 10–20 (a) Na 12 turns, Ls 1.755 in, p 0.396 in, (b) k 6.08 lbf/in, (c) Fs 18.2 lbf, (d) ts 38.5 kpsi 10–23 With d mm, L0 48 mm, k 4.286 N/mm, D 13.25 mm, Na 15.9 coils, ns 2.63 1.2, ok No other d works 10–28 (a) d 0.2375 in, (b) D 1.663 in, (c) k 150 lbf/in, (d) Nt 8.69 turns, (e) L0 3.70 in 10–30 Use A313 stainless wire, d 0.0915 in, OD 0.971 in, Nt 15.59 turns, L0 3.606 in 10–36 (a) L0 16.12 in, (b) ti 14.95 kpsi, (c) k 4.855 lbf/in, (d) F 85.8 lbf, (e) y 14.4 in 10–39 g 31.3° (see Fig 10–9), Fmax 87.3 N 10–42 (a) k 12 EI{4l 3R[2pl2 4(p 2) lR (3p 8) R2]}21, (b) k 36.3 lbf/in, (c) F 3.25 lbf w w w c ga sp 8–8 F 182 lbf 8–11 (a) L 45 mm, (b) kb 874.6 MN/m, (c) km 116.5 MN/m 8–14 (a) L 3.5 in, (b) kb 1.79 Mlbf/in, (c) km 7.67 Mlbf/in 8–19 (a) L 60 mm, (b) kb 292.1 MN/m, (c) km 692.5 MN/m 8–25 From Eqs (8–20) and (8–22), km 762 MN/m From Eq (8–23), km 843 MN/m 8–29 (a) np 1.10, (b) nL 1.60, (c) n0 1.20 8–33 L 55 mm, np 1.29, nL 11.1, n0 11.8 8–37 np 1.29, nL 10.7, n0 12.0 8–41 Bolt sizes of diameters 8, 10, 12, and 14 mm were evaluated and all were found acceptable For d mm, km 854 MN/m, L 50 mm, kb 233.9 MN/m, C 0.215, N 20 bolts, Fi 6.18 kN, P 2.71 kN/bolt, np 1.22, nL 3.53, n0 2.90 8–46 (a) T 823 N ? m, (b) np 1.10, nL 17.7, n0 57.7 8–51 (a) Goodman: nf 7.55, (b) Gerber: nf 11.4, (c) ASME-elliptic: nf 9.73 8–55 Goodman: nf 11.9 8–60 (a) np 1.16, (b) nL 2.96, (c) n0 6.70, (d) nf 4.56 8–63 np 1.24, nL 4.62, n0 5.39, nf 4.75 8–67 Bolt shear, n 2.30; bolt bearing, n 4.06; member bearing, n 1.31; member tension, n 3.68 8–70 Bolt shear, n 1.70; bolt bearing, n 4.69; member bearing, n 2.68; member tension, n 6.68 8–75 F 2.32 kN based on channel bearing 8–77 Bolt shear, n 4.78; bolt bearing, n 10.55; member bearing, n 5.70; member bending, n 4.13 ira 1070 www.cgaspirants.com B–9 Chapter 9–1 F 49.5 kN 9–5 F 51.2 kN 9–9 F 31.1 kN 9–14 t 22.6 kpsi 9–18 (a) F 2.71 kips, (b) F 1.19 kips 9–22 F 5.41 kips 9–26 F 5.89 kips 9–29 F 12.5 kips www.cgaspirants.com B–11 Chapter 11 11–1 xD 525, FD 3.0 kN, C10 24.3 kN, 02–35 mm deep-groove ball bearing, R 0.920 11–6 xD 456, C10 145 kN 11–8 C10 20 kN 11–15 C10 26.1 kN 11–21 (a) Fe 5.34 kN, (b) lD 444 h www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Answers to Selected Problems B–14 Chapter 14 14–1 s 7.63 kpsi 14–4 s 32.6 MPa 14–7 F 2.5 in 14–10 m mm, F 25 mm 14–14 sc 2617 MPa 14–17 W t 16 390 N, H 94.3 kW (pinion bending); W t 3469 N, H 20.0 kW (pinion and gear wear) 14–18 W t 1283 lbf, H 32.3 hp (pinion bending); W t 1633 lbf, H 41.1 hp (gear bending); W t 265 lbf, H 6.67 hp (pinion and gear wear) 14–22 W t 775 lbf, H 19.5 hp (pinion bending); W t 300 lbf, H 7.55 hp (pinion wear), AGMA method accounts for more conditions 14–24 Rating power min(157.5, 192.9, 53.0, 59.0) 53 hp 14–28 Rating power min(270, 335, 240, 267) 240 hp 14–34 H 69.7 hp c ga B–13 Chapter 13 sp ira nt 12–1 cmin 0.015 mm, r 12.5 mm, ryc 833, Nj 18.3 rev/s, S 0.182, h0yc 0.3, r fyc 5.4, Qy(rcNl) 5.1, QsyQ 0.81, h0 0.0045 mm, Hloss 11.2 W, Q 219 mm3/s, Qs 177 mm3/s 12–3 SAE 10: h0 0.000 275 in, pmax 847 psi, cmin 0.0025 in 12–7 h0 0.00069 in, f 0.007 87, Q 0.0833 in3/s 12–9 h0 0.011 mm, H 48.1 W, Q 1426 mm3/s, Qs 1012 mm3/s 12–11 Tav 154°F, h0 0.00113 in, Hloss 0.0750 Btu/s, Qs 0.0802 in3/s 12–20 Approx: m 45.7 mPa ? s, Fig 12–13: m 39 mPa ? s co m B–12 Chapter 12 (c) Wti 504 lbf, Wri 184 lbf, Wi 537 lbf, Wto 1478 lbf, Wro 538 lbf, Wo 1573 lbf, (d) Ti 630 lbf ? in, To 5420 lbf ? in 13–38 (a) NPmin 15 teeth, (b) P 1.875 teeth/in, (c) FA 311 lbf, FB 777.6 lbf 13–41 (a) NF 30 teeth, NC 15 teeth, (b) P teeth/in, (c) T 900 lbf ? in, (d) Wr 65.5 lbf, Wt 180 lbf, W 192 lbf 13–43 FA 71.5 i 53.4 j 350.5 k lbf, FB 2178.4 i 678.8 k lbf 13–50 FC 1565 i 672 j lbf, FD 1610 i 425 j 154 k lbf s 11–24 60 mm deep-groove 11–27 (a) C10 12.8 kips 11–33 C10 5.7 kN, 02–12 mm deep-groove ball bearing 11–34 RO 112 lbf, RC 298 lbf, deep-groove 02–17 mm at O, deep-groove 02–35 mm at C 11–38 l2 0.267(106) rev 11–43 FRA 35.4 kN, FRB 17.0 kN 1071 w w w 13–1 35 teeth, 3.25 in 13–2 400 rev/min, p 3p mm, C 112.5 mm 13–4 a 0.3333 in, b 0.4167 in, c 0.0834 in, p 1.047 in, t 0.523 in, d1 in, d1b 6.578 in, d2 9.333 in, d2b 8.77 in, pb 0.984 in, mc 1.55 13–5 dP 2.333 in, dG 5.333 in, g 23.63°, G 66.37°, A0 2.910 in, F 0.873 in 13–10 (a) 13, (b) 15, 45, (c) 18 13–12 10:20 and higher 13–15 (a) pn 3p mm, pt 10.40 mm, px 22.30 mm, (b) mt 3.310 mm, ft 21.88°, (c) dP 59.58 mm, dG 105.92 mm 13–17 e 4y51, nd 47.06 rev/min cw 13–24 N2 N4 15 teeth, N3 N5 44 teeth 13–29 nA 68.57 rev/min cw 13–36 (a) d2 d4 2.5 in, d3 d5 7.33 in, (b) Vi 1636 ft/min, Vo 558 ft/min, www.cgaspirants.com B–15 Chapter 15 15–1 WPt 690 lbf, H1 16.4 hp, WGt 620 lbf, H2 14.8 hp 15–2 WPt 464 lbf, H3 11.0 hp, WGt 531 lbf, H4 12.6 hp 15–8 Pinion core 300 Bhn, case, 373 Bhn; gear core 339 Bhn, case, 345 Bhn 15–9 All four W t 690 lbf 15–11 Pinion core 180 Bhn, case, 266 Bhn; gear core, 180 Bhn, case, 266 Bhn www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com 1072 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design w B–17 Chapter 17 s nt ira c ga sp 16–1 (a) Right shoe: pa 734.5 kPa cw rotation, (b) Right shoe: T 277.6 N ? m; left shoe: 144.4 N ? m; total T 422 N ? m, (c) RH shoe: R x 21.007 kN, R y 4.13 kN, R 4.25 kN, LH shoe: R x 570 N, R y 751 N, R 959 N 16–3 LH shoe: T 2.265 kip ? in, pa 133.1 psi, RH shoe: T 0.816 kip ? in, pa 47.93 psi, Ttotal 3.09 kip ? in 16–5 pa 27.4 psi, T 348.7 lbf ? in 16–8 a9 1.209r, a 1.170r 16–10 P 1.25 kips, T 25.52 kip ? in 16–14 (a) T 8200 lbf ? in, P 504 lbf, H 26 hp, (b) R 901 lbf, (c) p u50 70 psi, p u5270° 27.3 psi 16–17 (a) F 1885 lbf, T 7125 lbf ? in, (c) torque capacity exhibits a stationary point maximum 16–18 (a) d* Dy 13, (b) d* 3.75 in, T* 7173 lbf ? in, (c) (dyD)* 1y 13 0.577 16–19 (a) Uniform wear: pa 14.04 psi, F 243 lbf, (b) Uniform pressure: pa 13.42 psi, F 242 lbf 16–23 Cs 0.08, t 143 mm 16–26 (b) Ie IM IP n2IP ILyn2, (c) Ie 10 1 102(1) 100y102 112 16–27 (c) n* 2.430, m* 4.115, which are independent of IL 17–4 A-3 polyamide belt, b in, Fc 77.4 lbf, T 10 946 lbf ? in, F1 573.7 lbf, F2 117.6 lbf, Fi 268.3 lbf, dip 0.562 in 17–6 (a) T 742.8 lbf ? in, Fi 148.1 lbf, (b) b 4.13 in, (c) (F1)a 289.1 lbf, Fc 17.7 lbf, Fi 147.6 lbf, F2 41.5 lbf, H 20.6 hp, n fs 1.1 17–8 R x (F1 F2){1 0.5[(D d )y(2C)]2}, Ry (F1 F2)(D d )y(2C) From Ex 17–2, R x 1214.4 lbf, R y 34.6 lbf 17–14 With d in, D in, life of 106 passes, b 4.5 in, n fs 1.05 17–17 Select one B90 belt 17–20 Select nine C270 belts, life 109 passes, life 150 000 h 17–24 (b) n1 1227 rev/min Table 17–20 confirms this point occurs in the range 1200 200 rev/min, (c) Eq (17–40) applicable at speeds exceeding 1227 rev/min for No 60 chain 17–25 (a) Ha 7.91 hp; (b) C 18 in, (c) T 1164 lbf ? in, F 744 lbf 17–27 Four-strand No 60 chain, N1 17 teeth, N2 84 teeth, rounded L 100 in, C 30.0 in n fs 1.17, life 15 000 h (pre-extreme) co m B–16 Chapter 16 w w 17–2 (a) Fc 0.913 lbf, Fi 101.1 lbf, (F1)a 147 lbf, F2 57 lbf, (b) Ha 2.5 hp, n fs 1.0, (c) 0.151 in www.cgaspirants.com B–20 Chapter 20 20–13 Partial answers: (a) 50.3, 49.7 (b) No effect (c) the center axis of the boss, as determined by the related actual mating envelope (d) 0.2 (e) 0.8 20–15 Hint: Read about actual mating envelopes 20–17 20.2, 19.8 20–21 (a) 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, (b) 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, (c) 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Index w w w www.cgaspirants.com Axis, defined, 1003 Axle, defined, 352 B B10 life, 566 Backlash, 668 Bainite, 61 Bairstow, L., 284 Ball bearings, 562–563 Ball bushings, 565 Band-type clutches and brakes, 836–837 Barth, Carl G., 731 Barth equation, 731 Base circle, 670–675 Base pitch, 674 Basic dimension, 975, 983, 1003 Basic Dynamic Load Rating, 566 Basic size (limits and fits), 387–389 Basic static load rating, 572–573 Bauschinger’s theory, 284 Beach marks, 274–275, 278 Beams with asymmetrical sections, 107–108 in bending, normal stresses for, 103–108 in bending, shear stresses for, 108–114 curved beams in bending, 132–136 deflection due to bending, 164–166 deflection methods, 166–167 deflections by singularity functions, 170–176 deflections by superposition, 167–170 shear-force and bending moments in, 89–90 shear stress in rectangular, 109 two-plane bending, 106–107 Bearing characteristic, 615 Bearing characteristic number, See Sommerfeld number Bearing fatigue failure criteria 565 Bearing film pressure, 616–618, 624, 628, 633–634 Bearing pressure (rope), 911 Bearing housing heat dissipation, 637 Bearing life life measure, 565, 568 rating life, 566 recommendations for various classes of machinery, 575 reliability versus life, 568 Bearing load life at rated reliability, 566–567 Bearings, journal alloy characteristics, 649 boundary-lubricated, 652–660 material choice for, 648–650 thrust bearings, 651–652 types of, 650–651 1073 sp ira nt s co m Alternating and midrange von Mises stresses, 326, 359 Alternating stresses, 274, 308, 311 equivalent reversing stress (Ex 6–12), 322 Aluminum, 56–57, 67 Aluminum brass, 69 Aluminum bronze, 69 American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA), 11, 565 American Chain Association (ACA), 903 American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA), 12, 337, 688, 726, 778 nomenclature, 727–728, 781–782 strength equations, 739–743, 783 stress equations, 737–739, 780, 783 American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 12, 481–483 American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 12, 56 American National (Unified) thread standard, 402 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 12, 52, 57, 259 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 10, 11–12, 19, 612 American Welding Society (AWS), 12, 468–470 Amplitude ratio (stress), 310 Anaerobic adhesives, 492 Analysis and optimization, Angle of action, 674 Angle of approach, 674 Angle of articulation, 900 Angle of recess, 674 Angle of twist, 115–116, 121 Angularity control, 973–974, 987 Angular-velocity ratio, 669, 872, 898 Annealing, 60–61 Anodizing, 67 Antifriction bearing See Rolling-contact bearings Arc of action, 676 Arc of approach, 676 Arc of recess, 676 Area principal axes, 107 Arrow side (weld symbol), 469 Ashby, M F., 73 ASME-elliptic line, 313–314, 316, 318, 325, 340, 361, 439 Associated Spring, 546 Austenitic chromium-nickel steels, 64, 65 Automotive valve-spring surge, 526, 527 Average life (bearings), 566 Axial clutches, 837–840 Axial layout, for shaft components, 355 Axial pitch, 684, 687 c ga A Abrasion, 735 Absolute system of units, 31 Absolute tolerance system, 31 Absolute viscosity, 612–613, 625–627 Acme threads, 404–406, 409 Actual mating envelope, 979–980, 1002–1003 Addendum, 668, 688–690, 801, 803 Adhesive bonding, 490–499 joint design, 496–499 stress distributions, 493–496 types of adhesive, 491–492 Admiralty metal, 69 AGMA equation factors allowable bending stress numbers, 739–741, 791–793 allowable contact stress, 742–743, 790–792 bending strength geometry factor, 738, 744–746, 785–786 crowning factor for pitting, 785 dynamic factor, 730, 738, 748, 750, 783–784 elastic coefficient, 736, 738, 748, 749, 790 geometry factors, 743–748, 785–786 hardness-ratio factor, 753–754, 788–789 lengthwise curvature factor for bending strength, 785 load-distribution factor, 738, 751–753, 785 overload factor, 738, 750, 758–759, 783 pitting resistance geometry factor, 738, 743, 746–748, 785–786 reliability factor, 755–756, 789–790 reversed loading, 792 rim-thickness factor, 738, 756–757 safety factors, 757, 783 size factor, 738, 751, 785 stress-cycle factor, 741–742, 754–755, 787–788 surface condition factor, 738, 750 surface-strength geometry factor, 746–748 temperature factor, 756, 788 AGMA gear method bevel gears, 780, 783–794 helical gears, 737–759 spur gears, 737–759 worm gears, 801–806 AGMA quality numbers, 748 AGMA transmission accuracy-level number, 748 Alignment (bearings), 600 Allowable stress numbers (spur gears), 739 Allowance, 28 Alloy cast irons, 66 Alloy steels, 63–64 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design co m nt ira C CAD software, 8–9, 946 Calculations and significant figures, 32–33 Caliper brakes, 841–845 Cap screws, 380, 415 Carbon content, 43, 56, 61–65 Cartesian stress components, 93–94 Cartridge brass, 68–69 Case hardening, 62 Case study (power transmission) bearing selection, 939–940 deflection check, 938–939 design for stress, 938 final shaft design, 942–943 gear specification, 931–935 key design, 940–941 problem specification, 34–36, 926–927 shaft layout, 936 speed, torque, and gear ratios, 929–930 Castigliano’s theorem, 178–183 curved beam deflections, 183–189 flat triangular spring deflection, 551 helical spring deflection, 512, 545 statically indeterminate problems, 191–192 Casting alloys, 67 Casting materials, 65–67 Cast irons, 65–67 endurance limits, 291 fatigue test data, 252 minimum strength, 52 numbering system for, 57 stress concentration and, 232 Cast steels, 66–67 w w w www.cgaspirants.com Catalog load rating, rolling-contactbearings, 566 Catastrophic failure, buckling, 204 Centrifugal castings, 58, 679 Centrifugal clutch, 824 Centrifugal force, belts, 876 Centroidal axis columns, 195, 198, 202 curved beams, 132–133 straight beams, 104, 164 Ceramics, 73, 79 Cermet pads, 855 CES Edupack software, 73 Chain dimensioning, 30 Chain drives, 899–907 Chain velocity, 901 Charpy notched-bar test, 53–54 Chordal speed variation, 902 Choudury, M., 421 Chrome-silicon wire, 516, 517 Chrome-vanadium wire, 516, 517 Chromium, 63, 66 Chromium-nickel steels, 64, 65 Circular pad caliper brake, 844–845 Circular runout control, 974, 993–994 Circularity control, 973–974, 985–986 Circular pitch, 667–668, 674, 683–684, 687 Clamshell marks, 274 Clearance, 27 journal bearings, 614, 640–642 preferred fits, 389 spur gears, 668 straight bevel gears, 682, 689 Clearance circle, 668 Close running fit, 389 Closed ends, springs, 512–513 Close-wound extension springs, 536 Clough, R W., 947, 948 Clutches band-type, 836–837 cone clutches, 845–847 energy considerations, 848–849 external contracting rim, 832–836 friction, 818 frictional-contact axial, 837–840 friction materials, 853–856 internal expanding rim, 824–832 miscellaneous clutches and couplings, 856–857 static analysis of, 819–823 temperature rise, 849–853 torque capacity, 839, 848 uniform pressure, 820, 839–840 uniform wear, 838–839 Codes, 12–13 Coefficient of friction clutches and brakes, 818, 819, 821, 853, 855 flat- and round-belt drives, 876 interference fits, 392 threaded fasteners, 430 journal bearings, 613–615, 630–631, 652 power screws, 407, 413-414 V belt, 892 worm and worm-gears, 707, 709, 802–803 Coefficient of speed fluctuation, 859–860 s static analysis of, 819–823 symmetrical pivoted shoe, 834–836 temperature rise, 849–853 wear, 834–835, 838–840 Brass, 68–69 Breakeven points, 14–15 Brinell hardness, 52, 62, 753 Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory, 249–250 Brittle materials Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory, 249–250 failure summary, 252 fatigue failure criteria, 322–323 fracture criteria, 233 maximum-normal-stress theory for, 249 modified Mohr (MM) theory, 249, 250–251, 263 Smith-Dolan fatigue criteria, 322–323 stress-concentration factor, static loading, 125–126 Bronze, 68–70 B10 life, 566 Bubble chart, 74, 76, 78–79 Buckingham, E., 335–337 Buckingham (pi) method, 840 Buckingham wear load, 812–813 Burnishing, of gears, 682 Bushing, 610, 650, wear, 655–658 Button pad caliper brake, 844–845 Butt welds, 469, 470–471 c ga Bearings, rolling-contact bearing life, 565–566 boundary dimensions for, 573–574 combined radial and thrust loading, 571–573 lubrication, 596–597 mounting and enclosure, 597–601 parts of, 563 relating load and life at rated reliability, 566–567 relating load and life at other than rated reliability, 568–571 reliability, 593–596 tapered roller bearings See Tapered roller bearings types of, 562–565 variable loading, 577–580 Bearing stress, 383, 410, 444 Belleville springs, 549–550 Belt drives Flat and round belts, 875–887 Flat metal belts, 887 Timing belts, 898–899 V belts, 890–898 Belts, 872–875 Bending moments in beams, 89–90 Bergsträsser factor, 511 Beryllium bronze, 70 Bevel gears, 666, 701–704 AGMA equation factors, 783–795 AGMA symbols for bevel gear rating equations, 781–782 bevel gearing, general, 778–780 bevel-gear stresses and strengths, 780–783 design of a straight-bevel gear mesh, 798–800 straight-bevel gear analysis, 795–797 Bilateral tolerance, 27 Blake, J C., 430 Bolt preload, 417, 427, 433–434 Bolts, 414–415, 417 See also Joints relating bolt torque to bolt tension, 429–432 strength, 424–427 Bonus tolerance, 994–995, 1003 Bottom land, 668 Boundary conditions, 957–958 Boundary elements, 958 Boundary-lubricated bearings, 652–660 bushing wear, 655–658 linear sliding wear, 653–655 temperature rise, 658–660 Boundary lubrication, 611, 615, 652–653 Boundary representation (B-rep), 955 Bowman Distribution, 430, 434 Boyd, John, 623–624 Brakes band-type, 836–837 cone, 845–847 disk brakes, 841–845 energy considerations, 848–849 external contracting, 832–836 friction materials, 853–856 internal expanding, 824–832 properties of brake linings, 855 self-energizing/deenergizing, 819 sp 1074 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Index w w w www.cgaspirants.com Derived median line, 985–986, 1003 Derived median plane, 986, 1003 Derived unit, 31 Design Assessment for Selected RollingContact Bearings, 592–596 Design basics calculations and significant figures, 32–33 case study specifications, 34–36 categories, 230 considerations, design factor/factor of safety, 18–20 dimensions and tolerances, 27–31 economics, 13–15 in general, 4–5 information sources, 9–10 phases and interactions of, 5–8 relating design factor to reliability, 24–27 reliability and probability of failure, 20–23 safety/product liability, 15 standards and codes, 12–13 stress and strength, 16 tools and resources, 8–10 topic interdependencies, 33 uncertainty in, 16–17 units, 31–32 Design engineer communication and, 5, 10–11 professional responsibilities of, 10–12 Design factor, 4, 17–18 Deviation (limits and fits), 387 Diametral pitch, 668 Die castings, 58, 679 Dimensions and tolerances See also Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing choice of, 28–29 terminology of, 27–28 systems of, 31, 970–971 Dimension-series code (ABMA), 574 Direct load, 448 Direct mounting of bearings, 584–585 Direct shear, 103, 176, 510–512 Discrete distributions, 23 Discrete mean, 23 Discrete standard deviation, 23 Discretization errors, 948–949 Disk brakes, 841–846 circular pad caliper, 844–845 uniform pressure, 843–844 uniform wear, 842–843 Disk clutch, 837–838 Displacement, Castigliano’s theorem, 179 Distortion-energy (DE) failure theory, 235–241, 263 Distribution Gaussian (normal), 21 Weibull, 568–569 Double-enveloping worm gearsets, 667 Double-row bearings, 564 Double-threaded screw, 402 Dowel pin, 383 Dowling, M E., 310 Drawing (tempering), 61–62 Drive pin, 383 Drum brake, 824 Ductile-brittle transition, 53 Ductile (nodular) cast iron, 65–66 co m Courant, R., 947 Crack growth, 253–255, 287–290 Crack modes and stress intensity factor, 255–259 Creep, 54–55 Critical buckling load, 961–963 Critical frequency of helical springs, 526–528 Critical load, 195 Critical speeds for shafts, 375–380 Critical stress intensity factor, 259–261 Critical unit load, 196 Crowned pulleys, 872, 887 C10 load rating, 566–567, 569–570, 573, 575 Cumulative fatigue damage, 329–335 Curvature effect, 511–512 Curved beams in bending deflections, 183–189 stresses, 132–136 Cylindrical contact, 138–140 Cylindrical roller bearings, 575, 580–583 Cylindrical worm gear See Singleenveloping worm gearset Cylindricity control, 973–974, 985, 987 sp ira nt s D Datsko, Joseph, 50 Datum, 976–981, 1003 Datum axis, 979–980, 993, 1003 Datum feature, 976–980, 996–997, 1003 Datum feature symbol, 980–981 Datum feature simulator, 976–977, 980, 993, 1003 Datum of size, 1003 Datum reference frame, 976–977, 1003 Decision-making, 4–5 Dedendum, 668 Deflection beam deflection methods, 166–167 beam deflections by singularity functions, 170–176 beam deflections by superposition, 167–170 Castigliano’s theorem, 178–189,191–192, 512, 545, 551 columns with eccentric loading, 198–202 compression members, general, 195 deflection due to bending, theory, 164–166 deflection of curved members, 183–189 elastic stability, 204 intermediate-length columns with central loading, 198 long columns with central loading, 195–198 shock and impact, 205–206 spring rates, 162–163 statically indeterminate problems, 189–195 strain energy, 176–178 struts or short compression members, 202–203 tension, compression, and torsion, 163 Deflection considerations, shafts, 371–375 DE-ASME elliptic equation, 361 DE-Gerber equation,361 DE-Goodman equation, 360 DE-Soderberg equation,361 Degrees of freedom (dof’s), 947 c ga Coefficients of variance, 26 Cold forming, 679 Cold rolling, 679 Cold working, 49–51 Cold-working processes, 59–60 Collins, J A., 335 Columns critical load, 195 with eccentric loading, 198–202 Euler column formula, 195 intermediate-length with central loading, 198 long columns with central loading, 195–198 parabolic formula, 198 secant column formula, 199–200 slenderness ratio, 196 unstable bending, 195 Commercial bronze, 68 Commercial seal, 600 Communication of design (presentation), 7–8 skills, 5, 10–11 Completely reversed stress, 283, 293, 340, 529, 1055 Composite materials, 71–72 Compound gear train, 691–692 Compound reverted gear train, 693 Compression members, 195 struts or short compression members, 202–203 Compression springs See Helical coil compression springs Compression tests, 44–45 Compressive stress, 93 Computational errors, 948 Computational tools, 8–9 Computer-aided design (CAD) software, 8–9, 946 Computer-aided engineering (CAE), Concentricity control, 974, 990, 993 Concept design, 6–7 Cone angle, 420, 845–846 Cone clutch, 845–847 uniform pressure, 847 uniform wear, 846–847 Conical spring, 551, (Prob 10–29) 556 Conjugate action, 669 Constant-force spring, 550 Constructive solid geometry (CSG), 955 Contact adhesives, 492 Contact fatigue strength, 336, 742 Contact ratio, 676–677 Contact stresses, 136–140 cylindrical contact, 138–140 spherical contact, 137–138 Continuing education, 11 Continuous probability distributions, 21 Copper-base alloys, 68–70 Corrosion, 302 Corrosion-resistant steels, 64–65 Cost considerations See Economics Coulomb-Mohr theory for ductile materials, 242–244, 246, 252, 263 Coulomb-Mohr theory for brittle materials See Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory Couplings, 856–857 1075 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design co m nt w w w www.cgaspirants.com for threaded elements, 436 for welds, 482 Fazekas, G A., 844 Feature, GD&T definition of, 973, 1004 Feature control frame, 983–985, 1004 Feature of size, 973, 979–982, 990, 1004 Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF), 991–992, 1004 Felt seals, 600 Ferritic chromium steels, 64–65 Field, J., 63 Filler, 71 Fillet welds, 469–470 See also Welds Filling notch, 564 Film pressure, 633–634 Finite element, 948 Finite-element analysis (FEA), 232, 945–965 about, 946–947 boundary conditions, 957–958 critical buckling load, 961–963 element geometries, 949–951 element library, 949 finite-element method, 947–949 finite-element solution process, 951–954 load application, 956–957 mesh generation, 954–956 modeling techniques, 958–961 thermal stresses, 961 types of errors in, 948–949 vibration analysis, 963–964 Finite-element analysis (FEA) programs, 9, 189, 946 Finite-element method, 947–949 Finite-element solution process, 951–954 Finite life, 305 Finite-life region, 282–283 Firbank, T C., 875 Fit, 28 Fits interference fits, 390–392 preferred limits and fits, 387–390 types of, 389 Fitted bearing, 617 Flat belts, 872–875 Flat-belt drives, 873–890 Flatness control, 973–974, 985–986 Flexible mechanical elements belts, 872–875 flat-and round-belt drives, 873–890 flat metal belts, 887–890 flexible shafts, 916–917 roller chain, 899–907 timing belts, 898–899 V belts, 890–898 wire rope, 908–916 Flexible shafts, 916–917 Flexural endurance limit, 335 Floating caliper brake, 841 Fluctuating simple loading, 339–340 Fluctuating stresses, 274 characterization of, 308–310 combinations of loading modes, 325–329 fatigue failure criteria for, 311–324 torsional fatigue strength under, 325 varying, cumulative fatigue damage, 329–335 Fluid lubrication, 610 s F Face-contact ratio, 687, 743–744 Face-to-face mounting (DF), 599 Face width, 690 Factor of safety, 18 Failure, probability of, 20–23 Failure theories, static loading, 233 brittle materials, 249–252 ductile materials, 233–248 fracture mechanics, 253–262 selection of failure criteria, 252–253 Fasteners, 424–427 stiffness, 416–419 threaded, 414–416 Fatigue failure, defined, 274 Fatigue failure from variable loading characterizing fluctuating stresses, 308–310 combinations of loading modes, 325–329 crack formation and propagation, 275–279 cumulative damage, 329–335 endurance limit, 290–291 endurance limit modifying factors, 294–302 fatigue failure criteria for fluctuating stress, 311–324 fatigue-life methods, 281 fatigue strength, 291–294 fluctuating stresses, 308–324, 325 introduction to fatigue in metals, 274–280 linear-elastic fracture mechanics method, 286–290 road maps and important design equations, 338–341 stages of, 274–277 strain-life method, 284–286 stress concentration and notch sensitivity, 303–308 stress-life method, 281–284 surface fatigue strength, 335–338 torsional fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses, 325 Fatigue limit, 283 See also Endurance limit Fatigue loading of helical compression springs, 528–534 of tension joints, 436–443 of welded joints, 488–489 of wire rope, 912–913 Fatigue problem categories, 325 Fatigue strength, 282, 291–294 Fatigue stress-concentration factor See also Stress concentration defined, 303–304 application to fluctuating stresses, 310 for gear teeth, 735, 744 c ga E Eccentricity ratio, 199, 617, 628–630 Economics, 13–15 breakeven points, 14–15 cost estimates, 15 large tolerances, 13–14 standard sizes, 13 Effective arc, 876 Effective slenderness ratio, 514 Effective stress, 236 Efficiency belt drives, 875 screw thread, 408–409 wormgearing, 708, 804, 805 Eigenvalues, 963 Eigenvectors, 963 Elastic coefficient, 736, 738, 748, 749, 790–791 Elastic creep, 875 Elastic instability, 204, 946 Elasticity, modulus of, 43 Elastic limit, 43, 46 Elastic strain, 101–102 Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, 597, 611 Elastomers, 74, 79 Electrolytic plating, 302 Elimination approach, 953 Enclosures (bearings), 600–601 End-condition constant, 196, 514 Endurance limit, 280, 283, 290–291 Endurance limit modifying factors, 294–302 loading factor, 298–299 miscellaneous-effects factor, 301–302 reliability factor, 300–301 size factor, 296–298 surface factor, 295–296 temperature factor, 299–300 Engineering stress and strength, 45 Engineering stress-strain diagrams, 44 Engineers’ Creed (NSPE), 12 Engraver’s brass, 69 Envelope principle, 982, 1004 Epicyclic gear trains, 695 Equilibrium, 86 Equilibrium and free-body diagrams, 86–89 Equivalent bending load, 909, 914 Equivalent diameter, 297 Equivalent radial load, 571 Equivalent vonMises stress, 236 Euler column formula, 195, 197 Eutectoid steel, 61 Evaluation, Expanding-ring clutch, 824 Extension springs See Helical coil extension springs External contracting rim clutches and brakes, 832–836 Extreme-pressures (EP) lubricants, 652 Extrusion, 59, 679 ira Ductile materials Coulomb-Mohr theory for, 242–244, 263 distortion-energy theory for, 235–241, 263 Dowling method for, 310 failure summary, 245–249 maximum-shear-stress theory for, 233–235, 263 selection of failure criteria, 252–253 stress-concentration factor, 125–126, 232 yield criteria, 233 Ductility, 50 Dunkerley’s equation, 378 Duplexing (bearings), 599 Durability (life) correlations, 896 Dynamic loading, stress concentration effect, 126, 303–308 Dynamic viscosity, 612 Dyne, 612 sp 1076 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Index w w w www.cgaspirants.com extension springs, 534–542 fatigue loading of, 528–531 materials used for, 515–518 maximum allowable torsional stresses for, 518 stability (buckling), 514–515 for static service, 520–526 stresses in See Helical springs set-removal, 513 Helical coil extension springs, 534–542 ends for, 535 fatigue analysis, 539–542 load-deflection relation, 536–537 maximum allowable stresses for, 537 maximum tensile stress, 535–536 static applications, 537–539 Helical coil torsion springs, 542–549 bending stress, 544 deflection and spring rate, 544–546 end location description, 543–544 fatigue strength, 546–547 static strength, 546 Helical gears, 666, 683–687, 704–706 See also Spur and helical gears, AGMA Helical springs See also Helical coil extension, compression, or torsion springs critical frequency of, 526–528 the curvature effect, 511–512 deflection of, 512 spring rate, 512 stresses in, 510–511 Helix angle, 407, 683–685 Hertz, H., 136, 139 Hertzian endurance strength, 336–338 Hertzian stresses, 136, 335, 736 See also Contact stresses Hertz theory, 735 Hexagon-head bolt, 415 Hexagon-head screw, 416 Hexagon nuts, 415–416 High-cycle fatigue, 281–283 High-leaded brass, 69 Hobbing, 681 Holding power, 380 Hole basis (limits and fits), 387 Hooke’s law, 43, 65, 101–102 Hoop stress, 128 Hot-working processes, 58–59 Hrennikoff, A., 947 Hydraulic clutches, 824 Hydrodynamic lubrication, 610, 615–617, 651 Hydrostatic lubrication, 611 Hypoid gears, 666, 779 co m s nt ira c ga G Gamma function, 568 Gasketed joints, 436 Gaussian (normal) distribution, 21 GD&T See Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Gear bending strength, 739–741 Gear mesh design, 767–772 Gears, general, 665–712 AGMA factors See AGMA equation factors conjugate action, 669 contact ratio, 676–677 force analysis, bevel gearing, 701–704 force analysis, helical gearing, 704–706 force analysis, spur gearing, 697–701 force analysis, worm gearing, 706–712 fundamentals, 670–676 gear teeth formation, 679–682 gear trains, 690–697 interference, 677–679 involute properties, 670 nomenclature, 667–668 parallel helical gears, 683–687 straight bevel gears, 682–683 tooth systems, 688–690 types of gears, 666–667 Gear strength spur and helical gears, 739–743 bevel gears, 780, 783, 785, 787–788 Gear teeth formation, 679–682 finishing, 682 hobbing, 681 milling, 680 shaping, 680–681 Gear tooth bending, 762, 765, 768, 771 Gear tooth wear, 762, 765, 768, 771 Gear train value, 691 Gear trains, 690–697 Gear wear, 759, 768, 792–793 General three-dimensional stress, 100–101 Generating line, 671 Geometric attributes, 973–974, 1004 Geometric characteristics, 985–994, 1004 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T), 28, 970–1005 basic dimension, 975, 983, 1003 definition of, 28, 971 datum, 976–981, 1003 feature control frame, 983–985, 1004 geometric characteristics, 985–994, 1004 glossary of terms, 1002–1005 material condition modifiers, 994–996, 1004 standards, 972 symbolic language, 974–975 tolerance zone, 981–982, 1005 Geometric stress-concentration factor, 125 See also Stress concentration factor Geometry factors, 743–748 Gerber fatigue-failure criterion, 313–315, 326, 340, 360–361, 439, 488, 542, 546 Gerber failure line, 313–314 Gib-head key, 384 Gilding brass, 68 Global instabilities, 204 Goodman fatigue failure criterion, 311, 313–315, 326, 340, 360, 437–439, 488, 531 Goodman failure line, 313–315 Government information sources, 10 Gravitational system of units, 31 Gravity loading, 957 Gray cast iron, 65 Green, I., 421 Griffith, A A., 254–255 Grip, 417 Grooved pulleys, 872 Grossman, M A., 63 Guest theory, 233 sp Flywheels, 818, 858–863 Foot-pound-second system (fps), 31 Force analysis bevel gearing, 701–704 case study, 937 helical gearing, 704–706 method, 87–89 spur gearing, 697–701 worm gearing, 706–712 Force fit, 389 Forging, 59 Form, in GD&T, 973–974, 983, 985, 1004 Form controls, 985–987 Form cutters, 679 Fracture mechanics, 253–262, 264 crack modes and stress intensity factor, 255–259 fracture toughness, 259–262 quasi-static fracture, 254–255 Fracture toughness, 259–262 Free-body diagrams, 87–88 Free-cutting brass, 69 Free running fit, 389 Frettage corrosion, and flywheels, 302 Frictional-contact axial clutches, 837–840 Friction materials, for brakes and clutches, 853–856 Friction variable, 630 Full bearing, 617 Full-film lubrication, 610, 651 Fundamental contact stress equation, 780 Fundamental deviation (limits and fits), 387 1077 H Hagen-Poiseuille law, 612 Ham, C W., 413 Hard-drawn steel spring wire, 515–518 Hardness, 52–53 Hardness-ratio factor, 742, 753–754, 788–789 Harmonic frequencies, 527 Harmonics, 375 Haringx, J A., 514 Heading, 60 Heat transfer analysis (FEA), 961 Heat treatment of steel, 60–63 Helical coil compression springs, 512–534 critical frequency of, 526–528 deflection of See Helical springs design for fatigue loading, 531–534 design for static service, 520–526 end-condition constants for, 514 ends, types of, 512–513 www.cgaspirants.com I Idle arc, 876 Impact, 205–206 Impact load, 53 Impact properties, 53–54 Impact value, 53 Inch-pound-second system (ips), 31 Indirect mounting, 584–585 Infinite-life region, 282–283 Influence coefficients, 376 Injection molding, 680 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design w w K Karelitz, G B., 637–638 Keys and keyways, 365, 382–386 Kinematic viscosity, 612 Kips, 31 Kurtz, H J., 430 L Labyrinth seal, 601 Laminates, 72 Landgraf, R W., 284 Langer criterion, 314–315 Lang-lay ropes, 908 Lap joints, 493, 496, 497 Lead, 402 Least Material Boundary (LMB), 975, 996, 1004 Least Material Condition (LMC), 975, 982, 994–995, 1004 Leibensperger, R L., 597 Lewis, Wilfred, 726 Lewis bending equation, 726–735 www.cgaspirants.com lubricant flow, 631–633 lubricant temperature rise, 634–636 Petroff’s equation, 613–615 pressure-fed bearings, 642–648 relations of the variables, 623–637 stable lubrication, 615 steady-state conditions in self-contained bearings, 637–640 thick-film lubrication, 616–617 thrust bearings, 651–652 types of lubrication, 610–611 viscosity, 611–613 Lubrication failure, 735 Lüder lines, 233–234 Lundberg, 139 s co m M Macaulay functions, 86, 90 Machine-screw head styles, 415–416 Magnesium, 68 Magnetic clutches, 824 Major diameter, 402 Malleable cast iron, 66 Manganese, 63–64 Manson, S S., 333 Manson-Coffin equation, 286, 292 Manson’s method, 333–334 Margin of safety, 25 Marin factors, 295–302 Marin, Joseph, 245 Martensite, 61–62 Martensitic stainless steels, 64 Martin, H C., 947 Material condition modifiers, 994–996, 1004 Material efficiency coefficient, 76 Material index, 77 Materials See also specific materials alloy steels, 63–64 casting materials, 65–67 cold-working processes, 59–60 composite materials, 71–72 corrosion-resistant steels, 64–65 families and classes of, 73–74 hardness, 52–53 heat treatment of steel, 60–63 hot-working processes, 58–59 impact properties, 53–54 investment casting, 58 nonferrous metals, 67–70 numbering systems, 56–57 plastics, 70–71 powder-metallurgy process, 58 sand casting, 57 selection of, 72–79 shell molding, 57–58 statistical significance of properties of, 46–49 strength and cold work, 49–51 strength and stiffness, 42–46 temperature effects, 54–55 Materials selection charts, 73–79 Mathematical models, Matrix, 71 Maximum material boundary, 996, 1004 Maximum material condition (MMC), 975, 982, 994–995, 1005 nt w c ga J J B Johnson formula, 198, 201, 410 Joerres, R E., 517 Joints, bolted and riveted bolted and riveted joints loaded in shear, 443–451 fastener stiffness, 416–419 fatigue loading of tension joints, 436–443 gasketed, 436 member stiffness, 419–424 shear joints with eccentric loading, 447 statically loaded tension joint with preload, 432–435 tension joints with external loads, 427–429 Jominy test, 63 Journal bearing, 622–623 Lewis form factor, 729 Limits, 27, 387–392 Linear damage hypothesis, 577, 579 Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), 253 Linear-elastic fracture mechanics method, 281, 286–290 Linear sliding wear, 653–655 Linear spring, 162 Line elements, 949 Line of action, 669, 671, 674 Line of contact, 139 Little, R E., 420 Load and stress analysis Cartesian stress components, 93–94 contact stresses, 136–140 curved beams in bending, 132–136 elastic strain, 101–102 equilibrium and free-body diagrams, 86–89 general three-dimensional stress, 100–101 Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 94–100 normal stresses for beams in bending, 103–108 press and shrink fits, 130–131 shear force and bending moments in beams, 89–90 shear stresses for beams in bending, 108–115 singularity functions, 91–93 stress, 95 stress concentration, 124–127 stresses in pressurized cylinders, 127–129 stresses in rotating rings, 129–130 temperature effects, 131 torsion, 115–124 uniformly distributed stresses, 102–103 Load application, 956–957 Load application factors, 576 Load factor, 432–433 Loading factor, 298 Load intensity, 89–90 Load-life-reliability relationship, 562, 570 Load line, 235 Load-sharing ratio, 744 Load-stress factor, 336 Load zone, 585 Location, in GD&T, 973–974, 983, 985, 1004 Location controls, 990–993 Locational clearance fit, 389 Locational interference fit, 389 Logarithmic strain, 44 Loose running fit, 389 Loose-side tension, 876 Low brass, 68–69 Low-contact-ratio (LCR) helical gears, 744 Low-cycle fatigue, 281, 283 Lower deviation (limits and fits), 387 Low-leaded brass, 69 L10 life, 566 Lubrication, of roller bearings, 596–597 Lubrication and journal bearings bearing types, 650–651 boundary-lubricated bearings, 652–660 clearance, 640–642 design considerations, 621–623 hydrodynamic theory, 617–621 loads and materials, 648–650 ira Interference fits, 27–28, 389–392 gear teeth, 677–679 of stress and strength, 25–26 Internal expanding rim clutches and brakes, 824–832 drum torque, 827 shoe forces, 826–829 shoe geometry, 824–825 shoe pressure distribution, 825–826 Internal friction theory, 242 Internal gear, 674 Internal-shoe brake, 824 International System of Units (SI), 32 International tolerance (IT) grade numbers (limits and fits), 387 Internet information sources, 10 Interpolation equation for lubrication charts, 636–637 Invention of the concept, 6–7 Investment casting, 58, 679 Involute helicoid, 683 Involute profile, 669 Involute properties, 670 Isotropic materials, 72 IT numbers (limits and fits), 387 Ito, Y., 419–420 Izod notched-bar test, 53–54 sp 1078 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Index Muntz metal, 69 Music wire, 515–518 w w w www.cgaspirants.com Perpendicularity control, 973–974, 987–988 Peterson, R E., 232 Petroff’s equation, 613–615 Phosphor bronze, 69 Phosphor-bronze wire, 517 Piecewise-continuous periodic loading cycle, 577–578 Pilkey, W D., 384 Pillow-block bearings, 637 Pinion, 667 Pinion cutter, 680 Pinion tooth bending, 762, 764, 768, 770 Pinion tooth wear, 762, 765, 768, 771 Pins, 382–383 Pitch, 402, 404 Pitch circle, 667, 669, 673 Pitch diameter, 402, 667, 682, 687–688 Pitch length, 892 Pitch-line velocity, 699, 784 Pitch point, 669, 671 Pitch radius, 669 Pitting, 335, 735 Pitting resistance, AGMA stress equation, 737–738 Pitting-resistance geometry factor, 746–748 Plain end springs, 512 Plane of analysis, 234 Plane slider bearing, 618 Plane stress, 94–100, 234 Mohr’s circle shear convention, 96–100 transformation equations, 94 Planetary gear trains, 695, 696 Planet carrier (arm), 695, 696 Planet gears, 695 Plastics, 70–71 Pneumatic clutches, 824 Poise (P), 612 Poisson’s ratio, 72, 102 Polymers, 73–74, 79 Poritsky, 139 Position control, 974, 990–992 Positive-contact clutch, 856–857 Potential energy, 176–178, 206 Pound-force (lbf), 31 Powder-metallurgy process, 58, 650, 679 Power screws, 406–414 Power transmission case study about, 926 bearing selection, 928, 939–940 deflection check, 938 design for stress, 938 design sequence for power transmission, 927–928 final analysis, 928, 943 force analysis, 927, 937 gear specification, 927, 928–935 key and retaining ring selection, 928, 940–942 key design, 940 power and torque requirements, 927, 928 problem specification, 926–927 shaft design for deflection, 928, 938–939 shaft design for stress, 927, 938 shaft layout, 927, 935–937 shaft material selection, 927, 937 specifications, 926–927 speed, torque, and gear ratios, 929–930 ira nt s co m N Natural frequency, 75, 527, 963 Naval brass, 69 Needle bearings, 564, 565 Neuber constant, 304 Neuber equation, 304 Neutral axis, 103–104, 132 Neutral plane, 104 Newmark, N M., 947 Newtonian fluids, 612 Newton (N), 32 Nickel, 63, 66 Nodes, 947 Nodular cast iron, 65–66 Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), 491 Nominal mean stress method, 310 Nominal size, 27 Nominal stresses and strengths, 45 Nonferrous metals, 67–70 Nonlinear softening spring, 163 Nonlinear stiffening spring, 162 Normal circular pitch, 684 Normal diametral pitch, 684 Normalizing, 60–61 Normal stress, 93 Norris, C H., 472 Notched-bar tests, 53–54 Notch sensitivity, 303–304 Numbering systems, 56–57 Nuts, 415–416, 427 sp O Octahedral shear stresses, 238 Octahedral-shear-stress theory, 237–238 Offset method, 43 Oil flow, 635, 642 Oiliness agents, 652 Oil-tempered wire, 516 Opening crack propagation mode, 255 Orientation, in GD&T, 973–974, 985, 1004 Orientation controls, 987–988 Osgood, C C., 420 Other side (weld symbol), 469 Overconstrained system, 189 Overload factors, 738, 750, 758–759, 783 Overload release clutch, 856–857 Overrunning clutch or coupling, 857 c ga Maximum-normal-stress theory for brittle materials, 249 Maximum-shear-stress theory (MSS), 233–235, 245, 252, 263 Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem, 376 McHenry, D., 947 McKee, S A., 615 McKee, T R., 615 McKee abscissa, 615 Mean coil diameter, 510 Mechanical efficiency, 805 Mechanical springs See Springs Median life, 566 Medium drive fit, 389 Mesh, 954 Mesh density, 954 Mesh generation, 954–956 fully automatic, 955 manual, 954–955 semiautomatic, 955 Mesh refinement, 954 Metal-mold castings, 58 Metals, 73, 79 nonferrous, 67–70 Metals Handbook (ASM), 277 Metal spraying, 302 Metric fastener specifications, 403–404, 427 Milling, 680 Mindlin, 139 Miner’s rule, 330–333 Minimum film thickness, 616–617, 629 Minimum life, 566 Minor diameter, 402 Misalignment, 371, 564, 599, 600 Miscellaneous-effects factor, 301–302 Mises-Hencky theory, 237 Mises stresses, 325, 359–360 Mixed-film lubrication, 652–653 Modal analysis, 963–964 Mode I, plane strain fracture toughness, 259 Modeling techniques, 958–961 Modern Steels and Their Properties Handbook, 63 Modified Goodman diagram, 311–312 Modified Goodman failure line, 313–315 Modified Goodman fatigue failure criterion See Goodman fatigue failure criterion Modified Mohr (MM) theory, 249–252, 263 Module, 668 Modulus of elasticity, 43, 72, 74–76, 101, 1015, 1054 Modulus of elasticity of wire rope, 908 Modulus of resilience, 46 Modulus of rigidity, 45, 102, 1015 Modulus of rupture, 45 Modulus of toughness, 46 Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 94–100 Mohr theory of failure, 242, 249–250 Molded-asbestos linings and pads, 855 Molybdenum, 64, 66 Moment connection, 474 Moment load (secondary shear), 448 Monte Carlo computer simulations, 31 Multiple of rating life, 567 Multiple-threaded product, 402, 805 Multipoint constraint equations, 958 1079 P Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation rule, 330–333, 335 Parabolic formula, 198 Parallel-axis theorem, 105, 475 Parallel helical gears, 683–687 Paris equation, 288 Parallelism control, 973–974, 987 Partial bearing, 617 Partitioning approach, 953 Pattern-locating Tolerance Zone Framework (PLTZF), 991–992, 1005 Pearlite, 61 Pedestal bearings, 637 Peel stresses, 496, 498 Performance factors, 622 Permanent-mold casting, 679 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design Q Quality numbers (AGMA), 748, 750 Quasi-static fracture, 254–255 Quenching, 61 w w www.cgaspirants.com co m nt ira S Safety, 12, 15, 18–20 Saint-Venant’s principle, 956 Salakian, A G., 472 Samónov, C., 514 Sand casting, 57, 679 Saybolt Universal viscosity (SUV), 612 Scoring, 735 Screws machine screws, 415–416 power screws, 406–414 self-locking, 408 thread standards and definitions, 402–406 Sealants See Adhesive bonding Seals for bearings, 600–601 Seam welding, 490 Secant column formula, 199–200 Secondary shear, 448, 474 Section modulus, 104 Self-acting (self-locking) phenomenon, 821 Self-adaptive mesh refinement, 955 Self-aligning bearings, 563, 564, 573, 600 Self-contained bearings, 637–638 Self-deenergizing brake shoe, 819 Self-energizing brake shoe, 819 Self-locking screw, 408 Series system, 24 Set removal, 513 Setscrews, 380–382 Shaft basis (limits and fits), 388 Shaft design for stress, 358–371 critical locations, 358–359 estimating stress concentrations, 364–365 shaft stresses, 359–364 Shaft layout, 353–358 assembly and disassembly, 357–358 axial, 355 w R R R Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine, 282 Rack, 674 Rack cutter, 680 Radial clearance, 27, 614, 616, 640 Radial clearance ratio, 614 Radius of gyration, 108 Raimondi, Albert A., 623–624 Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 623–624, 628–629, 632–634, 636, 637 Rain-flow counting technique, 330 Rate of shear, 612 Rating life, 566–567 Rayleigh’s model for lumped masses, 375 Red brass, 68–69 Redundant supports, 189 Regardless of feature size (RFS), 995, 1005 Regular lay, 908 Relatively brittle condition, 254 Reliability, 4, 20, 24–26 Reliability factors, 296, 300–301, 755–756, 789–790 Reliability method of design, 20, 24 Repeated stresses, 274, 309 supporting axial loads, 355 torque transmission provisions, 355–357 Shafts and shaft components about, 352 bearings, 571 couplings, 857 critical speeds for shafts, 375–380 defined, 352 deflection considerations, 371–375 flexible, 916–917 keys and pins, 382–385 layout, 353–358 limits and fits, 387–392 materials for, 352–353 retaining rings, 386 setscrews, 380–382 shaft design for stress, 358–371 Shaping, 680–681 Shear-energy theory, 237 Shear force in beams, 89–90 Shear-lag model, 493, 497 Shear loaded bolted and riveted joints, 443–451 Shear modulus, 45, 102 Shear stress-correction factor, 511 Shear yield strength, 234, 239, 515, 517 Sheaves, 872 Shell molding, 57–58, 679 Shock, 205–206 Shot peening, 301, 528, 762 Shoulders, 353–355, 364–365, 573–574, 596, 598 Shrink fits, 130–131 Significant figures, 32–33 Silicon, 64 Silicon bronze, 69 Sines failure criterion, 528, 531 Single-enveloping (cylindrical) worm gearset, 667, 801 See also Worm gears Single-row bearing, 563–564 Singularity functions, 86, 91–93, 170–176 Sintered-metal pads, 855 Size factor, 296–298, 751, 785 Slenderness ratio, 196, 203 Sliding fit, 388, 389 Sliding mode, 255 Sliding velocity, 708–709 Slug, 31 Smith-Dolan locus, 322–323 Smith, G M., 527 Smith, James O., 325 Smith-Liu, 139 S-N diagram See Strength-life diagram Snug-tight condition, 429 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 11, 56 Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), 11 Socket setscrews, 381 Soderberg line, 313–314, 361 Software CAD, 8–9 CES Edupack, 73 engineering-based, FEA programs, 189, 946, 965 non-engineering-specific, Solid elements, 949 s Residual stress method, 310 Resilience, 46 Resistance welding, 490 Retaining rings, 365, 386, 598, 941 Reynolds equation, 621, 623–624 Reynolds, Osborne, 617–618 Right-hand rule, threads, 402 Rigid elements, 958 Rim-thickness factor, 756–757 Ring gear, 674, 696 Rivet joint, 443–445 Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, 167 Rockwell hardness, 52 Roller chain, 899–907 Rolling-contact bearings See Bearings, rolling-contact Roll threading, 60 Rolovic, R D., 232 Root diameter, 402 Rotary fatigue, 335 Rotating-beam test, 282, 290 Rotating rings, stresses in, 129–130 Rotation factor, 571, 573 Round-belt drives, 872, 875–882 Rule #1, 982, 1005 Runout control, 974, 993–994 Russell, Burdsall & Ward Inc., 433 Ryan, D G., 413 c ga Preload (bolts), 417, 427, 433–434 Preloading (bearings), 600 Presentation, 7–8 Presetting, 513 Press and shrink fits, 130–131, 357 Pressure angle, 671, 688, 690 Pressure-fed bearings, 642–648 Pressure line, 671 Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 492 Pressurized cylinders, stresses in, 127–129 Pretension, bolt preload, 417, 427, 433–434 Primary shear, 448, 474, 479 Principal directions, 95, 100 Principal second-area moments, 107 Principal stresses, 95, 100–101 Probability density function (PDF), 21 Probability of failure, 20–24 Problem definition, 6, 11 Problem-solving, 4–5, 11 Product liability, 15 Professional societies, 10, 11 Profile controls, 988–990 Profile of a line, 974, 988 Profile of a surface, 974, 988 Proof load, 424 Proof strength, 424, 433 Propagation of dispersion, 24 Propagation of error, 24 Propagation of uncertainty, 24 Proportional limit, 43 Puck pad caliper brake, 844–845 Pulley correction factor, 879–880, 882 Punch-press torque demand, 861–862 Pure compression, 102 Pure shear, 102 Pure tension, 102 sp 1080 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Index w w w www.cgaspirants.com stress-concentration factor, 125 techniques for reducing, 364 Stress-concentration factor, 125, 231–232 See also Stress concentration Stress-correction factor, 745 Stress-cycle factor, 754–755, 787–788 Stresses, 16, 44, 93 Cartesian stress components, 93–94 contact stresses, 136–140 general three-dimensional, 100–101 normal stresses for beams in bending, 103–108 normal stresses for curved beams in bending, 132–136 in pressurized cylinders, 127–129 in rotating rings, 129–130 shear stresses for beams in bending, 108–115 shear stresses for torsion, 115–116 stress concentration, 124–127 thermal, 131 uniformly distributed stresses, 102–103 Stress intensity factor, 256–257 Stress intensity modification factor, 257 Stress-life method, 281–284 Stress numbers, 737–744, 783, 790–793 Stress raisers, 124 Stress ratio, 287, 310 Stress relieving, 61 Stress-strain diagram, 43–46, 49, 54, 433 Stress yield envelope, 234–235, 237 Strict liability concept, 15 Structural instabilities (buckling), 204 Structural adhesives, 491–492 Struts, 202–203 Studs, 417 Sun gear, 695 Superposition, 167–168 Surface compressive stress, 736 Surface condition factor, 750 Surface elements, 949 Surface endurance shear, 335 Surface endurance strength, 336 Surface factor, 295–296 Surface fatigue failure, 138, 335–338, 735–737 Surface fatigue strength, 335–338 Surface-strength geometry factor, 746–748 Symmetry control, 974, 990, 993 sp ira nt s co m Standard sizes, 13 Statically indeterminate problems, 189–195 Static equilibrium, 86 Static load, 53, 228 Static loading, failures resulting from about, 228 Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) and modified Mohr (MM) theories, 249–252, 263 Coulomb-Mohr theory for ductile materials, 242–244 design equations summary, 262–264 distortion-energy theory for ductile materials, 235–241 failure of brittle materials summary, 252 failure of ductile materials summary, 245–249 failure theories, summary, 233, 264 fracture mechanics, introduction to, 253–262 maximum-normal-stress theory for brittle materials, 249 maximum-shear-stress theory for ductile materials, 233–235 selection of failure criteria, 252–253 static strength, 230–231 stress concentration, 125, 231–232 Statistical tolerance system, 31 Steel castings, 66–67 Steels alloy steels, 63–64 cast steels, 66–67 corrosion-resistant, 64–65 heat treatment of, 60–63 modulus of elasticity, 43 numbering system for, 56–57 strength relation to hardness, 52 Stereolithography, Stiffness of a bolt, 419 of materials, 43, 45, 74 of the members in a bolted joint, 419–422 Stiffness constant of a bolted joint, 428 Stochastic analysis, 17, 284 Stock sizes, 13 Straight bevel gears See Bevel gears Straight roller bearings See Cylindrical roller bearings Straightness control, 973–974, 985 Strain energy, 176–178 Strain-hardened, 49 Strain-life method, 281, 284–286 Strength, 16, 44 Strength-life (S-N) diagram, 280, 282–283, 292–293 Stress concentration, 124–126, 231–232 See also Fatigue stress-concentration factor adjustment for notch sensitivity, 303–304 estimating for shafts, 364–365 FEA analysis of, 955, 958–960 in keyseats, 384 in sharp cracks, 254 c ga Solid-film lubricant, 611 Sommerfeld, A., 621 Sommerfeld number, 614, 622, 629, 646 Sorem, J R., 232 Specific modulus, 74 Specific stiffness, 74 Specific strength, 77 Speed ratio, 746 Spherical contact stress, 137–139 Spherical-roller thrust bearing, 564, 565 Spinning, 60 Spiral angle, 778 Spiral bevel gears, 666, 778 Spiroid gearing, 779 Splines, 357 Spot welding, 490 Spring constant, 163 Spring index, 511, 520, 522 Spring rates, 162–163, 417, 512 Springs, 162, 509–552 See also Helical springs about, 510 Belleville springs, 549–550 mechanical properties of some spring wires, 518 miscellaneous springs, 550–552 spring materials, 515–520 Spring surge, 526, 527 Sprockets, 872 Spur gears See also Spur and helical gears, AGMA described, 666 force analysis, 697–701 minimum teeth on, 677–679 tooth systems, 688 Spur and helical gears, AGMA AGMA nomenclature, 727–728 AGMA strength equations, 739–743 AGMA stress equations, 737–738 analysis, 757–767 dynamic factor, 748–750 elastic coefficient, 748 gear mesh design, 767–772 geometry factors, 743–748 hardness-ratio factor, 753–754 Lewis bending equation, 726–735 load-distribution factor, 751–753 overload factor, 750, 758–759 reliability factor, 755–756 rim-thickness factor, 756–757 roadmap summaries, 758–759 safety factors, 757, 765–766 size factor, 751 stress-cycle factors, 754–755 surface condition factor, 750 surface durability, 735–737 symbols, 727–728 temperature factor, 756 Square-jaw clutch, 856 Square key, 383 Square threads, 404 Stable lubrication, 615 Stainless steels, 56, 64–65 Stamping, 60 Standards and codes, 12–13 defined, 12 organizations with specific, 12–13 1081 www.cgaspirants.com T Tandem mounting (DT), 599 Tangential shear stress, 93 Tapered fits, 357 Tapered roller bearings, 564–565 See also Bearings, rolling-contact catalog data, 586–587 equivalent radial load, 588–589 fit, 596 induced thrust load, 585, 588 mounting, direct and indirect, 584–585 nomenclature, 584 selection of, 583–592 Tearing mode, 255 Temperature effects on deflection and stress, 131 on material properties, 54–55 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Mechanical Engineering Design ira nt s U Ultimate strength, 43, 46, 51, 54–55, 233 Uncertainty, 16–17 Uncorrected torsional stress, 537 Undercutting, 677–679, 685, 690 Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys (UNS), 56–57 Uniform pressure, clutches and brakes, 839–840, 843 Unified thread series, 402–404 Uniform wear, clutches and brakes, 838–840, 842–843, 846–847 Unilateral tolerance, 27 Unit load, 196, 376, 648 Unit second polar moment of area, 475–476 Units, 31–32 Unstable equilibrium, 196 Unstable lubrication, 615 Upper deviation (limits and fits), 387–388 U.S customary unit system, 31, 93 V Vanadium, 64 Variable loading, 274 of bearings, 577–580 Variable stresses, 274, 329 V belts, 872, 874–875, 890–898 Velocity factor, 730–731, 802–803, 879 Vibration analysis (FEA), 963–964 Virtual condition, 1005 Virtual number of teeth, 683, 685 Viscosity, 611–613, 624–629 Volkersen, O., 493, 497 Volute spring, 550 von Mises, R., 237 von Mises-Hencky theory, 237 von Mises theory, 237 von Mises stress, 237, 263 in a static failure theory, 237–238 in combined fatigue loading, 326, 340 in FEA models, 955–956, 962 in shafts, 360, 362 in welds, 472 w w w www.cgaspirants.com W Wahl, A M., 514 Wahl factor, 511 Washers, 414, 416–417, 425, 599 Wear from contact fatigue, 336 of boundary-lubricated bearings, 653–657 of clutches and brakes, 834–835, 838, 842–843, 846–847 of gears, 735, 759, 762, 793 of wire rope, 911 Wear factor, 336, 654, 812–813 Wear factor of safety, 759, 783, 793 Weibull distribution, 21, 562, 568–569, 594 Weibull parameters, 568, 570, 601 Weld bonding, 497 Welded joints butt and fillet welds, 469, 470–473 fatigue loading, 488–489 references, 499 resistance welding, 490 static loading, 484–487 welded joints, strength of, 481–483 welded joints in bending, stresses in, 479–481 welded joints in torsion, stresses in, 474–478 welding symbols (AWS), 468–470 White cast iron, 66 Wileman, J., 421 Wire rope, 908–916 Wolford, J C., 527 Woodruff key, 384–385 Worm gears, 667 AGMA equation, 801–804 analysis, 805–808 Buckingham wear load, 812–813 efficiency, 805, 928 examples, 354, 406 force analysis, 706–712 mesh design, 809–812 nomenclature, 687–688 standard tooth form, 690 thrust, rotation, and hand relations, 691 Woven-asbestos lining, 855 Woven-cotton lining, 855 Wrought alloys, 67 co m Transmission error, 748 Transmitted load, 698–699, 701, 704, 738 Transverse circular pitch, 684, 687 Transverse shear stress, 108–114 in square threads, 410 strain-energy correction factors for, 177 Tresca theory, 233 True strain, 44 True stress, 44 True stress-strain diagram, 44–45, 50, 285 Trumpler, P R., 622–623 Trumpler’s design criteria, 622–623 Truss element, 951 Tungsten, 64 Turner, M J., 947–948 Turn-of-the-nut method, 429 Two-bearing mountings, 598–599 Two-plane bending, 106–107 c ga Temperature factor, 299, 756, 788 Temper carbon, 66 Tempered martensite, 62 Tempering, 61–62 Tensile strength, 43 See also Ultimate strength Tensile stress, 93 Tensile-stress area, 403–405 Tensile test, 42–44 Tension-test specimens, 42–43 Theoretical stress-concentration factor, 125 See also Stress-concentration factor Thermal stresses, 131, 494–496, 961–962 Thermoplastics, 70, 73–74 Thermoset, 70–71, 73–74 Thick-film lubrication, 615–617 Thin-film lubrication, 611, 615, 652–653 Thin-walled pressure vessels, 128 Threaded fasteners, 414–416 Thread standards, definitions, 402–406 Three-dimensional stress, 100–101 Thrust bearings, 563–565, 651–652 Timing belts, 872, 874, 898–899, 928 Timken Company, 565, 566, 585–590 Tipton, S M., 232 Titanium, 68 Tolerance position letters, 388–389 Tolerances See also Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, and Limits and Fits bilateral, 27 choice of, 28 cost considerations, 13–14 definition of, 27, 387, 1005 tolerance stack-up, 29–31 unilateral, 27 Tolerance zone, 981–982, 1005 Tooth systems, 688–690 Tooth thickness, 667–668, 673 Top land, 668 Topp, L J., 947 Torque coefficient, 430 Torque transmission, 355–357 Torque-twist diagram, 45 Torque vector, 115 Torsion, 115–124 buckling of thin-walled beam, 204 closed thin-walled tubes, 121–123 deflection, 163 open thin-walled sections, 123–124 strain energy, 176 of welded joints, 474 Torsional fatigue strength, 325, 528–529 Torsional strengths, 45 Torsional yield strength, 45, 244, 515 Torsion springs, 542–549 Total runout control, 974, 993–994 Toughness, 46 Tower, Beauchamp, 617 Train value, 691–692, 696, 928 Transmission accuracy number, 748, 784 sp 1082 www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com Y Yellow brass, 68–69 Yield point, 43, 46, 49, 310, 433 Yield strength, 43, 46, 49, 54, 79, 233 Young’s modulus of elasticity, 43, 72, 74–76, 101 Z Zerol bevel gear, 778 Zimmerli, F P., 528 Zimmerli data, 528–531, 541, 546 www.cgaspirants.com ...www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com... www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com w w w c ga sp ira nt s co m Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com... www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com www.cgaspirants.com 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