DINH DƯỠNG NGƯỜI BÀI 1

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DinhDuongNguai BAI 1: GlOl THIEU VE DINH DtfONG INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN NUTRITION September 14 Cac van de tam • Tai dinh d^ang hap ly (proper nutrition) lai quan trong? • Cac chat dinh d^ang nao ma ca the can de hoat dong hieu qua? • Hau qua cua suy dinh d^ang la gi? • 10 Lai khuyen dinh d^ang hap ly cho ng^ai Viet September 14 Dinh nghTa "Dinh d^ang hoc" • Theo Han Viet t^ dien, Dinh D^ong la lay nhftng ve th^c pham ng^oi tiep nhan, chat bo an de nuoi d^&ng than the • Dinh d^ong (nutrition) - khoa hoc va cac chat dinh d^ong ch^a chung • Dinh tieu d^ong hoa, hap la thu qua va trinh bai co thai the cac chat to thftc an (WHO) • Nghien c^u: ■ hoat dong cua thyc pham va cac chat dinh d^ang co the ■ moi quan he gifra khau phan an va s&c khoe September 14 Djnh nghTa dinh d^ang (tt) • Cac hoat dong dinh d^ang co the bao gom: ■ Sy an vao (ingestion) ■ Tieu hoa (digestion) ■ Hap thu (absorption) ■ Van chuyen (transport) ■ Chuyen hoa (metabolism) ■ Bai tiet (excretion) September 14 Chat dinh duang la gi? • Chat dinh du&ng la bat ki mot chat hoa hoc nao co the duoc mot co the song sfr dung cho tri cac hoat dong trao doi chat cua no • Hoat dong trao doi chat o nguai (va cac dong vat khac): ■ Sy cung cap nang luang (provision of energy) ■ Sy sinh truing va phat trien (growth) ■ Sy doi moi cua cac mo (renewal of tissues) ■ Sy sinh san va tao sfra (reproduction and lactation) September 14 Cac chat dinh duang • Da chat dinh duang (Macro-nutrients): la nhung chat dinh duang can thiet cho sy song va phat trien cua nguai ■ Chat bot duang (carbohydrates) ■ Protein va cac amino acid ■ Chat beo (fats) ■ Nuoc • Vi chat dinh duang (Micro-nutrients): can thiet cho sy phat trien va tang cuang chuc nang co the ■ Vitamin; Chat khoang (minerals) September 14 Cac chat dinh duang (tt) Cac chat co thUc an Protein Lipid Carbohydrate Chat xo thyc pham Chat (nhu mot chat dinh duang) Vitamins Hop chat thu cap thyc vat va thao duoc Nuoc, chat dien giai, khoang Hoa chat nong nghiep chu6i thyc pham Thuoc September 14 Cac nguyen to co nhom chat dinh duang - Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen ✓ ✓ Nuac Nitrogen Minerals ✓✓✓ Carbohydrate ✓ ✓ Protein ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ b Vitamin ✓ ✓ ✓ a ✓ b Chat beo (fat) ✓ ✓ Chat khoang Ghi chu: * Cac cha dinh duang co chua carbon la chat huu ca a u b Tat ca cac vitamin nhom B deu chua nitrogen; amine co nghia la nitrogen r • • • r • • Protein va mot so vitamin chua chat khoang S; vitamin B12 chua cobalt (Co) F?FF Mot so thuc pham cung cap cac duang chat khac (phytochemicals) ngoai sau nhom chat dinh duang Cac phan cua thyc pham va co the nguai (Source: Sizer, Whitney, Nutrition: ts and controversies, 2013) i Nuac (water): 60% Chat beo (nguoi tre): 12-21% nam 23-31% nu Vitamin, protein, Tuang quan cac ph&n Carbohydrate, khoang Chat beo Vitamins Minerals Fat ® Protein (> Carbohydrate Water (Principle of human nutrition, 2013) (Understanding nutrition, 2008) September 14 Tai dinh duang hop ly lai quan trong? • Dinh duang hop ly la gi? ■ La pham tao cac ty khau nhien phan de an co the tu de viec dang che hap bien thu cac va thyc su dung • Che dinh duang tot va hop ly se dam bao sy khoe manh ve ca the lyc va tr^ lyc cua nguoi ■ *-L.J • Che dinh duang hop ly giup phong benh ■ Vien dinh duang Quoc gia dua 10 loi khuyen dinh duang hop ly cho nguoi Viet Nam September 14 An uong can bang se: Give you vitality and energy for life Help you stay at a weight that's right for you Boost your immune system Improve sports performance Delay the effects of aging Keep you active and fit into old age Help beat tiredness and fatigue Protect teeth and keep gums healthy Enhance your ability to concentrate and possible alter mood 10 Ward off serious illnesses like heart disease, certain cancers, mature-age onset diabetes, and gallbladder disease September 14 loi khuyen de dat duoc dinh duang hop ly • Khong bo bua • Uong nuoc: 2-3 lit • An protein khong dinh ma • An nhieu ngu coc nguyen hat hon: filber • An nhieu rau, qua hon • Tap the duc: 20 minutes; 3/7 September 14 Dinh duang va benh tat • Khong phai tat ca cac benh d£u chju anh huang nhu tu khau phan an ■ Mot sO benh hoan toan di truyln (benh hdng clu luai phat liem) ■ Mot trien so giong benh di co truyen the tu di gene) truyen nhung (hoac co co xu huong the bj anh huang bai khau phan an ( mot s6 dang cua beo phi) ■ Mot s6 benh thi hoan toan an u6ng (nhung benh thieu vitamin va chat khoang) September 14 Khau phan an khoe manh (healthy diet) • Thoa man nhu cau nang luong (da chat dinh duang) • Cung cap du so luong cac chat dinh duang thiet yeu (micronutrients) • Han che rui ro benh tat ■■■ • An toan tieu dung (muc tap nhiem hoac cac chat co hai cho them vao o muc thap) September 14 Dinh duang va suc khoe (Nutrition and health) • Cac benh man tfnh co lien qian den khau phan an gom: ■ Benh tim mach (cardiovascular disease) ■ Chung huyet ap cao (hypertension) ■ Beo phi (obesity) ■ Tieu duong nhom II (type II diabetes) ■ Loang xuong (osteoporosis) September 14 Cac benh lien quan den an uong Loang xuong It lien Hoi chung down quan Benh de chay mau den dinh Thieu mau hong duang cau luai liem o nguoi lon Ung thu Cac benh ■ truyen nhiem Thilu sit (thilu mau) Dai thao duong Cao huylt ap Benh tim Thieu vitamin Lien quan Thieu khoang den dinh Ngo doc duang Kha nang chong nhieu hon benh tat kem September 14 Cac ly thuong gap nguoi ta khong dam bao an uong • Khong co thai gian niu an • Khong d^ac ^u tien • Them khat th^c an nhanh va dd ngot Qua it tiĐn An udng voi chi phi vua phai khong t6n hon an udng ngheo nan bao nhieu • Chips, colas, thfrc an nhanh va kem chit l^ong cao tieu t6n nhieu hon yeu c4u cua mot khau phan thuc pham dinh duang • Udng vitamin Vien nang vitamin khong the bu dip cho nhung lua chon thuc pham ngheo nan September 14 Hau qua cua suy dinh duang (Ngu6n: UNICEF Viet Nam) 30% a tre Viet em Nam duai bi tu6i thap coi (-2,5 trieu tre) Suy dinh d^ang thip coi anh h^ang din sfrc khoe • Tre em: giam kha nang mien djch va tang nguy co mic cac benh nhiim khuan nghiem • Ng^oi twang thanh: cao huyet ap, tieu duong, benh tim va beo phi • Phu nfr bj thip coi co xu huong sinh nho va nhe can • Phu nfr thip d^ai 145 cm sinh co nguy co tfr vong 40% Ty le thap coi a Viet Nam cao thu 13 th£ giai Hau qua cua suy dinh duang (tt) Hau qua kinh ti va giao duc Tre suy dinh duang co xu huong di hoc muon hon, bo hoc va kha nang hoc tap kem hon tre binh thuong Tre tang truong kem co the din den kha nang lao dong kem va thu nhap thap Chieu cao tang 1% -> muc luong tang 2,4% Anh tre huang so sinh den co qu6c the gia: tang dau 2-3% tu tong vao san dinh pham duang cho quoc (GDP) September 14 noi 10 Lai khuyen dinh daang hap ly den nam 2020 (Vien Dinh Duang Qu6c gia Viet Nam) -(f20j) An da dang nhieu loai thuc pham va dam bao du nhom: chat bot, chat dam, chat beo, vitamin va muoi khoang Phoi hop thuc an nguOn dam dong vat va thuc vat, nen an tom, cua, ca va dau An phoi hop dau thuc vat va ma dong vat hop ly, nen an vung lac Nen su dung muoi lot, khong an man Can an rau qua hang September 14 10 Lai khuyen dinh d^ang (tt) Dam bao an toan ve sinh lua chon, che bi£n va bao quan thuc pham Uong du nuoc sach hang Cho tre bu me sau sinh, bu me hoan toan thang dau, an bo sung hop ly va tiep tuc cho bu me den 24 thang Tre sua sau va cac thang san va pham nguoi cua truong sua phu hop nen voi su dung tung tuoi 10 Tang cuong hoat dong the luc, tri can nang hop ly, khong hut thuoc la, han che uong ruou bia, nuoc co ga va an, uong ngot September 14 lua ... nhom chat dinh duang Cac phan cua thyc pham va co the nguai (Source: Sizer, Whitney, Nutrition: ts and controversies, 20 13 ) i Nuac (water): 60% Chat beo (nguoi tre): 12 - 21% nam 23 - 31% nu Vitamin,... tang 1% -> muc luong tang 2, 4% Anh tre huang so sinh den co qu6c the gia: tang dau 2- 3% tu tong vao san dinh pham duang cho quoc (GDP) September 14 noi 10 Lai khuyen dinh daang hap ly den nam 20 20... Carbohydrate Water (Principle of human nutrition, 20 13 ) (Understanding nutrition, 20 08) September 14 Tai dinh duang hop ly lai quan trong? • Dinh duang hop ly la gi? ■ La pham tao cac ty khau
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