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ENGLISH GRAMMAR MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Group members: Lecturer: Chapter INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR I Introduction - Grammar is the system of sounds, of meaningful units; and sets of rules and principles that allow speakers to combine them into larger units and understanding their language - Linguistic competence (Mental Grammar): the human's ability to understand and produce an unlimited number of utterances, including many that are novel and unfamiliar - Grammar is divided into components: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics II English grammar Types of grammar Prescriptive Grammar Prescriptive grammar aimed to lay down the rules on how language should be used and to set up a standard of correct usage Example: what you want to eat the meat with? Rule: Don’t end a sentence with a preposition with what you want to eat the meat? Descriptive Grammar Descriptive grammar aims to present the grammar that underlies the actual usage (the way people actually speak and write the language) of speakers of the language, i.e it describes the system of grammar of the language The Immediate Constituent Grammar – the IC grammar: This grammar ue the immediate constituent (IC) analysis This approach works through the different levels of structure within a phrase, or a sentences in a series of steps At each level, a construction is divided into its major constituents, and the process continues until no further divisions can be made For Example: The // girl / chas///ed // the /// dog The / little / girl / invent/ed / the / story / about / the /accident Phrase Structure Grammar – PS grammar: This types of grammar names, or labels, the constituents that emerge each time a sentence is segmented; each label abbreviates a formal category, e.g., we have NP for Noun Phrase, VP for Verb Phrase, PP for Prepositional Phrase, S for sentence, and so on For example: The old man went into the store with a crowbar Phrasal categories are named according to the most important word of the phrase Phrase Structure is the division of a sentence into parts, or constituents, and the division of those constituents into subparts The girl chased the dog The bear went over the mountain NP Art N NP Art N VP V NP Art The girl chased the VP V N PP Prep NP Art N dog The bear went over the mountain Transformational Generative Grammar – TG grammar: aims to find out mechanisms, which account for generation of the variety of sentences of a language out of a few kernel sentences Pedagogial Grammars or Teaching Grammar: assume the students already knows one language and compares the grammar of the target language with the grammar of the negative language Grammar Units: SENTENCES  CLAUSES  PHRASES  WORDS  MORPHEMES Syntatic relations: ° Subject Predicate relations Our class bought a new computer ° Subordinate relations The boy wears a red hat which is very expensive ° Coordinate relations The man picked up a ring and went out quickly ° Embedded relations I think you are completely wrong Chaper MORPHOLOGY I Introduction Morphology is the study of words forms, of internal structure of words and of the rules by which words are formed II Words A word is a linguistic sign, i.e am arbitrary union of sound (form) and meaning A word is a minimal free form A free form is an element that can occur in isolation and whose positionwith respect to neighboring elements is not entirely fixed - The hunters chased the elephant - The elephant chased the hunters - The elephant, the hunters chased Example: Teach and taught are different word forms -1 lexeme [TEACH] A Nam walked home B Nam has walked home 1 lexeme [WALK] 2 different word forms : walked+past tense (1); walked+past partiple (2) The man lost the rings on the way to the wedding 8 different words: the, man, lost, rings, on, way, to, wedding we went to Saigon last week and we intend to go to Hoi An this week 13 different words: we, went, to, Saigon, last, week, and, intend, to, go, Hoi, An, this REVISION CHAPTER 1&2 How many different words are there in this sentence: “She walked to town yesterday she has walked there this morning?” A 13 B 12 C 11 D 10 The notions of Surface Structure and Deep Structure orginated from the grammar A Traditional B P.S C I.C D T.G Which of the following rules is prescriptive ? A In English, only pronouns display distinction in case B Definite and indifinite articles come before their nouns in English C The word like should not be use as a conjunction D Adverbs such as very modify adjectives and other adverbs Which of the following rules is descriptive? A The preposition but should be followed by an object pronoun B The most common way of expressing future meaning is with will C In formal speech, the subjective pronoun is used after the verb be D Split an infinitive is unacceptable in suh example as “ to completely disagree” Which of the following sentences does not seem to be grammatically corr ect? A All of us has a good time B A good time was had by all of us C It easy to see what she means D What she means is easy to see Which of the following sentences is prescriptively incorrect? A That person looked hard B Never will be the hunger be eliminated C He was wrong to be quiet leave his home D There are cookies for everyone Which of ghe following is a component of grammar? A Linguistsic B Pragmatics C Semiotics D Semantics The word “ grammar” in a complete sense means :… (a) the grammar that speakers have internalized when they acquire the language (b) the description of the grammar of thelanguage presented in books and references (c) the mental grammar and the model or description of that grammar of the spea kers (d) the ability to use the language appropriately of the seapkers of the language The human’s ability to understand and produce an limited number of utterances,including many that are unfamiliar is called a linguistic performance b Linguistic experience c linguistic competence d Language acquisition 10 Describe the syntactic relations that could be found in each ofthefollowing sentences - Mary had a little lamb - My friends and I went home and held a welcome party - The girl visited the place where she was born - This is the maiden that milked the cow - I don’t know who I should call for help - What you see is what you get 11 how many different words are there in the sentence ‘Not many banks have branches on the banks of the Avon? a b 10 c 11 d 12 Chapter MORPHEME AND TYPES OF MORPHEME I Elements smaller than the word  A morph, is a unit which is a segment of a word-form It has a constant form and realizes or is related to a constant meaning II Allomorphs and Morphemes  Allomorphs are morphs which realize a particular morpheme and which are conditioned Phonetically conditioned : a, an and the Lexically conditioned: foot – feet, tooth – teeth, mouse – mice, man – men, woman – women, Grammatically conditioned: have – has, is – am – are * Every allomorph is a morph  Morphemes, are abstract units They are the minimal (smallest) meaningful units of a language Morphemes are classified into free morphemes and bound morphemes: Free morphemes - Can stand alone with a specific meaning - Can be used as a word Example: Bound morphemes - Must be attached to another element - Is never a word, always a part of word Tourists: -tour (one minimal unit) -ist (meaning “person who does something”) -s (a third unit of grammatical function indicating plurality) + Morphemes can vary in size: neither the number of syllables nor the length of a word can indicate what is a morpheme and what isn’t For example: Albatross is a long word but a single morpheme, -y (as in dreamy ) is also a single morpheme + Just as linguists have had success dissecting phonemes into combination of distinctive features, so they have viewed morphemes as made up of combination of semantic features For example: we can analyze a word like girls in terms of both its morphological and its semantic structure: Morphological: girls = girl + s Semantic: girl = {-adult; -male; -human, } + {s} = {PLU} = {plural} + Two different morphemes may be pronounced ( and even sometimes spelled) the same way For example: the –er in buyer means someting like ‘the one who’, while the –er in shorter means something like ‘to a greater degree than’ The first –er always attaches to a verb, while the second –er always attaches to an adjective It makes sense to consider these two different morphemes that just happen to sound the same + We can’t always hold to the definition of a morpheme as having unchanging form For example, when we consider words like boys, girls, shirts, books, we conclude that –s is the plural morpheme But what about words such as men or women? Here plurality is indicated not by adding –s but by morphologically, {man} + {PLU}, even though the form of {PLU} is quite different in this case In the same way, it seems sensible to say that went = {go} + {PAST}, just as walked ={walk} + {PAST}, even though in the first case {PAST} involves a morphological change in form quite different from the usual adding of –ed Root Any morph which can realize a word ( lexeme) and which is not further analyzable is termed A ROOT For example: undesirability  [un-desire-able-ity] Bound morphs which not realize words and which are attached to roots to produce word-forms are called AFFIXES Most roots are free morphemes, but some are not: euro-crat, octo-pus, quadraphon-ic, wis-dom, and so on For example: deal.ing.s, fool.ish.ness, - A root is the part of a word that cannot be changed, and when added to creates different forms of the word: + "Walk" is a root, and can be changed in many ways: walking, walked, walker, walkie-talkie, sidewalk, walk-light, walks etc You will never have a word related to walking where the "walk" part gets changed, so it is a root + Most of the time the root forms a word on its own, but sometimes they not Complete, replete, expletive: these all have the root "plete", which happens to not be a word on its own Base Anything we attach affixes to, whether it is just a root or something bigger than a root is called a BASE If an affix is attached before a base it is called a prefix, if it is attached after a base it is called a suffix (and if it attached in the middle of a base it is calles an infix) Pre.pack.ed For example: Nation Nation-al (-al attached to Noun-base to form Adjective) National-ize (-ize attached to a Adj-base to form Verb) Nationaliz-ation Nationalization-al ROOT BASE - A base is any part of a word that you can add inflections to, or that you can add prefixes/suffixes that change the meaning/part of speech So "walk" is also a base, because it can have inflections (walking) and can be turned into different words (walker is a noun) Walker is also a base, because you can modify it inflectionally (walkers is plural), and because it can have things added to derive new words (dog-walker) - So all roots are bases because they are the smallest chunk that stays the same despite additions - Not all bases are roots though, because sometimes the root + inflection or root + derivation goes on to take additional changes (Walker is a base, but the root is still walk) Stem STEM is the actual form to which an inflectional affix is attached to ( consisting of more than one morpheme) For example: the form sing is the stem of the word sing.s but singer is the stem of the word singer.s - A stem is the form of a word that inflections get added onto Most of the time this will be the root "Walk" is the form that all the inflections (grammar-affecting changes) get added to, when you add ~ing to it, it turns into a progressive verb or a gerund ~ed turns it perfect ~s makes it a plural noun, or makes it agree with a singular subject II Free And Bound Morphemes Free morpheme: morpheme that can constitute a word by itself Bound morpheme: morpheme which must be attached to another element to make up a word Derivation and Inflection 1.1 Derivational morphemes: are (bound) morphemes that *add new meaning to an existing word (*) + the derived words may be in a different grammatical class: nation-al + the derived words may be in the same grammatical class: Prefix re-write Super-man Suffix Vietnam-ese Mouth-ful o There are an indefinite number of derivational morphemes + For example, the following are some derivational suffixes: - {ize} attaches to a noun and turns it into a verb: rubberize - {ize} also attaches to an adjective and turns it into a verb: normalize - {ful} attaches to a noun and turns it into an adjective: playful, helpful - {ly} attaches to an adjective and turns it into an adverb: grandly, proudly - A different {ly} attaches to a noun and changes it into an adjective: manly, friendly + English also has derivational prefixes, such as: - {un}, {dis}, {a}, {anti}, all of which indicate some kind of negation: unhappy, dislike, atypical, anti-aircraft 1.2 Inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes that are purely grammatical markers, representing such concepts as tense, number, gender, person, case, * Inflectional morphemes not change the syntactic/grammatical category of the word or morphemes to which they are attached For example: SING {sing – sang – sung – singing} the goverment expelled the officers from Thailand the goverment expelled the officers from Thailand Categoriality: Sentences are made up of parts which belongs to a set of distinct categories, each with its special characteristics Det – N – V – A – Prep – Adv Det N V A N Prep Adv the goverment expelled the officers from Thailand S NP Det VP N V NP Det N’ N PP P NP N the goverment expelled the officers from Thailand III Syntactic relations - Subject – predicate relation: a syntactic relation between the two constituents of a simple sentence Ex: They // love rock and rap - Coordination relation: the kind of syntactic relation in which two (or more) units or constituents of the same rank are joined together Ex: They fell down and died It rains but we went for a walk anyway - Subordination relation: the relation between the underlined units/constituents shows that one unit is subordinate to the other Ex: This is the horse that won the race They stayed behind because they couldn’t speak English - Embedded relation: I knew that he was lying IV Classification: - Indicative mood: declarative sentence Ex: we usually get up after on weekends I don’t like to sleep alone Interrogative sentence Ex: can you make me a cambric shirt? Don’t you want to study abroad? - Imperative mood: imperative / directive sentence Ex: Go and get him back! Don’t move! a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d REVISION She must have been very hungry, for she ate everything immediately Subject – predicate relation Coordinate relation Subordinate relation Embedded relation The mother didn’t want her son to leave home early Subject – predicate relation Coordinate relation Subordinate relation Embedded relation People who experience spring and summer depression may be more likelyto show symptoms such as insommia, decreased appetite and weigh loss, and irritation or anxiety Subject – predicate relation Coordinate relation Subordinate relation Embedded relation There was an earthquake; in addition, there was a tsunami Subject – predicate relation Coordinate relation Subordinate relation Embedded relation Which of the following is not true about a sentence? Sentence is the largest unit in grammar The structure of the sentence bears the characteristics of the linearity, hierarchy and categoriality Sentences are classified according to mood The indicative mood gives the declarative and imperative sentences The description of the sentence stucture by labeling its components such as N, V, Adj, AdvP, etc., reveals the ( ) characteristic of English sentences Linear Hieararchical Categorical Functional The description of the sentence stucture by giving the name of its components such as Subject, Verb,Object, Complement and Adverbials reveals the characteristic of in English sentences Hieararchy Linearity Categoriality Function The (linear) structure of the sentence ‘ I put the chicken in the microwave.’is a S – V – O – Co b S – V – O – A c S – V – Oi – Od d S – V – O The (linear) structure of the sentence ‘Kristy gets a good deal of attention.’is a S – V – O b S – V – O – Co c S – V – O – A d S – V – Oi – Od 10.The (linear) structure of the sentence ‘That made Stanley a hero.’is a S – V – O – A b S – V – Oi – Od c S – V – O – C d S – V – O Chapter TYPES OF SENTENCES: THE SIMPLE SENTENCE I Different types of sentences - Traditional grammars classify sentences as simple, compound or complex - By function, as statements, questions, exclamations and commands - By their structural complexity, as simple or compound - Clauses can be either finite or nonfinite Finite clauses that have either modals or verbs indicating past or present tense Nonfinite are clauses in which the predicate phrase begins not with a present or past tense verb or a modal but with a to before the verb II The simple sentence Definition - Is a sentence that contains only one clause, a main clause 1.1 complementation 1.2 syntactic characterization of sentence elements - The verb: is always realized by a verb phrase The verb determines what other elements may or must occur in the sentence - The subject: is typically a noun phrase (NP) The subject determines the number and person, where relevant, of the verb - The object: is typically a noun phrase (NP) The object normally follows the subject and the verb The object may generally become the subject of the corresponding passive clause - The complement: is typically a noun phrase (NP) or an adjective phrase (AP) The complement normally follows the subject and the verb if it is a subject complement, and the direct object, if object complement - The adverbial: is normally an adverb phrase (AdvP), preposition phrase (PP), or a clause (S), but can also be a noun phrase (NP) The adverbial is optional, except for the SVA and SVOA clause types The grammatical structure of English simple sentences SVA S V A Mary is in the house SVC S V C Mary is kind/a nuse SVO S V O.d Somebody caught the ball SVOA S V O.d A I put the plate on the table SVOC S V O.d C.o We have proved him wrong/ a fool SVOO S V O.i O.d She give me expensive presents SV S V The child laughed Thematic role assignment 3.1 Thematic role agent - The agent is a mind-possessor who acts, usually intentionally 3.2 Thematic role instruments : - Is the thing with which the action is done 3.3 Thematic role theme 3.4 Thematic role experiencer - A mental state or process such as thinking, knowing, believing, understanding, seeing… 3.5 Thematic roles source and goal - The term source refers to the location from which someone or something originates and the term goal to the location that servers or should serve as destination 3.6 Thematic role benefactive - Is the role of the individual for whose benefit some action 3.7 Thematic roles for nonargument noun phrases Chapter 10 TYPES OF SENTENCES: THE COMPLEX SENTENCES I Definition: Complex sentences are made up of a number of simple sentences (which when incorporated as constituents of larger sentences are, by virtue of this fact, called clauses) Complex sentences have more than one verb phrase (predicate) in their predication structures II Complex sentences – coordination relation: The coordination conjunction which can be used to form this type of sentence are: and, and then, but, for, nor, or, so, yet, either or, neither nor, not only but (also/as well/too) These can be used for the purpose of:  Addition: Chris washed his car and polished it We were talking and laughing  Result: I’ve got a terribly fever, so I went to see a doctor He fell heavily and broke his arm ( =so)  Condition: Clean the trash, and I’ll pay you 50,000 d (If )  Sequence: He finished his exam and fell down in a faint  Contrast: Paul speaks English, but his wife speaks Japa Japanese Tom’s 15 and still sucks his thumb (despite this) III  Choice: Work hard or you’ll fail the exam  Reason: The boy has to be street vendor, for his family is so poor  Continuation: The man opened the door, and then Complex sentences – subordination relation and embedded relation: a Danusa kept quiet because she was afraid b This is the house that/which was built of mud c Wanado knows that Edgar loves Angela d We think the ghost appears at midnight ( finite) e We want the ghost to appears at midnight ( nonfinite) Types of subordinate clauses: - Clauses that function as modifiers of Verbs (Adv Cls) - Clauses that function as modifiers of Noun (Rel Cls ) - Clauses that function as Subject or Object (N Cls ) Types of Clauses: Finite Nonfinite Adverbial Reduced Adverbial Relative Reduced Relative Noun Gerund Infinitive Types of Nonfinite Clauses: + Reduced Adverbial: Sub Conj + V_ing/V_en (modifier of Verb) While living in Africa, Shella learned Swahili + Gerund: simple V_ing/Poss + V_ing (NP range ) Giving grammar lectures is always a challenge Bill’s leaving town confirmed his guilt + Reduced Relatives: simple with subject (modifier of N) Anyone hoping to get on the boat should have a ticket + To infinitive: to + verb ( NP range of modifier of V) We want Bill to leave immediately To leave now would cause a lot of trouble + Bare infinitive: simple V Leave immediately is what he should I felt it move under my hand + Infinitive: for + Subj + to + V For us to leave now would cause a lot of trouble Functions of Subordinate Clauses: 3.1 Clauses that function as modifiers of verbs ( Adverbial Clauses)  Time clauses: a After you left the party, things really began to swing b As soon as the mailman came, Terry ran to the door c Before Reagan was elected, there was more money for schools d Since the shuttle crashed, NASA has been demoralized e While he was swinging on the creeper, Tarzan emitted a bloodcurdling yell f While swinging on the creeper, Tarzan emitted a blood-curdling yell (Nonfinite) g When he was questioned by the police, the suspect demanded to see his lawyers h When questioned by the police, the suspect demanded to see his lawyers (Nonfinite) i Before you get into trouble, quit j Before getting into trouble, quit (Nonfinite )  Place clauses: a Wherever you find cotton, you will find the boll weevil b Double quotes should be used only where they are appropriate c Double quotes should be used only where appropriate (Nonfinite)  Conditional clauses: a If you understand this, (then) you will be able to the exercises b Unless you understand this, you will be unable to the exercises  Cause clauses: a Because he hoped to elude his pursuers, Fred continued his trek into the mountains b Since/As funding is scarce, research is hampered c Being a clever fellow, Fred was able to draw the correct conclusions (Nonfinite) d Seated by the window, the children could see everything that happened on the street (Nonfinite)  Purpose clauses: a We packed food for six meals so (that) we could stay out in the forest overnight b Let us spend a few moments in silence so that/in order that we remember those who died to preserve our freedom  Result clauses: a She was so stunned that she couldn’t speak b The shooting star moved so quickly that I almost missed it  Manner clauses: a Type this again as I show you a moment ago b This steak is cooked just how/the way I like it c I feel as if/as though I’m floating on air d He sounds as if/as though he is badly injured  Reason clauses: a As/Because/Since there was very little support, the strike was not successful b Long is trying to find a new private room because he wants to live independently  Concession clauses: a Although/Though/Even though I felt sorry for him, I was secretly pleased that he was having difficulties b We decided to travel by plane, even if air fares go up again this year c No matter where you go, you cannot escape from yourself d However brilliant you are/may be, you can’t know everything 3.2 Clauses that function in the nominal range (Noun Clauses) a Clauses that function as direct objects b Clauses that function as subjects c Clauses that function as indirect objects d Clauses that function as objects of prepositions e Clauses that function as complements 3.2 Clauses that function as modifiers of nouns (Relative clauses and Reduced relatives) a Restrictive/Defining: The man that we bought the boat from – skipped town The man who(m) we bought the boay from – skipped town The man from whom we bought the boat – skipped town The man we bought the boat from – skipped town b Non-restrictive/Non-defining: Mr.Pickhurst, who(m) we met last week, has gone away I hit the brakes, which caused the car to fishtail c Nonfinite clauses function as relatives: The man to see is Fred Limestone The man standing near the entrance is my father REVISION chapter 9&10 The sentence “ Don’t be angry with the rain; it simply does notknow how to fall upwards” is a a simple sentence b Compound sentence c complex sentence d ᴓ what type of sentence is of the following “ Do you hear what the singer is singing? a kernel b Transformed c Compound d non-finite “ The students reported that serious event to the professor” is a sentence a kernel b Transformed c Compound d complex what is the thematic role of the underlined words in the sentence “The students are thinking seriously about the solution to the class problem.”? a agent b Theme c Benefactive d experience what is the thematic role of the underlined words in the sentence “ The burglars used on acetylene lamp to break open the safe? a agent b Theme c Instrument d experience which is the function of the underlined adverbial clause in the sentence “The food was cooked just the way I liked it.”? a result b Reason c Manner d condition which is the word class of the underlined word in the sentence “ Concerning the future of the department, he asked several questions?” a Noun b Preposition c Adjective d V-ing “The students said they had invited the professor.” Is a sentence a transformed b Kernel c Compound d simple What kind of adjunct ofthe underlined words in “The girl went into her brother’s room to annoy him.”? a reason b Manner c Cause d result 10 “ The man hurried to the hospital to see his new born child.”is a sentence a complex b Compound c Simple d transformed 11 What is the thematic role of the underlined words in “They will see a huge bronze gate between two pillars.” a theme b Goal c Source d location 12 What is the thematic role of the underlined words in “That big green bug flew into the soup a agent b Theme c Goal d location ... of an affix (prefix and suffix) N V Af 1.1 Derivational English Affixes Suffixes -able -ation -er -ing -ion -ive -ment -al -ial -ian -ic -ize -less -ous -ate -ity -ize -ly -ness change VA VN... phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics II English grammar Types of grammar Prescriptive Grammar Prescriptive grammar aimed to lay down the rules on how language should be used and to set up a standard... familiar Ex: blah-blah, poo-poo, tom-tom, chop-chop, knock-knock, pee-pee… Onomatopoeic words: These are the words created to sound like the thing to which refer Ex: cook-a-doodle-doo, ping pong,
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