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TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract .2 Introduction .3 Research methodology Descriptive results and findings Hypothesis testing 10 Evaluation 12 Conclusion and recommendation 13 Appendix A .15 Appendix B .17 Appendix C .19 Appendix D .20 ABSTRACT As the modernization of our society advances, humans get busier and busier with their daily lives Most of us fail to keep up with our current schedule and therefore results in a troublesome issue, which is tardiness Not only is it essential for everyone to realize the fallout that this problem can cause to our own self-awareness as well as our civilization, but it is also imperative to understand the origin and figure out a solution The research was carried out based on a survey with 100 students from different faculties in Hanoi University as subjects, in order to discover their tardiness routine, the source for this situation and how to solve it A questionnaire regarding these questions has been organized and given out to the students so as to gather the required information The results showed that the majority of participants are often late for one to two days per week, and that they consider being late for classes is normal Consequently, the following research will provide some analyses on the topic, alongside with a few recommendations to improve this matter I INTRODUCTION Punctuality is undeniably one of the most essential qualities a person is required to obtain However, as the hustle and bustle of the modern society progresses, tardiness has become a common occurrence, up to the point that everybody considers this issue is just a small price to pay to keep up with their hectic schedule As ordinary as it may seem, tardiness is gradually corrupting our civilization by familiarizing itself among the public community Therefore, it is a top priority that we find a solution to this dilemma This research, which is called "Study on Tardiness of students in Hanoi University", will offer some insights on the aforementioned subject, including the current routine of students of Hanoi University and the explanation for their unpunctuality Nonetheless, one of the most important parts is how they perceive the consequences, as well as their willingness to change this bad habit Last but not least, in order to improve this situation, some suggestions will be provided to hopefully help everyone deal with tardiness II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Population and sample The main purpose of our project is to evaluate the behavior of coming class late of Hanoi University’s students In order to get the most accurate result, we randomly selected a sample of 100 students from Hanoi University to take part in our project Questionnaire design We use the questionnaire as the method of this project It is attached at the Appendix A of this report, including seven questions To know about the students’ attitude to study on tardiness and the frequency on that, we designed the first two questions of what they think about the habits of going to class late and how often they come to university late The two next questions are to find out the reasons why students are being late for school and the results from this habit The questionnaire also includes a question about the experience that students gain from the results of coming late, and the two last questions asking about whether the students will change their habit and by which methods Sample size After deliberating some primary factors that can influence our project’s result such as the sample size that we are working on, the degree of uncertainty associated with a statistical inference, the test we are planning to apply and the available resources that we have, we decided to examine on the sample of 100 students Due to the limitation of our group member and the prodigious sample size, we jumped into final conclusion of choosing 100 participants for our project This number is not enormous, but sufficient enough for us to apply on our project and might be able to provide the best outcomes Moreover, with this medium sample size, we can control the direct and unexpected impacts more easily In summary, the sample size of 100 Hanoi University’s students is appropriate Sampling method It is clear that almost student in our population share the equal idea aspects Therefore, to collect data for our project, we decided to deliver questionnaire to 100 students These 100 students were randomly chosen from a list of 116 students in Hanoi university by using simple random sampling method Finally, 100 pieces of questionnaire were delivered to 100 selected students However, there are some students who cannot be contacted or were not willing to survey so we had to randomly select other students by the same method Hence, exactly 100 students were questioned Data collection We divided our group including members into two subgroups to deliver questionnaire to at least 15 students per member to save the time on data collection process To ensure more than 100 chosen students received the questionnaire, we created face-to-face communication and then recorded their answers immediately or received support from some sources of the Internet such as We are Hanuers ( Page in Facebook) or private messaging on Facebook After completing the questionnaire by the participants, the responses were collected and examined by all members in our group After that, the data was then recorded, organized and presented in the form of graphs and charts Based on those collected data, our group worked together to have the hypothesis testing done as well as the related discussions and analysis III DESCRIPTIVE RESULTS AND FINDINGS We are doing a survey about the habits of the tardiness in going to school Hanoi University’s students by giving them the following questions in the questionnaire What you think about the coming late to university ? 1.00% 1.00% 28.00% Not important Normal Very important Others 70.00% Figure 1: The percentage of student viewpoint about coming to university late It can be clearly seen from the pie chart, the percentage of students who have neutral viewpoints is the largest, which made up for 70% shown in the chart The second biggest percentage was of those who found it very important, which accounted for more than a quarter of the total On the other hand, only 1% of students reckoned that they think coming late to school is not important and 1% of them has other opinions about that Coming to university on time is considered to be one of the main criterions since it affects directly on the effectiveness of students’ studying process From the figures shown in the chart, only 1/3 of the HANU students are aware of the importance of the time they come to class for their study How often you come to university late? Number of Days 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 44 Number of Days 21 18 12 Not late 1-2 days 3-4 days 5-6 days All week Figure 2: The rate of number of late days of Hanoi University’s students It is obvious that, nearly a half of students have the number of late days between 1-2 days By comparison, those who never come late and have the late days of 3-4 days are accounted for 18% and 21% respectively Apart from it, there is only a small amount of students (5%) who have the late days among 5-6 days There are 12% of students assigned that they late all days in a week What is the main reasons which make you come to class late? 60 50 40 30 20 10 Figure 3: The proportion among the reasons of coming late The next part analyzes the reasons that lead to the tardiness of Hanoi University’s students The majority of them are interrupted by traffic jam ( 55 students) and the difficulty in waking up early ( 48 students) Not far behind are bad weather and the tardiness habit with the same number of 35students Health problems, private matters and other reasons accounted for 16, 12, and students respectively These figures show that there are a variety of reasons for Hanu students’ tardiness of coming to school What are the results from coming late? 4.97% 11.18% 21.12% 38.51% 24.22% Be criticized by teachers Bad influence to others students Others Can't catch up the lesson Create a bad habit Figure 4: The ratio between the results of coming late This chart analyzes the results which Hanoi University students get when they are late Just students of the participants is said to be criticized by teachers, while the number of students who admit having difficulty in catching up with lessons and bad influence to others accounted for 34% and 39% respectively There are 62 students said that coming late create a bad habit for their life & study The last 8% is come from others reasons From the chart, it can be clearly seen that the students realized a lot of reasons of coming late Do you gain experience from the results of coming late? 24.00% 14.00% 62.00% Yes No Not sure Figure 5: The percentage of Hanu students’ awareness about results of tardiness It can be clearly seen from the pie chart that the majority of Hanoi University’s students learnt something from the results of coming late, constituting for 62% The two remaining parts “No”, “Not sure account for 14% and 24% respectively From the large number of students interviewed have the “Yes” answers, it is clear that most campus learners have perceive the effects of coming late Will you change your late habits? 17.00% 9.00% Yes No Not sure 74.00% Figure 6: The percentage of Hanu’s students with their plan of changing the tardiness habit It can be clearly seen from the pie chart, most students who interviewed said that they will change their tardiness habits, it make a large percentage of 74% There are only 9% of students who have no intention to change the habit and the remaining percentage of students has no idea about this From the figures shown in the chart, we can see that most of Hanoi University’s student determine to change the tardiness habit How will you change your late habit? 60 50 40 30 20 10 e ak W up e li ar er e ng a Ch e th sc le du e h e ar w A ts ef n be of m co f o n go n i tm e he Ot rs Figure 7: The numbers of methods for changing the tardiness habit The final part analyzes the methods that Hanoi University’s students prefer to choose The majority of them ( 56 students) tend to rethink about the disadvantages of coming late and the benefits of coming on time The second common method is waking up earlier and changing in the schedule, which account for 48 students and 43 students, respectively The other reasons only accounted for 7% These figures show that there are some ways that Hanoi University’s students choose to change their tardiness habit IV HYPOTHESIS TESTING Research question For the purpose of checking whether Hanu students should change their tardiness habits or not Our group designs seven questions to identify the evidence serving for testing Therefore, we can evaluate their habits more easily The result of our research will respond the question if Hanu students should have other habits or not Assumption “Yes” and “No” answers are possible only, so this type of data is qualitative Population: follows binomial distribution Sequence of 100 identical trials Each trial has two outcomes Constant trail probability of success is independent Trials are independent The parameter of interest: population proportion (p) Hanu students should change their habits if there are more than 70% of students come late to school with equal and more than one day a week Hypothesis test is used the value of population parameter based on the sample statistics In the random of 100 students: 56 students with equal or more than one day for coming late to school => should change their cominglate school habits The sample size is large enough (np = 70≥ and n(1-p) = 30 ≥ 5) Data analysis: Sample size: n =100 np=100x0.7=70>5; n(1-p)=100x0.3=30>5 z-test upper tail test Null hypothesis: H0 ≤ 0.7 Alternative hypothesis: Ha> 0.7 Critical value is z0.05 1.645 Reject H0 if z >1.645 Hypothesis testing procedure Step 1: Identify the null and alternative hypotheses 10 H0: p≤ 0.7 Ha: p> 0.7 Step 2: Test statistic ˆ p p pq n z= (with q=1-p=0.55, p^=56/100=0.56) Step 3: Significant level α = 0.05 Step 4: Decision rule Reject H0 if z >1.645 Step 5: Value of test statistic Step 6: Conclusion z = 2.62> 1.645, we reject H0 Therefore, we reach the conclusion that with 5% of significant level, there is enough evidence showing that the percentage of students needs to change their late coming-to-class habits will exceed 70% The following figure describes our test: 11 Rejecton region 1.645 2.62 Z P-value: We can also use the p-value of the test: With z = 2.62, we have: p-value = P (z > 2.62) = -0.9956 = 0.004 because the p-value is less than 3%, we can conclude that there is overwhelming evidence to conclude that the HA is true Therefore, there is enough evidence to conclude that more than 70% of Hanu students should change their late-for-class habits To summarize, there is enough evidence at the level of significance α = 0.05 to conclude that students at Hanoi University should change their current habits IV EVALUATION Limitation Honestly, there were some happened problems during our process of implementing the survey and analyzing the data The noticeable point is that almost Hanu students have gone to school lately at least once in their student’s lifestyles Day by day, this situation has become a unfixed phenomenon which will affect themselves seriously in their future job if they not have intension of changing Do Thuy Quynh (1H15) said that “ It is insignificant and unnecessary to fix this situation because of her funny experiencing in going to school too late” Besides, a lot of students did not confess honestly about themselves when completing the questionnaire which leads to some incorrect answers Implication 12 This project was implemented with the purpose of showing the behavior of being late for class of the students in Hanoi University and then changing their habit by giving some suggestions According to the data from this project, we can see that most of the students were being late at least 1-2 days during the week and they make a lot of reasons for this behavior Fortunately, more than a half of them agreed that the habit of being late had strongly bad impacts on their result at school and in their office later Another positive point is that most of the students had intension of changing the habit and they also chose the solution to improve the situation for themselves By having a look on the negative effects of coming class late and taking into steps to change the habit in a positive way, the students will form a good behavior, always on time and create a good image for the school These students therefore might consider the findings of this project being valuable Hopefully, our project can be a foundation for further research about student’s behavior not just to point out but to change them and supply them with best knowledge and habit to go into work Recommendation Based on the data that we have collected from the questionnaire as well as the findings above, it is evident that HANU's students are getting more and more acquainted with tardiness Despite the fact that most of their explanations for being late for lectures are somewhat inevitable, they can still be overcome by changing their current routine First of all, as shown in the survey results, one of the most influential factors that caused the students to be late is their inability to wake up on time This can be grouped with health problems, which both originated from irregular routines A majority of students nowadays have the tendency to stay up late surfing the Internet, texting with friends or watch movies As common as it may sound, these activities play an important role in a person's routine By staying up late, students tend to feel tired and exhausted the morning after, which results in them sleeping in and are tardy for classes Therefore, it is safe to say that students should fix the habit of using electronic devices before bedtime since they prevent them from going to bed early and get enough sleep and energy for the upcoming day Second of all, for problems such as traffic and coincident schedules, we advise rearranging your schedule in order to keep up with every activity, thus heading to school a few minutes early to avoid the crowded streets Third of all, with reasons like the weather and habitual manner, it is vital to motivate yourself to get out of bed regardless of the rain and your usual force of habit Tardiness can even be more dangerous if you 13 allow yourself to get used to it For that reason, find inspirations in boring theories and drowsy lectures For example, ask a friend to come to class with you That way, you would be more motivated to wake up and head to school on time every morning Nonetheless, the most important thing is that each and every student try their best to improve their current routine by eating healthier, physical exercises and get enough sleep each day to keep up with the present schedule Conclusion In conclusion, the objective of this research is to determine the current state of tardiness among Hanoi University's students Based on the questionnaire that includes 11 relative queries concerning their own opinion on unpunctuality and present routine, several theories and tests have been used to evaluate the situation One obvious fact that can be pointed out from the survey is the rate of tardiness is definitely plummeting with the percentage of students who are regularly late for classes is 82%, regardless of the frequency Another alarming matter concluded from the questionnaire is students' awareness on tardiness Despite the consequences they have encountered, up to 70% of the students still consider being late for lectures is a normal occurrence In light of this, it is urgent that everyone should acknowledge the significance of punctuality, since it is a valuable quality needed in not only our professional career but also our social life However, the majority of people who took the survey actually want to change their harmful habit by applying the recommendations previously mentioned For instance, rearranging schedule in order to follow their daily plans, or improve their self-awareness on tardiness to fully comprehend its potential effect on their lives Without adequate understanding on the matter, tardiness can pose a massive threat and eventually endanger our future 14 Appendix A QUESTIONNAIRE Study on tardiness of students in Hanoi University The purpose of this survey is to collect data for the research of Tardiness of Students in Hanoi University Considering that your answer will not be publicly presented, please answer as honest as possible Thank you for your time! Name: Class: ID: Email: What's your gender? Which year are you currently in? What is your opinion on tardiness? Not important Normal Very important How many days per week are you usually late for class? None 1-2 days 3-4 days 5-6 days Every single day Others 15 What is the cause of your tardiness? Traffic Weather Health problems Habit Can't get up early Private business Others What is the result of your tardiness? Criticized by the lecturer Can't follow the lecture Affect other people in class Form a bad habit which affects future career Others Have you learnt anything from these consequences? Yes No Not sure Do you intend to change your routine? Yes No Not sure How are you going to improve the situation? Wake up earlier Reschedule timetable Be aware of tardiness as well as its consequences Others 16 Appendix B SUMMARY OF ANSWERS What you think about the habits of coming to university late? Not important Normal Very important Other opinions 70 28 How often you come to university late? Not late 1-2 days 3-4 days 5-6 days All day in a week 18 44 21 12 What is the main reasons which make you come to class late? Traffic jam Bad weather Health problem Habits 55 35 16 35 17 Can’t wake up early Go out, private matter Others 48 12 What are the results from coming late? Be criticized by teachers Can’t catch up the lesson Bad influence to other students Create a bad habit Others 18 34 39 62 Do you gain experience from the results of coming late? Yes No Not sure 62 14 24 Will you change your late habits? Yes No Not sure 74 17 How will you change your late habit? Wake up earlier Change the schedule Aware of benefits of coming on time Others 18 48 43 56 Appendix C LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The percentage of student viewpoint about coming to university late Figure 2: The rate of number of late days of Hanoi University’s students Figure 3: The proportion among the reasons of coming late Figure 4: The ratio between the results of coming late Figure 5: The percentage of Hanoi University’s students’ awareness about results of coming late Figure 6: The percentage of Hanoi University’s students with their plan of changing the late habit Figure 7: The proportion of methods in changing the late habit 19 APPENDIX D LIST OF RESPONDENTS Lê Thị Thủy Tiên Nữ chienchien.2103@gmail.com Year 2 Nguyễn Thị Ý Nữ ynguyen.imy@gmail.com Year Ng T Kim Oanh Nữ nguyenthikimoanh2254@gmail.com Year Nguyễn Quỳnh Châu Nữ Nguyenquynhchau97@gmail.com Year Nguyễn Minh Tú Nam minhtu301195@gmail.com Year Nguyễn Thảo Linh Nữ Thaolinhnguyen215@gmail.com Year Đỗ Thuỳ Dung Nữ dothuydung48@gmail.com Year Vũ Thị Hậu Nữ mydream1407@gmail.com Year Lê Văn Hùng Nữ thayhung97@gmail.com Year 10 Trần Thanh Mai Nữ tranthanhmai12071997@gmail.com Year 11 Lê Phương Diệp Nữ lephuongdiep0203@gmail.com Year 12 Trần Thị Bình Nữ tranbinh10497@gmail.com Year 13 Nguyễn Minh Ánh Nữ bongnamlun@gmail.com Year 14 Phùng Thị Linh Nữ phunglinh1997dcs@gmail.com Year 20 15 Đinh Thị Duyên Nữ Dinhduyen.hanu@gmail.com Year 16 Hoàng Vũ Thuỳ Anh Nữ chinyoung.ha.112@gmail.com Year 17 Nguyễn Văn Hòa Nam hoadeptrai1997@gmail.com Year 18 Nguyễn Hải Anh Nữ haanhpro1997@gmail.com Year 19 Ngô Thị Thúy Quỳnh Nữ quynhhanu97@gmail.com Year 20 Nguyễn Thị Thanh Kiều Nữ thanhkieu8497@gmail.com Year 21 Vương Thị Hồng Hạnh Nữ vuonghanh662002@gmail.com Năm 22 Vũ Quang Nam billladell99@gmail.com Year 23 Nguyễn Thị Kiều Trinh Nữ kieutrinh97hanu@gmail.com Year 24 Trần Thị Hương Nữ tranthihuong5200@gmail.com Year 25 Nguyễn Thị Đào Nữ nguyendaohn198@gmail.com Year 26 Nguyễn Đức Huỳnh Nam ndhltq2904@gmail.com Year 27 Đặng Tú Chinh Nữ chinhanu1710@gmail.com Year 28 Khuất Thị Diệu Linh Nữ quaats@gmail.com Year 29 Nguyễn Nhất Phương Vĩ Nữ nnpv795@gmail.com Year 30 Nguyễn Thị Thuý Hoà Nữ Nthithuyhoa25@gmail.com Year 31 Nguyễn Thị Kiều Trang Nữ kieutrang281097@gmail.com Year 32 Nguyễn Ánh Duyên Nữ khaihoangnguyende@gmail.com Year 33 Nguyễn Thị Ngân Hà Nữ hanickmacy@gmail.com Year 34 Trương Hải Hà Nữ yotinhmap@gmail.com Year 35 Lương Vân Anh Nữ luongvananh160@gmail.com Year 36 Phạm Thị Hằng Nữ Phamhang9497.hanu@gmail.com Year 37 Nguyễn Hương Giang Nữ nhg188@gmail.com Year 38 Đinh Thị Lương Nữ dinhluong97@gmai.com Year 39 Trần Thị Liên Nữ liensuboi.tran@gmail.com Year 40 Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Nữ ngocxu31@gmail.com Year 21 41 Bạch Huy Anh Nam bachhuyanb@gmail.com Year 42 Lê Minh Phượng Nữ Phuongleminh668@gmail.com Year 43 Nguyễn Thuỳ Linh Trang Nữ ngthuylinhtrang@gmail.com Year 44 Nguyễn Hồng Hạnh Nữ nguyenhonghanh2111997@gmail.com Year 45 Đoàn Thùy Linh Nữ Xit.nd.97@gmail.com Year 46 Đỗ Thị Quỳnh Nữ doquynh25297@gmail.com Year 47 Hồ Minh Tú Nữ hotu.971@gmail.com Year 48 Hoàng Anh Thu Nữ sunflower.pieces95@gmai.com Year 49 Phạm Phương Dung Nữ huedung121@gmail.com Year 50 Nguyễn Phương Linh Nữ dieclinhexo@gmail.com Year 51 Đỗ Ngọc Hà Như Nữ dohanhu30091998@gmail.com Year 52 Phạm Thu Trang thutrang98@gmail.com Year 53 Vũ Thị Tú Quỳnh Nữ Nữ Turuby311@gmail.co Year 54 Ngô Thu Phương Nữ Phuongntsnow97@gmail.com Year 55 Nguyễn Thị Giáng Nữ Giangshanu@gmail.com Year 56 Nguyễn Việt Chinh Nữ Chinhed98@gmail.com Year 57 Nguyễn Thùy Dương Nữ duongthuy0512@gmail.com Year 58 Trương Quỳnh Trang Nữ quynhtrang12097@gmail.com Year 59 Phùng Ngọc Thúy Nữ phungngocthuy.1201@gmail.com Year 60 Nguyễn Cẩm Tú Nữ tuutee25@gmail.co, Year 61 Trương Thanh Hà Nữ bummieprim@gmail.com Year 62 Đặng Minh Giang Nữ dangminhgiang97@gmail.com Year 63 Lê Thị Lựu Nữ Leluu98.hanu@gmail.com Year 64 Đặng Thị Thúy Nữ thuydang9988@gmail.com Year 65 Nguyễn Thị Huệ Nữ sonelovekorea@gmail.com Year 66 Phạm Thị Thanh Thúy Nữ Phamthuydp234@gmail.com Year 22 67 Phạm Thảo Chinh Nữ Phamthaochinh24@gmail.com Year 68 Vũ Quang Anh Nma littledragon1998@gmail.com Year 69 Diêm Đăng Kiên Nữ Dangkien1997@gmail.com Year 70 Bùi Thị Hương Nữ buihuong2107@gmail.com Year 71 Nguyễn Nhật Lệ Nữ Nguyennhatle@gmail.com Year 72 Nguyễn Thị Thu Trà Nữ thutra_1997@yahoo.com.vn Year 73 Hồng anh Nữ Honganhnguyen2311@gmail.com Year 74 Nguyễn Thị Thu Nữ Thuteuk97@gmail.com Year 75 Trần Hải Yến Nữ yenthhanu@gmail.com Year 76 Nguyễn thị Thanh Thảo Nữ thanhthao0297@gmail.com Year 77 Bùi Thị Thu Trang Nữ btrang2508@gmail.com Year 78 Phạm Thị Hiền Nữ minhhienvu0301@gmail.com Year 79 Vu Minh Hien Nữ Rainy.windy.98@gmail.com Year 80 Phạm Thị Hiền Nữ stnguyenlinhchi@gmail.com Year 81 Nguyễn Linh Chi Nữ stnguyenlinhchi@gmail.com Year 82 Lê Phương Thảo Nữ stnguyenlinhchi@gmail.com Year 83 Nguyễn thị tú uyên Nữ thaolee2807@gmail.com Year 84 Nguyễn Phương Thảo Nữ Nguyentuuyen1997@gmail.com Year 85 Phạm Thị Thảo Nữ thaonguyen21098@gmail.com Year 86 Lưu Thị Phương Nữ Thaophamhd281197@gmail.com Year 87 Khanh Nam KhanhZM@gmail.com Year 88 Trương Hà Vy Nữ toivipkute@gmail.com Year 89 Thoa Nữ pitathoa@gmail.com Year 90 Ngô Thanh Thảo Nữ thanhthao14998@gmail.com Year 91 Vũ Thắng Nam vuthang.1696@gmail.com Year 92 Nguyễn Minh Hà meobi.197@gmail.com Year Nữ 23 93 Đặng Thị Nhung Nữ nhungxoxolovechenchen@gmail.com Year 94 Nguyễn Thị Nga Nữ nganguyenvp97@gmail.com Year 95 Nguyễn Thành An Nữ nguyenthanhan2911@gmail.com Year 96 Đỗ Kiều Trinh Nữ Dinhaiyen102@gmail.com Year 97 Hoang Thanh Thao Nữ thanhthao98.tybg@gmail.com Year 98 Nguyễn Quỳnh Thu Nữ quynhthu176@gmail.com Year 99 Hang Nguyen Nữ Hangnguyen133x4@gmail.com Year Nữ phamhoaianh.hac@gmail.com Year 100 Phạm Hoài Anh 24 ... "Study on Tardiness of students in Hanoi University" , will offer some insights on the aforementioned subject, including the current routine of students of Hanoi University and the explanation... present schedule Conclusion In conclusion, the objective of this research is to determine the current state of tardiness among Hanoi University' s students Based on the questionnaire that includes 11... proportion among the reasons of coming late The next part analyzes the reasons that lead to the tardiness of Hanoi University s students The majority of them are interrupted by traffic jam ( 55 students)
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