The effect of non verbal communication on interpersonal communications

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG - ISO 9001:2015 KHĨA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH: NGƠN NGỮ ANH Sinh viên : TRẦN THỊ LIÊN Giảng viên hướng dẫn: THS PHẠM THỊ THÚY HẢI PHÒNG - 2018 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG - THE EFFECTS OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ON INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP ĐẠI HỌC HỆ CHÍNH QUY NGÀNH: NGƠN NGỮ ANH Sinh viên :TRẦN THỊ LIÊN Giảng viên hướng dẫn:THS PHẠM THỊ THÚY HẢI PHÒNG - 2018 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG NHIỆM VỤ ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP Sinh viên: Trần Thị Liên Mã SV: 1412751102 Lớp: NA1801 Ngành: Ngôn Ngữ Anh Tên đề tài: The effect of non-verbal communication on interpersonal communications NHIỆM VỤ ĐỀ TÀI Nội dung yêu cầu cần giải nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( lý luận, thực tiễn, số liệu cần tính tốn vẽ) …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính tốn …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ tên: Học hàm, học vị: Cơ quan công tác: Nội dung hướng dẫn: Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ tên: Học hàm, học vị: Cơ quan công tác: Nội dung hướng dẫn: Đề tài tốt nghiệp giao ngày tháng năm Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày tháng năm Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Sinh viên Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Người hướng dẫn Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2018 Hiệu trưởng GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị PHẦN NHẬN XÉT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN Tinh thần thái độ sinh viên trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp: …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Đánh giá chất lượng khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đề nhiệm vụ Đ.T T.N mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính tốn số liệu…): …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Cho điểm cán hướng dẫn (ghi số chữ): …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… Hải Phòng, ngày … tháng … năm Cán hướng dẫn (Ký ghi rõ họ tên) THS.Phạm Thị Thúy ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest gratitude to many people who have assisted me in the completion of my research Firstly , I am so grateful to Ms Pham Thi Thuy (MA) my supervisor for her guidance and precious comments throughout this study She has helped me so much in choosing the title of this study and giving me valuable suggestions, advice and detailed comments about my study Secondly, I want to send my sincere thanks to all the teachers of Foreign Language Department at Hai Phong Private University for their precious and useful lessons during my four-year study Especially, I am profoundly grateful to Ms Nguyen Thi To Hoan , M.A, my lecturer of the subject Cross - cultural Communication who has inspired me and provided me the foundation knowledge in order that I can base on to build my graduation paper Last, but far from least, I would like to thank my parents and my friends for their encouragements and valuable advice Hai Phong , July 2018 Tran Thi Lien LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HPU: Haiphong Private University NVC : Nonverbal communication TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale Aims of the study Scope of the study Methods of the study: Significance of the study Design of the study: PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Communication: 1.2 Verbal communication 1.2.1 What is verbal communication? 1.2.2 Types of verbal 1.3 Nonverbal communication 1.3.1 What is nonverbal communication? 1.3.2 Types of Nonverbal Communication 1.3.2.1 Facial Expressions 1.3.2.3 Voice (Paralinguistic) 11 1.3.2.4 Body movement and Posture 11 1.3.2.5 Space 12 1.3.2.6 Eye contact 14 1.4 Interpersonal communication 15 1.4.1 Defining interpersonal communication 15 1.4.2 The characteristics of interpersonal communication 16 1.5 The effect of nonverbal on interpersonal communication 17 1.6 The effect of hand gestures on interpersonal communictation 23 1.7 The role of nonverbal on interpersonal communications 32 CHAPTER 2: THE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ON INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS 39 The reality of learning and teaching English -speaking skill at Hai Phong Private University 39 1.1 The teaching staff: 39 1.2 The researcher 39 1.3 The students 39 1.4 English teaching and learning condition at Hai Phong Private University 40 The survey questionnaires .40 2.1 The design of the survey questionnaires 40 2.2 The data analysis 42 2.2.1 The result on the students’ English learning time 42 2.2.2 Result on Students’ attitude toward learning nonverbal communication skills 42 2.2.3 The result on the student perceived importance of nonverbal communication 43 2.2.4 The result on the student' frequency of using nonverbal communication 44 2.2.5 The result from students’ opinions on the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications 44 2.2.6 The result on students' frequency of using hand gestures 45 2.2.7 The result from students’ opinions on the effects of using hand gestures during communicating .46 2.2.8 The result from students’ expectations on the more nonverbal communication techniques .47 CHAPTER : FINDING AND DISCUSSION .48 PART 3: CONCLUSION 49 REFERENCES 50 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS .52 means of collecting data on phenomena, which are not easily observed, such as motivation, attitude, language learning strategy use, etc In this study, questionnaires are selected as the important data collection instrument because it provides the data and information about the nonverbal communication of the first year English majors at HPU Its aim is to research on students’ attitudes and expectations about studying nonverbal communication The questionnaires including questions as follows: 2.2.3 The result on the students’ perceived importance of nonverbal communication The question gives information on students’ English learning time The author wants to have further understanding about students’ bonding time with English Basing on this understanding, the author can get right information and give appropriate method to them The question is about the students’ attitude on learning nonverbal communication Not every student learns nonverbal communication because of his/her love to it By understanding, exactly how they love nonverbal communication the author can have some more methods to strengthen their passion on nonverbal communication Questions and are also, about how often they use nonverbal communication and their opinions on the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications These can bring information that is more specific and help the author have a better look into students’ habit of practicing nonverbal communication As well as their ideas on the effect of nonverbal communication Question is about how often they use hand gestures This can bring more specific information and help the study become more valid and realistic The questions and are about the students’ opinions on the effects of using hand gestures during communicating and their expectations on the more nonverbal communication techniques which can help teachers to satisfy their 41 students’ requirements and make them love speaking English more as well as enhance students’ nonverbal communication 2.2 The data analysis 2.2.1 The result on the students’ English learning time Chart1 The students’ English learning time For the question, 1: 100% students have studied English for more than years They started learning English when they were in grade Up to now, many of them have studied English for 13 years which is not a short time Students’ communication skills 2.2.2 Result on attitude toward learning nonverbal Chart 2: The students' attitude toward learning nonverbal communication skills 42 Chart shown that the students' attitude toward learning nonverbal communication skills, 10 students feel normal and only hate it, students like and students like very much , and students not like For them , learning nonverbal communication might be neither interesting nor boring ort it depends on each other 2.2.3 The result on the student perceived importance of nonverbal communication Chart 3: the student perceived importance of nonverbal communication 43 Chart show that the student perceived importance of nonverbal communication Almost students (18 students) agree that the nonverbal is important , very few of them think it is not important 2.2.4 The result on the student' frequency of using nonverbal communication Chart The students' frequency of using nonverbal communication 12 10 10 Students 0 always usually Sometimes rarely never Statistics provide in chart shows the frequency of using nonverbal communication According to the collected data 10 students who sometimes and students usually use nonverbal In additions , students always use and only rarely To sum up , students sometims use noverbal when they communicate 2.2.5 The result from students’ opinions on the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications 44 Chart5 The students’ opinions on the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications The chart shown the students’ opinions on the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications Almost of them (20 students) agree that the nonverbal have good effects on interpersonal communication student think it is normal and no one say it is bad , very good or not very good In conclusion, all of them realize the effects of nonverbal 2.2.6 The result on students' frequency of using hand gestures Chart The students' frequency of using hand gestures 45 60 50 40 30 20 10 50 40 50 50 50 50 40 40 30 25 20 30 20 10 55 20 10 15 20 2020 101010 55 20 10 55 20 10 15 35 25 20 20 1010 1010 Always Usually Often Seldom Never Statistics provide in chart shows that almost students often use “listing” gestures, usually use ” listen up” , seldom use “ I am not hiding anything” and “ let me tell you” , other things they never or always use 2.2.7 The result from students’ opinions on the effects of using hand gestures during communicating Chart7.The students’ opinions on the effects of using hand gestures during communicating 46 It is be seen clearly from the chart , most of students agree that using hand gestures during communicating have good effects , others say it's very good In conclusions, using hand gestures during communication is really necessary and it makes them understand more about each other 2.2.8 The result from students’ expectations on the more nonverbal communication techniques Chart8: The students’ expectations on the more nonverbal communication techniques It is easy to see above chart that almost students are not sure that they want or not want more nonverbal communication techniques , 12 student say maybe , half of others say yes or no 47 CHAPTER : FINDING AND DISCUSSION Basing on surveying the current teaching and learning English in HPU of the 1st year English major students , the author has already had a research on their attitudes toward learning nonverbal communication During the process of completing this research paper, I expect to give some useful suggestions to support the 1st year English major students to make progress in learning nonverbal communication with the hope that this research paper will contribute some effective techniques to study nonverbal communication The survey is responded by 22 the l st year English majors students at HPU, in which most of the participants agree that they like using nonverbal communication and have been learning English for many years It means that teachers will have many advantages in teaching Moreover, they have a basic background to study English 100% of them admitted that studying English speaking skill with nonverbal communication help them obtain the knowledge more rapidly and exciting In addition, they can strengthen their friendship as well as cooperation In conclusion, teaching English speaking through nonverbal communication activities for the lst year English major students is very important Because when the classes atmosphere is more attractive and less tension, the teachers and students will love the lessons more even this can inspire their passion, creativeness and activeness 48 PART 3: CONCLUSION Students of HPU in particular and people in common should use non verbal communication especially when they communicate with foreigners in English In such a considerable situation, I decided to carry out this study At first, I used my experiences of four years' studying at HPU to understand and with the constant help and support of MA Pham Thi Thuy, I made the outline gradually and step-by-step completed the study The aims of the study is to study the effect of using nonverbal communication to help the first year English majors at HPU In addition, I want both the teachers and students in Foreign Language Department of HPU love using nonverbal communication more I want both the teachers and students feel more comfortable and relaxed in English speaking classes Why not? When teaching and studying are more interesting, it can bring us higher effectiveness I also listened and shared ideas with other students because I want them to be braver to deal with their problems and make progress in studying The written information in the study can help both teachers and students understand more about each other Moreover, I gave some pieces of advice to make communications more interesting To sum up, the study is the author’s sincere thanks to HPU and beloved teachers in Foreign Language Department here All I want is to help the later English majors generations to have better communication in order to help them to gain success and a brighter future more easily 49 REFERENCES Alton Barbour “Louder Than Words: Non-Verbal Communication," Abraham Nosnik, Alberto Martínez de Velasco (1988) Comunication organizacional practice: manual gerencial Agliati, A., Vescovo, A., & Anolli, L (2006) A new methodological approach to nonverbal behavior analysis in cultural perspective Behavior Research Methods Ambady, N., Hallahan, M., & Rosenthal, R (1995) On judging and being judged accurately in zero-acquaintance situations Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Andersen, P A., Guerrero, L K., & Jones, S M (2006) Nonverbal behavior in intimate interactions and intimate relationships In V Manusov & M L Patterson (Eds.), The Sage handbook of nonverbal communication Berry, D S., & Hansen, J S (2000) Personality, nonverbal behavior, and interaction quality in female dyads Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Bernieri, F J., & Gillis, J S (2001) Judging rapport : Employing Brunswik’s lens model to study interpersonal sensitivity In J A Hall & F J Bernieri (Eds.), Interpersonal sensitivity: Theory and measurement Coggins, S (2006) Nonverbal Communication Between The Genders Retrieved March 15,2011 from http://www.shaicoggins.com/nonverbalcommunication-between-the-genders/ Dunn, L (1999) Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through The Use of Body Language Department of Psychology Retrieved March 14, 2011 from http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/70.php 10 Ha, M (2008) Lessons in Intercultural Communication Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/art/2008/10/142_32870.html 11 Henman, L (2009) It’s Not Always What Say Retrieved March 14, 2011 from 50 http://relationships911.org/experts/communication/notalwayswhatyousay.h tm 12 Hybels, S & Weaver, R (2007) Communicating effectively (8th ed) New York: McGraw-Hill.Institute of Language (2011) Spanish and Nonverbal Communication, Latin America vs UnitedStates Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.spanishprograms.com/spanish-culture.htm 13.Fernando Luis González Rey Juan Pascual Leone ( 1995) Comunicación, personalidad y desarrollo 14 Robert Gifford December 12, 2009 The Role of Nonverbal Communication in Interpersonal Relations 15 María del Socorro Fonseca (2000) Comunicacion Oral 16 Nunan, D (1992) Research method in language learning Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 17 Gifford, R (2006) Personality and nonverbal behavior In V Manusov & M L Patterson (Eds.), 18 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonverbal_communication 19 http://wikieducator.org/Verbal_Communication 20 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication 21 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpersonal_communication 22 http://lib.hpu.edu.vn/bitstream/handle/123456789/19373/7_BuiTuyetMai_ NA901.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 23 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zn2iRG7bI2I 24 https://www.bartleby.com/essay/The-Importance-ofInterpersonal-Communications-in-a-FKKCS6AWUDA5 51 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS Dear students, The purpose of this questionnaire is to know about your attitude towards to your nonverbal communication Its ultimate purpose is to improve your communication Please give your own opinions frankly! Please, tick the answer that best described your ideas and add final comments at the bottom of the sheet if you wish We need your frank opinions about the nonverbal communications to make them more interesting, as well as to meet your needs We thank you for your cooperation! 1.How long have you been learning English? □ 0-1 year □ - years □ more than years Do you like using nonverbal communication, in general? □Like very much □ Like □ Normal □ Do not like □ Hate In your opinion, how important is nonverbal communication? □ Very important □ Important □ Normal □ Not very important □ Not important How often you use nonverbal communication in class time? □Always □ Usually □ sometimes □ rarely □ never What you think about the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications? □ Normal □ Very good □ good □ Not very good □ bad In speaking lesson, which of the following hand gestures you often use? 52 Frequency of using Hand gestures Always Usually Often Seldom Never Listing A tiny bit Listen up Let me tell you You Me I am not hiding anything You listen to me Stop What you think about the effects of using hand gestures during communication? □ Very good □ Not very good □ good □ Normal □ bad Do you want to have another nonverbal communications to learn English speaking more effectively? □ Yes □ May be □ No Your comments: Thank you for your co-operation! 53 BẢNG CÂU HỎI DÀNH CHO SINH VIÊN (Phần viết tiếng Việt) Chào bạn sinh viên thân mến, Mục đích câu hỏi nhằm lấy ý kiến xác thực tình cảm, thái độ bạn việc sử dụng giao tiếp phi ngơn ngữ Mục đích sau tìm giải pháp nhằm giúp bạn nâng cao kỹ giao tiếp Vì vậy, mong bạn trả lời câu hỏi sau cách thành thực theo quan điểm cá nhân bạn Các bạn tích vào phương án trả lời mơ tả với suy nghĩ bạn sau bạn đưa ý kiến bạn phần để trống bên Tôi mong bạn thành thực thẳng thắn trả lời câu hỏi để chúng tơi tìm biện pháp giúp tiết học mơn nói tiếng Anh trở nên thú vị Và sau lợi ích bạn Tơi xin trân trọng xảm ơn hợp tác bạn 1.Bạn học tiếng Anh bao lâu? □ 0-1 năm □ - năm □ Hơn năm Nhìn chung bạn có thích sử dụng giao tiếp phi ngơn ngữ ? □Rất thích □ Khơng thích □ thích □ ghét □ Bình thường Theo quan điểm bạn, việc sử dụng giao tiếp phi ngơn ngữ có quan trọng khơng? □ Rất quan trọng □ quan trọng □ Bình thường □ Không quan trọng □ Không quan trọng Trong học nói tiếng Anh bạn có sử dụng giao tiếp phi ngôn ngữ ? □Luôn □ Thường xuyên □ □ Gần không □ Khơng Bạn nghĩ ảnh hưởng giao tiếp phi ngôn ngữ giao tiếp? □ Rất tốt □ Tốt □ Bình thường □ Khơng tốt □ Trong tiết nói , tần suất sử dụng cử tay bạn nào? 54 Tần suất Cử Luôn Thường xuyên Thỉnh thoảng Hiếm Không Lắng nghe Một chút Hãy lắng nghe Để tơi nói cho bạn Bạn Tơi Tơi khơng giấu điều Hãy lắng nghe tơi Dừng lại Bạn nghĩ ảnh hưởng việc sử dụng cử tay giao tiếp? □ Rất tốt □ Tốt □ Bình thường □ Khơng tốt □ Bạn có muốn có thêm hoạt động giao tiếp phi ngôn ngữ khác học khơng? □ Có □ Có thể □ Khơng Ý kiến đóng góp sinh viên: 55 ... chapter, the researcher introduces the theory of communication, verbal communication, nonverbal communication, interpersonal communications and gestures, the effect of non- verbal communication on interpersonal. .. 1.5 The effect of nonverbal on interpersonal communication 17 1.6 The effect of hand gestures on interpersonal communictation 23 1.7 The role of nonverbal on interpersonal communications ... on students’ frequency of using nonverbal communication in class time, the result on students’ opinions on the effects of nonverbal communication on interpersonal communications, the result on
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