Richard strier the unrepentant renaissance from petrarch to shakespeare to milton 2011

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The Unrepentant Renaissance The Unrepentant Renaissance from petrarch to shakespeare to m i lto n Richard Strier The University of Chicago Pressâ•… c h i c a g o & l o n d o n r i c h a r d s t r i e r is the Frank L Sulzberger Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of English and in the College at the University of Chicago He has coedited several interdisciplinary essay collections and is the author of many articles and two books, Resistant Structures: Particularity, Radicalism, and Renaissance Texts and Love Known: Theology and Experience in George Herbert’s Poetry, the latter published by the University of Chicago Press The University ofâ•› Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 2011 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved Published 2011 Printed in the United States of America 20╇ 19╇ 18╇ 17╇ 16╇ 15╇ 14╇ 13╇ 12╇ 11â•…â•…â•… 1╇ 2╇ 3╇ 4╇ isbn-13: 978-0-226-77751-1 (cloth) isbn-10: 0-226-77751-0 (cloth) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Strier, Richard â•… The unrepentant Renaissance : from Petrarch to Shakespeare to Milton / Richard Strier â•…â•… p.â•…â•… cm â•… Includes bibliographical references and index â•… isbn-13: 978-0-226-77751-1 (hardcover : alk paper) â•… isbn-10: 0-226-77751-0 (hardcover : alk paper)â•… European literature—Renaissance, 1450–1600—History and criticism.╇ English literature—Early modern, 1500–1700— History and criticism.╇ Petrarca, Francesco, 1304–1374—Criticism and interpretation.╇ Shakespeare, William, 1564–1616—Criticism and interpretation.â•… I Title â•… PN721.s835 2011 â•… 809'.89409024—dc22 2010050570 a This paper meets the requirements of ansi/niso z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper) To my students, over the years, in “Renaissance Intellectual Texts” at the University of Chicago contents Acknowledgments ix Introduction: Back to Burckhardt (Plus the Reformations) pa r t ╇ In Defense of Passion and the Body 1Against the Rule of Reason: Praise of Passion from Petrarch to Luther to Shakespeare to Herbert 29 2Against Judgment: Petrarch and Shakespeare at Sonnets 59 3Against Morality: From Richard III to Antony and Cleopatra a p p e n d i x ╇ Shakespearean Seduction a p p e n d i x ╇ Morality and the Happy Infant: The Case of Macbeth 98 125 132 pa r t ╇ In Defense of Worldliness 4Sanctifying the Bourgeoisie: The Cultural Work of The Comedy of Errors a p p e n d i x ╇ Sanctifying the Aristocracy: From Ignatius Loyola to Franỗois de Sales (and then to Donne and Herbert) 153 187 pa r t ╇ In Defense of Pride 5Self-Revelation and Self-Satisfaction in Montaigne and Descartes 207 6Milton against Humility a p p e n d i x ╇ “Lordly Command?” 248 283 Index╇ 295 acknowledgments It was with the help of the students in my graduate seminar, “Renaissance Intellectual Texts,” given periodically at the University of Chicago since the late 1970s, that I developed the courage to wander beyond the bounds of English literature into the wider world of Renaissance texts and ideas My experience with these students—some of whom are now famous professors (you know who you are!)—allowed me to feel at home enough in texts by Petrarch, Erasmus, Loyola, Descartes, and other Continental figures to write about them in detail I could not have embarked on this project without the experience and support of our shared endeavor This is truly a significant debt, and one that I am delighted to be able to acknowledge in the dedication of this book But of course that is not the end of my debts There is a small group of friends and colleagues whose voices and points of view I have internalized so deeply that I feel I am in dialogue with them even if I am not (as I often am) literally so This group has long included Stephen Greenblatt, Frank Whigham, and Michael Murrin Kathy Eden has recently entered the circle My Renaissance colleagues in the English department have long been a source of inspiration and instruction: David Bevington, Joshua Scodel, Michael Murrin (again), and my newest and extremely shrewd and generous colleague, Bradin Cormack Janel Mueller cotaught the original version of the course that led to this book William Veeder sat through and responded sagely to accounts of various chapters and readings through many a sacred Wednesday lunch over the years Other friends and colleagues responded helpfully to particular chapters For comments on what became the first chapter, I am grateful to James Turner, Milton against Humilityâ•… 291 The key distinction, for Milton, is not between intuition, inspiration, or authority, on the one hand, and reason on the other, but as the above quotation about “the inward beauty and splendor of the Christian Church” suggests, between inward and outward This is what allies Milton with Erasmus and the Puritans, and not with Luther and the anti-Puritans As Roland Bainton puts it, in a brilliant comparison of Luther and Erasmus, for Luther “the great abuse in Catholicism” was “the exaltation of man,” whereas for Erasmus, it was “the externalization of religion.”16 The “inward,” for Milton (as for Erasmus), means the spiritual and the moral—these are not sharply distinguished—while the outward means the “carnal,” the worldly, and the materially or physically oriented To take “the beauty of holiness” to refer to outward, physical matters is to misunderstand and contradict “the very life of the Gospell” (RCG, 765).17 After sounding for a while (more or less) like an ordinary or normal advocate for Presbyterianism,18 Milton turns to his major and most characteristic point—that “there is a certain attraction and magnetick force between the religion and the ministeriall form thereof,” so that, if, as in prelacy, “the Ministery be grounded in the worldly degrees of autority, honour, temporall jurisdiction, we see it with our eyes it will turne the inward power and purity of the Gospel into outward carnality of the law; evaporating and exhaling the internall worship into empty conformities and gay shewes” (766) “We see it with our eyes” does not refer to something mystical and intuitive here, but rather to something historical; it refers to the Laudian church in England.19 This is Milton’s most basic way of arguing—not through citing texts but through citing principles And the most important principle of all is the protection and development of the precious internal liquid of “inward power and purity”—the spiritual and 16 Bainton, Here I Stand, 199 (see chap 6, n 9); also Garside, Zwingli and the Arts (see chap 6, n 9); and Carlos Eire, The War against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986) 17 Fully to grasp Milton’s argument here, one would need to understand his use of typology, which he always saw as working disjunctively—to establish the contrast between Old Testament material types and New Testament spiritual realities For discussions of this, which might be called “spiritualist typology,” see William Madsen’s From Shadowy Types to Truth (see chap 6, n 81) and Richard Reinitz’s “The Separatist Background of Roger Williams’ Argument for Religious Toleration,” in Typology and Early American Literature, ed Sacvan Bercovitch (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1972), 107–38 18 Kenneth Graham has wisely reminded me that it is important to note that Milton does not always sound like a non-normal Presbyterian 19 On Laud’s quite literal understanding of “the beauty of holiness,” see Peter Lake’s “The Laudian Style,” 161–85 (see chap 6, n 44) 292â•… Chapter Six moral purity of the individual, “whence every laudable and worthy enterprize issues forth” (841) Presbyterianism is superior to prelaty because the form of Presbyterianism conduces to this content The connection between Presbyterianism and moral virtue is what allows Milton’s classicism and his humanism and his (perhaps still nascent) republicanism to enter into this pamphlet.20 In arguing against the claim that episcopacy is needed or has been historically useful in preventing schisms in the church, Milton argues that the “apostolic” way of dealing with schism was to call a council—of which every Presbyterian consistory is a model—and to bar from such a gathering “no faithfull Christian €.€ to whom knowledge and piety might give entrance” (RCG, 789) The apostles rejoiced in such fellowship, and—here Milton warms to his task—“like those heroick patricians of Rome (if we may use such a comparison) hasting to lay downe their dictatorships, they rejoys’t to call themselves and to be as fellow Elders among their brethren” (791) The “heroick patricians of Rome” are model presbyters (that is, elders) for Milton Milton is self-conscious about this—“if we may use such a comparison” is an acknowledgment of the oddity of this association in this context— but he does not back away from the comparison at all Once we realize that, for Milton, Presbyterianism made room for and encouraged the participation in church-government of “heroick patricians,” we can understand further the striking and distinctive features of The Reason of Church-Government that we have already discussed: the famous digression on Milton’s qualifications and hopes for entering into the public discourse of the nation, and the emergence of Homeric shame as a model for Christian virtue.21 In the “digression,” Milton is presenting himself as one of those heroic patricians, and he is addressing himself to others, to “the elegant and learned reader” (RCG, 807) The pamphlet as a whole makes most sense when it is seen as primarily addressed to educated Puritan burghers and gentry (like Milton himself ) As he explains at the end of the pamphlet, Milton is trying to undo the negative and coordinated effects on this group of both living under prelacy and attending the universities—which, he says, teach “sophistry” rather than “generous philosophy,” and train their students to “admire a sort 20 On the “nascent republicanism” of the early pamphlets, see Mueller, “Contextualizing Milton’s Nascent Republicanism,” 263–82 (chap 6, n 52), and David Norbrook, Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric, and Politics, 1627–1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 109–14 21 See chapter above Milton against Humilityâ•… 293 of formal outside men prelatically addicted” (854).22 He is presenting himself, despite the odd particularities that he “divulges,” as exemplary, as the kind of person—learned, eloquent, courageous, public-spirited—who would flourish under the Presbyterian system.23 The best features of this system from Milton’s point of view are, first, that it resurrects “the wisdom of the Romans” in understanding that the public censor did not need, nor should have, any corporal or punitive power (831–34); and, second, that in providing for this function, “a certain number of grave and faithful brethren”—the presbyters—are called upon to act alongside the ministers (838) Of the first of these features, the renunciation of physical punishment (“jurisdiction”), Milton assures himself that “every true protestant” will see that “the reason of it” is “coherent with the doctrine of the Gospel”—“besides,” he hastens to add, “the evidence of command in Scripture,” which he had almost forgotten (834–35) The office of the elder, as we have seen, restores proper pride to the lay Christian, improperly so called—“not now to be separated in the Church by vails and partitions as laicks and unclean, but admitted to wait upon the tabernacle as the rightfull Clergy of Christ, a chosen generation, a royal Priesthood to offer up spiritual sacrifice in that meet place to which God and the Congregation shall call and assign them” (838) Milton appeals to “the equity and just reason” (845) of this vision of human dignity through public participation He could not be further from merely appealing to authority 22 For how other opponents of “prelacy” saw its widespread and insidious social effects, see my analysis of the “Root and Branch” petition (1641), “From Diagnosis to Operation,” in The Theatrical City: Culture, Theatre and Politics in London, 1576–1649, ed David L Smith, Richard Strier, and David Bevington (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 225–33 23 Later on, in Christian Doctrine, where Milton proposes a quite different ecclesiology (congregational and baptist), he continues this emphasis, stating that “each believer, according to his personal talents, should have a chance to address his fellows” (in Complete Prose, 6:608, emphasis mine) index Adam, Antoine, 189n14 Adelman, Janet, 90, 119n51, 134 Adkins, W H., 253n23, 255n32, 261n54 Aeschylus, 142 Alabaster, William, 208n6 Albala, Ken, 158n20 Alberti, Leon Battista, 5, 11 Alcibiades (in Plato), 253 Alker, Sharon, 136n13, 137 Allen, Danielle S., 50n65 Allen, William Cardinal, 176n79 Alpers, Paul J., 254n30 Alves, Abel Athougui, 189n15 Ambrose, St., 37, 39, 275n91 Amussen, Susan Dwyer, 117n44 Anaxagoras, 31n5 anger, 1, 5, 23, 30–31, 33n11, 41, 46, 48–51, 53, 109, 119, 202 apathia, 30, 54 Aquinas See Thomas Aquinas, St Aristotle, 29, 31, 49n62, 99, 100, 197; Nicomachean Ethics, 69, 94n101, 95–96, 197n38, 219, 224–25, 246n122, 251, 253, 255, 265, 278–79, 281, 287 Arminius, Jacob (Arminianism), 248, 263–64 Arnold, Oliver, 182n95 Ascham, Roger, 221 Astaire, Fred, and Rogers, Ginger, 128n3 Astell, Ann W., 215n26 Auden, W H., 104, 110n35, 154n3 Auerbach, Eric, 154, 220, 223 Augustine, St (Augustinian), 36, 37, 39, 60n3, 74n44, 214, 248, 251–52; Confessions, 64, 68–69, 208, 214n23, 267 Aurelius, Marcus, 208n4 Bacon, Francis (Baconian), 105, 138, 201–2, 243 Bainton, Roland H., 12n27, 249n9, 251n13, 291 Baird, A S W., 189n13, 198 Baldwin, T W., 156n12, 175, 176nn76–77 Bancroft, Richard, 284 Bangs, Carl, 263n60 Barber, C L., 106n24, 154n3 Barca, Lisa, 75n46 Barkan, Leonard, 6n14 Baron, Hans, 3n4, 5n11, 62n8, 68n27, 287n9 Barth, Karl, 248 Barthes, Roland, 190, 191, 192, 193n26 Battles, Ford Lewis, 250n10 Bencivenga, Ermanno, 212n17, 216n32, 217 Benedict, St., 254 Benichou, Paul, 189n13 296  Index Bennett, Joan S., 268n69 Bentley, Jerry H., 249n9 Berger, Harry, Jr., 133n3, 134n7, 135, 195n33 Bevington, David, 15n33 Biller, Peter, 213n20 Bloom, Harold, 85n76, 100n7, 101n11, 115n41, 142n28 Booth, Stephen, 77–78, 79n62, 80nn64–65, 81n67, 85nn75, 85n77, 86, 89, 90, 92n97, 94n100 Bordo, Susan R., 238n100 Bossy, John, 213n20, 217n38 Bouwsma, William J., 36n21, 36n24, 249n8, 250n10 Boyle, Marjorie O’Rourke, 229n81 Braden, Gordon, 4n7, 49n60, 51n66, 59n1, 62n7, 67n23, 73–74n43, 81n66, 92n95, 102n12 Bradley, A C., 106n23 Breen, Quirinus, 250n10 Bremond, Henri, 189nn12–13, 194, 198–99 Brodrick, J., SJ, 188n9 Brody, Jules, 218 Brook, Peter, 109n32 Brower, Reuben A., 115n39, 116n43, 125n62, 273n83 Brown, Deborah J., 246n122 Brown, Peter, 64n14 Brownlow, F W., 176n76 Brundage, James, 181n92 Bruni, Leonardo, Bruno, Giordano, 61n3 Bruns, Gerald L., 238 Brush, Craig B., 211n15 Bruster, Douglas, 156n12 Buchanan, George, 132n1, 149 Büdel, Oscar, 61n3, 67, 86 Burckhardt, Jacob, 2–9, 11, 12n27, 18, 20n51, 21, 24, 26, 73n43, 162 Burke, Peter, 216n35, 222n59 Burnham, Douglas, 148n42 Burrow, Colin, 79n62 Burton, Robert, 18n44, 177 Bushnell, Rebecca, 10n23 Byam, Glen, 141n25 Cable, Lana, 271n79 Caldicott, C E J., 231n88, 235n94 Calvin, John, 15, 41–42, 49n59, 53, 56, 189n15, 215, 216, 227, 228n77, 249–51, 252–53, 255n32, 260n53, 264, 267, 280, 283, 284n3, 285, 291n16 Campbell, Gordon, 263n57 Campbell, Lily Bess, 7, 19 Candido, Joseph, 157n14, 168n49, 170n56, 173n63, 178n82, 185n106 Capell, Edward, 46n54 Carew, Thomas, 124n61 Carey, John, 200, 265 Carnes, Valerie, 201n50 Carroll, William C., 132n1 Cartwright, Thomas, 284n3, 289 Castiglione, Baldesar, 195 Catherine of Siena, St., 196 Cato, 225 Cavaillé, Jean-Pierre, 235n93 Cavell, Stanley, 109–10, 124n60, 141n25, 144n34 Cellini, Benvenuto, Charles, Amy M., 203n56 Charmot, Franỗois, 189n16 Choi, Rana, 154n5 Christensen, Anne C., 154n4, 157n17, 158n18, 163n35, 170, 171n57, 177n80 Cicero, 10n22, 29, 31n5, 179, 207, 220, 221n55, 223–24, 260 Cirillo, Albert R., 272n81 Claudius, Emperor, 222n57 Cochrane, Charles Norris, 248n1 Cockayne, Land of, 105 Collins, Ann, 54n80 Collinson, Patrick, 3n5 Coolidge, John S., 285n3 Cormack, Bradin, 10n22 Cornaro, Luigi, 5, 21 Corns, Thomas N., 263n57, 276, 277n98, 287n11 Index  297 Costa, Dennis, 228n76 Courcelle, Pierre, 208nn5–6 Cressy, David, 185 Culpeper, Nicholas, 140n24 Cunningham, J V., 52n73 Curley, Edwin M., 240n105 Curry, Walter Clyde, 139 Cynics, 245 Danby, John F., 48n56, 52n72 Dante Alighieri (Dantescan), 26, 61n4, 62n9, 66, 70n34, 72 Desan, Philippe, 194n31, 231n86 Descartes, René, 25, 208, 216n35, 229–47, 249, 253n27, 259, 260n50 Dickens, A G., 187n5 Dobranski, Stephen, 274nn88–89 Dodds, E R., 261n54 Donne, John, 25, 60–61, 70, 76n50, 78n59, 82, 115, 116n42, 182n94, 189, 199–200, 201 double standard, 171–75 Douce, Francis, 170n55 Dubois, Elfrieda, 194n29 Dubrow, Heather, 67n22, 76 Duffy, Eamon, 14n31 Duncan-Jones, Katherine, 75n47, 77n53 77n55, 80n64, 82 Dunn, Kevin, 237n98, 243, 245 Durling, Robert M., 65nn15–16, 66n18, 67n22, 67n24, 68n25, 69n30, 72n41, 75n45 Dzelzainis, Martin, 277n100 Eden, Kathy, 227n74 Eichel, Patricia, 224n65 Eire, Carlos, 291n16 elegists, Roman, 62n9, 69n31 Elias, Norbert, 6n12 Eliot, T S., 89, 118n48 Elizabeth I, Queen, 3n3, 136n16, 154n27, 170n55, 186n109 Elk, Martin Van, 154–55n6 Elliott, G R., 160n24 Elton, William, 52n73 Empson, William, 19–20, 104, 108n29 Engle, Lars, 84–85 Erasmus, 10n23, 12n27, 23, 37, 179n84, 187–88, 190n20, 192, 217, 221, 222n57, 233, 248, 250–52, 291; Praise of Folly, 32–36, 41, 53, 84, 103–4, 111, 196n35, 197n39 Erne, Lukas, 112n37 Euripides, 270 Evans, Bertrand, 43, 181n91 Fallon, Stephen, 255n34, 256n37, 263n61, 270n76, 288n94 Ferguson, Wallace K., 4n8 Ferry, Anne, 18n44 Fineman, Joel, 59n1, 61n3, 68n27, 69, 76n50, 82, 87 Fish, Stanley, 201n50, 271n80, 284–89, 290n15 Fisher, Philip, 49–50n62 Fitzgerald, William, 100n5 Fitzherbert, Thomas, 176n79 Flynn, Margaret, 33n11 Foakes, R A., 46nn53–54, 155n9, 156nn11–12, 157n16, 160n27, 164n36, 167n48, 174n67, 184, 185n107 Forman, Simon, 135n10 Foster, Kenelm, 75n45 Foucault, Michel, 6n12, 7, 17, 29n41, 107n41, 241n107 Fowler, Elizabeth, 136n116, 149n45 Fox, Alice, 140n24, 141n25 Frame, Donald, 214n24, 217n39, 219n46, 220n50, 220n51, 220n54, 222n58, 228n75, 229n81, 231n87 Franco, Veronica, 162n32 Frankfurt, Harry, 238n100, 247n125 Freccero, John, 60–61, 82n70 Freud, Sigmund, 142, 219n48 Friedrich, Hugo, 210n11, 214n22 Frye, Roland M., 15, 174n71 Gadoffre, Gilbert, 240n105, 242n114 Galen (Galenic), 17–18 Galileo, 242 298  Index Gangi, Mario di, 167n45 Garber, Marjorie, 134n8 Garcia-Villoslada, Ricardo, 190n20 Gardner, Helen, 189n16, 199, 200 Garside, Charles, Jr., 249n9, 291n16 Gataker, Thomas, 15 Gaukroger, Stephen, 235n93 Gauna, Max, 220, 224n65 Gauthier, R.-A., 254n29 Geertz, Clifford, 7, 8n19 George, Charles H., and Katherine George, 188n8 Gerrish, B A., 251n13, 251n17, 252n18, 286n7 Gilson, Etienne, 234, 235n93, 242n115 Ginzburg, Carlo, 105n21 Gleason, Robert W., SJ, 191n23 Gless, Darryl J., 254n30 Goldberg, Jonathan, 6n14, 23n61, 107n26, 115n40 Goldberg, S L., 51n69 Golding, Arthur, 50n63 Gouge, William, 15 Gouhier, Henri, 238n100 Gowland, Angus, 18n44 Goyet, Francis, 223n60, 227n73 Grady, Hugh, 107n27 Graham, Kenneth, 289n13, 291n18 Gray’s Inn, 42, 185 Greenblatt, Stephen, 7–17, 18, 119n50, 130n7, 131n9, 147n42, 160, 166, 171n59, 182 Greene, Thomas M., 70n35, 71–72n39 Griffin, Miriam, 51n70 Guss, Donald L., 76n50 Hadfield, Andrew, 132n1 Hadot, Pierre, 32n7, 241n107 Hale, John K., 263n57 Hallberg, Robert von, 83n72 Haller, William, and Malleville Haller, 174n71 Halpern, Richard, 12n26 Hamilton, A C., 289 Hamilton, Donna B., 163n33 Hamilton, Gary, 186n112 Hammond, Antony, 127nn1–2 Hampton, Timothy, 209n7 Handler-Spitz, Rivi, 237n95 Hankins, James, 3n4 Harada, Jun, 269nn72–73 Harran, Marilyn J., 250n10 Harsnett, Samuel, 176n76 Hart, Kevin, 213n19 Hartwig, Joan, 45n51 Hawkins, Michael, 132n1, 144n33 Hawkins, Sherman, 110n35 Heilman, Robert, 109–10 Helmholz, Richard, 178n83 Hennings, Thomas P., 46n53, 165n40, 173n65, 174 Henze, Richard, 163n33 Herbert, George, 20–21, 23, 25, 26, 53–58, 63, 175n75, 189, 199, 200–203, 254–55, 267n68, 280, 285, 286 Herdt, Jennifer, 248n2, 253n26, 262n55 Herman, Peter C., 132n1, 272n80 Hertzler, James R., 186n110 Hill, Christopher, 198n42 Hoffmann, George, 222n61, 226 Holbrook, Peter, 46n53, 98n2, 118n49, 154n4 holiness, differing conceptions of, 21, 23, 38, 39–40, 66, 120, 155, 175, 177–81, 183, 186, 191n21, 228n76, 257–58, 264, 284, 291 Holinshed, Raphael, 132n1, 133, 140n24 Homer, 75, 98–99, 261, 292; Iliad, 49n62, 147; Odyssey, 147 Hooker, Richard, 132, 286–87 Höpfl, Harro, 260n53 Hopkins, Lisa, 135n10, 145nn37–38, 148n42 Horace, 210, 221 Horner, David A., 254n29 Hubler, Edward, 19n46, 20 Hughes, Merritt, 272n81, 278, 279 Huguenots, 214, 216 Hull, Suzanne W., 116n44 Hulliung, Mark, 2n1 humors (humoralism), 7, 8, 17–21 Index  299 Hunt, Maurice, 44–45n47 Hunter, Rev Joseph, 134n7 Hunter, William B., 262–63 Hutcheon, Elizabeth, 140n22 Hutchinson, F E., 55n82, 203 Hutson, Lorna, 154n5, 164n38, 171n58, 173n62 Hyma, Albert, 187n5 Jaggard, William (The Passionate Pilgrim), 91n93 James I, King, 115n40, 134, 142n27, 149 James, Mervyn, 161n29 Jerome, St., 14, 37, 248 Johnson, Samuel, 24, 103–5, 184n103 Johnson, W R., 69n31 Jonson, Ben, 158, 221 Jordan, Mark D., 275n91 Josephus, 288 Junghans, Helmar, 250n10 Justinian’s Code, 251 Kahn, Coppélia, 134n7 Kahn, Victoria, 209n9, 272n82 Kaiser, Walter, 33n14, 103n16 Kalstone, David, 71 Kaske, Carol V., 254n30 Kastan, David, 107n26, 132n1 Kaster, Robert A., 45 Kaufman, Walter, 99n3 Keats, John, 268 Kehler, Dorothea, 178n81, 182n94, 183n100 Kennedy, William J., 63n13 Kerrigan, John, 148n43 Kerrigan, William, 4n7, 73n43, 102n12, 141 Kessler, Sanford, 13n29 Keys, Mary M., 254n29 Kierkegaard, Søren, 39n34, 248–49 King, Ros, 176 Kinney, Arthur F., 132n1, 141n27, 154n4, 165n41, 168n50, 176n77, 183 Knight, G Wilson, 85n76, 133, 147 Knowles, David, 248n1 Kohl, Benjamin G., 209n9 Kohut, Heinz, 219n48 Koyre, Alexander, 240n105 Krouse, Michael, 272n81 La Belle, Jenijoy, 140n23 La Charité, Raymond C., 220n53 Lafond, Jean, 230n82 Lake, Peter, 258n44, 263n59, 291n19 Landau, Aaron, 176n76, 17679, 182n93 Landry, Hilton, 85n76 Larmore, Charles, 223n59, 289n12 Laud, Archbishop William (Laudian, LaudÂ� ianism), 258n44, 263n59, 291 Leclerq, Jean, 248n1 Legros, Alain, 213n21 Leishman, J B., 210n13 Le Moine, Pierre, 194 Lemon, Rebecca, 132n1 Lever, J W., 61n3 Levin, Richard, 95n103 Lewalski, Barbara K., 279n105, 282n113 Lewis, C S., 14, 78n59, 143n32 Lieb, Michael, 264n62, 265n64, 269n72, 270n75 Lieven, Dominic, 102n14 Lievsay, John, 201n52 Liljegren, S B., 276, 278 Lipton, Emma, 166n44, 174 Loach, Judi, 188nn10–11, 194n32 Loewenstein, David, 279n103 Lovejoy, A O., 120n52 Low, Anthony, 270n77 Loyola, St Ignatius (Spiritual Exercises), 25, 26, 189n15, 190–93, 196, 197, 200, 216, 234, 239n103, 246n121 Lucretius (Lucretian), 14n14, 81 Luther, Martin, 14n31, 20, 21, 23, 36–42, 49, 53, 56, 179n86, 183, 187, 188, 203, 215, 216, 227n74, 228–29, 249–52, 253, 258, 264, 279, 286, 291 Lycurgus, 289 Lyons, John D., 231n86, 233n90, 237, 242n112 300  Index Maber, Richard, 194n29 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 2n1, 102, 131, 238, 248, 256, 272–73, 289 Mack, Peter, 227n74 Madsen, William G., 272n81, 273n85, 291n17 Maggi, Armando, 61n4 Maguire, Laurie, 164n37, 173n64 Majeske, Andrew J., 182n95 Malcolmson, Christina, 21n52 Malone, Edmund, 80n64, 176n78 Marcus, Leah, 153n2 Marlowe, Christopher (Marlovian), 99, 101, 130, 141, 236 Marotti, Arthur F., 200n47 Martellotti, Guido, 71n38 Martial, 71, 158, 250n10 Martin, John Jeffrey, 20n51 Martz, Louis L., 189n16, 202 Marvell, Andrew, 186 Maskell, David, 211n16 Mathieu-Castellani, Gìsele, 214n23 Mayer, Joseph G., 270n77, 280n107, 281n111 McClure, George W., 36n22 McLuskie, Kathleen, 137n17, 146n38, 149n45 Melanchthon, Philipp, 179n84, 249 Melchiori, Giorgio, 95n103, 96n105 Melehy, Hassan, 216n32, 235n93, 243n116 Menestrier, Claude-Franỗois, 194 Méré, Chevalier de (Antoine Gombaud), 194n31 Mermier, Guy, 226, 22 Merry, Bruce, 63n10 Mersenne, Marin, 230n83 Miernowski, Jan, 216n32, 217n39, 221n55, 224n65, 225n67 Miller, Clarence H., 33n13 Miller, Naomi J., 90n92, 91n93 Milner, Andrew, 277 Milton, John, 15, 25, 73, 203, 219, 248–93; poetry: “Lycidas,” 73, 269; Paradise Lost, 15n35, 21–23, 25, 101, 135, 136, 266–70;€Para­ dise Regained, 25, 274–83; Samson Agonistes, 25, 270–73; prose: Christian Doctrine, 25, 262–66; divorce tracts, 256; Of Reforma­ tion, 257–58; The Reason of ChurchGovernment, 25, 209, 229, 258–62, 284–93 Misch, Georg, 207 Moeller, Bernd, 249n9 Momigliano, Arnaldo, 207 Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de, 25, 86, 176n79, 208–29, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239n102, 240, 241, 242, 245, 247, 249, 252n21, 253n25, 259 Monter, William, 260n53 More, Thomas (Utopia), 9–13, 34, 36, 197 Mueller, Janel, 260n52, 292n20 Muellner, Leonard C., 49n62 Muir, Edward, 3n5 Muir, Kenneth, 50n63, 136n15, 139n20, 140n22, 143nn31–32, 145n36 Muldrew, Craig, 157, 158, 159n23, 160n26, 161–62, 164n39, 165n41, 173, 174n66, 178–79, 180n88, 181 Muller, Richard A., 263n60 Murray, Molly, 208n6 Murrin, Michael, 50n63 Nagel, Thomas, 88n87 Nagy, Gregory, 49n62 Nancy, Jean-Luc, 235n93, 237 Nelson, Benjamin, 2n2 Nelson, Holly Faith, 136n13, 137 Nero, 222n57 Newman, Karen, 171n57 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 4, 6n13, 24, 98, 99n3, 102, 110, 116n43, 118n49, 121n54, 125n62, 133, 142n28, 248, 249, 275n91, 281 Norbrook, David, 3n5, 4n8, 132n1, 272n82, 276n92, 283n115, 292n20 Numa, 289 Nussbaum, Martha C., 34n18 Nygren, Anders, 37n27, 275n91, 277n96, 281 Oberman, Heiko, 56n84 Oecolampadius, Johannes, 249 Oldcastle, Sir John, 107 Orgel, Stephen, 6n14, 124n61 Origen, 37, 214 Index  301 Orlin, Lena Cowen, 153n1, 172 Ovid, 50n63, 69, 177n81, 273 Ozment, Steven, 187n5 Padel, Ruth, 50n65 Panofsky, Erwin, 2n3 Parsons, Robert, SJ, 176n79 Partee, Charles, 250n10 Pascal, Blaise, 189, 194, 196, 198 Paster, Gail Kern, 17, 18nn42–43, 18n45, 19, 20n51 patience (and impatience), 1, 23, 41–53, 116, 170, 256, 273 Paul, Henry N., 132n1 Paul, St (and Pauline), 35, 37, 39, 40, 64n14, 73, 195, 197, 207, 221, 284, 286, 290 Pelikan, Jaroslav, 249n6 Pepys, Samuel, 209 Perkins, William, 163n33 Perry, Curtis, 157n15, 165n41, 182n95 Petrarch, Francesco (and Petrarchan), 19, 23– 24, 26, 29, 32, 35, 36n22, 59–75, 76, 77, 79n60, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 91, 92, 95, 97, 208, 209, 216n35 Petrie, Jennifer, 62n9, 69n32, 72n40 Peyré, Yves, 142 Piccolomini, Aeneas Silvius, 222n57 Pirckheimer, Willibald, 250n12 Plato (Platonic, Platonism), 1–2, 29, 34, 37, 59n1, 60, 61, 68, 70, 72–74, 95, 102n13, 117, 118n47, 207–8, 219, 228, 253, 286, 288 Plautus, 155, 162–63, 167, 168, 169, 172–73, 183n97 Plotinus, 117–18, 120 Pocock, J G A., 238n99, 289n14 Pope, Alexander, 153n2 Pouilloux, Jean-Yves, 224n65 presbyters, 285, 293–94 Prest, Wilfrid R., 185n107 Price, Hereward T., 273n83 pride: “proper” (megalopsychia, magnanimÂ� ity), 5, 25, 203, 219–20, 246 246n122, 249, 253–54, 256, 259, 262, 265, 266–68, 270n77, 278, 282, 283, 293; sinful (improper), 18, 38–39, 202, 221n55, 233, 239, 242, 244–45, 247, 252, 255, 257, 265–66, 281–82 Propertius, 69n31, 81n68 Pythagorean, 225 Quillen, Carol Everhart, 60n3, 62n8 Quint, David, 68n25, 223n61 Radzinowicz, Mary Ann, 273n86 Rahner, Karl, 191n21 Ralegh, Sir Walter, 218n42 Raman, Shankar, 156n12 Rand, E K., 248n2 Rawls, John, 289n12 Ray, Robert H., 255n31 Rebhorn, Wayne A., 30n3 Redfield, James M., 49n62 Regan, Marianne Sanders, 66n19 Regosin, Richard L., 218n44 Reinitz, Richard, 291n17 Reiss, Timothy, 224n65 Renaissance (versus “early modern”), 2n3, 207 Ricks, Christopher, 85n77, 90, 92 Riehle, Wolfgang, 162, 168nn49–50, 173n62 Rist, J M., 51n70 Ritson, Joseph, 50n63 Robertson, D W., 208n5 Robertson, H M., 188n9 Robinson, John A T., 37n36 Roche, Thomas, 62n8 Romanowski, Sylvie, 231n86, 233n90, 240n105, 241–42 Ronsard, Pierre de, 210 Root, Jerry, 259n48 Root and Branch Petition, 293n22 Rorty, Amélie, 225n67 Rosenthal, Margaret F., 162n32 Ross, Charles, 144 Ross, Malcolm Mackenzie, 21n52 Rowe, Nicholas, 134n7, 137 Rubidge, Bradley, 234n92 Ruddick, Lisa, 213n18 Rumrich, John, 271n78 Rupp, E Gordon, 249n9, 251n13, 252n20 302  Index Sales, St Franỗois de, 25, 26, 37, 38, 189, 194–98, 199, 200, 201 Sallust, 277n100 Salutati, Coluccio, 23, 30–32, 35, 38, 42 sanctuary, 178–86 Sanders, Wilbur, 116n42, 135, 147n41 Sanderson, James L., 45n48, 181n90 Santagata, Marco, 62–63n9 Sayce, R A., 211n16, 222n59 Scaglione, Aldo, 189n12 Schildgen, Brenda Deen, 74n44 Schoenfeldt, Michael C., 8, 17–23, 96 Schofield, Malcolm, 35n19, 275n91 Schuyler, Carole, 177n81 Schwartz, Jerome, 218n44 Schwartz, Regina M., 14n31 Scipio Africanus, 252, 279–80 Scodel, Joshua, 22n57, 161n29, 173n29, 262n55, 266n66, 268n69 Scot, Reginald, 176n79 Screech, M A., 35n20, 211n16, 214nn23–24, 218, 220n51, 220n54, 222n58, 224n63, 229n81 Seneca, 20n48, 35, 50–52, 100n5, 140n22, 142, 207, 223n61 Servetus, Michael, 263 sex (sexuality), 6n14, 11, 14–16, 21, 23, 25, 29n41, 39, 69n28, 89–90, 92–95, 96–97, 115, 119, 124, 130–31, 143, 162–63, 166, 169, 170, 171–74, 228 Shakespeare, William, 8, 23–24, 26, 59, 99, 209, 210, 256n40, 273; poems: The Rape of Lucrece, 143n31; the sonnets: 19–20, 62n8, 69, 75–97, 209, 210; plays: All’s Well that Ends Well, 176n79; Antony and Cleopatra, 84n73, 110–25, 148; As You Like It, 103; The Comedy of Errors, 23, 24, 42–48, 153–86, 260; Coriolanus, 159; Hamlet, 123, 158; Henry IV, part 1, 103–7, 122–24; Henry IV, part 2, 93n99, 106–7, 108, 110, 122–25, 163; Henry V, 123; Henry VI, part 2, 93n99; King Lear, 35, 48–53, 57, 76, 122, 82, 107– 10, 111, 125; Macbeth, 24, 26, 132–49, 160; Measure for Measure, 128n57; The Mer­ chant of Venice, 79n62, 153, 182n95; The Merry Wives of Windsor, 153, 172n60; A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 138; Othello, 8, 14–16, 18n42, 82, 125; Pericles, 77n56; Rich­ ard III, 24, 99–102, 103, 111, 125–31; The Taming of the Shrew, 19n45, 45n51, 116, 131, 153; The Tempest, 285; Twelfth Night, 56, 129, 177; The Winter’s Tale, 139n21 Shapiro, Marianne, 70n34 Shawcross, John T., 274n88 Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 266n65 Sher, Antony, 139n21 Shuger, Debora K., 30n3, 36n21 Sidney, Sir Philip, 209 Sigurdson, Richard, 4n8 Sihler, E G., 250n10 Simpson, David, 231n88, 241n108, 242n110 Simpson, James, 14n31 Sinfield, Alan, 132n1 Skwire, Sarah, 54n80 Slights, Camille Wells, 164n39, 171n59 Slights, Jessica, 158n18, 165n42, 167n47, 168n49 Smith, Bruce R., 90n92 Smith, Preserved, 187n5 Smith, Roger, 231n86 Snow, Edward A., 85–88, 90, 91n94, 92, 96n105, 122n56 Socrates (Socratic), 32, 62, 207–8, 226, 241n7, 242n110, 252, 253, 276, 277n99, 281, 283 Sophocles, 270 Spenser, Edmund, 19, 166n44, 218n42, 254 Spitz, Lewis W., 250n10 Springer, Carl, 250n10 Starobinski, Jean, 210n10, 239n102 Steggle, Matthew, 160n27, 180n87, 186n111 Stein, Arnold, 282 Stern, Jeffrey, 214n25, 219n48 Stern, Richard G., 11n25 Stevens, Paul, 260n51 Stirk, Nigel, 186n110 Index  303 Stoicism (and anti-Stoicism), 1, 2, 14, 18, 23, 30–36, 41–42, 43, 45n48, 50–53, 54, 58, 193, 223n61, 241, 246, 267, 273, 275, 281–83 Stone, Lawrence, 15n33 Strawson, Galen, 211n15 Strier, Richard, 7n15, 14n31, 15n35, 20n50, 21n53, 21n56, 53n76, 54n81, 63n11, 108n30, 113n38, 136n14, 175nn74–75, 176n79, 183n101, 192n24, 201n51, 203n58, 215n27, 229n81, 255n31, 255n33, 255n34, 266n65, 278n101, 280n108, 285n6, 286n8, 293n22 Summers, Joseph H., 202, 268n70, 269n73 Supple, James, 217nn39–40, 219, 222n57, 224n66, 225n67, 227n73 Surtz, Edward, SJ, 13n28 Swift, Jonathan, 34, 88 Targoff, Ramie, 73n42 Tawney, R H., 188n8, 198n40 Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, 262 Theobald, Lewis, 167n48, 184 Thomas, Dylan, 52n73 Thomas, Keith, 106n25, 174 Thomas Aquinas, St., 120, 248, 254, 259, 265, 266, 283 Thompson, Sister Geraldine, 33n12 Thornley, Isobel, 186nn110–11 Tillyard, E M W., 7, 268n70 Tilmouth, Christopher, 42n43, 267n68 Torrance, Thomas F., 56n84 Traub, Valerie, 110n35 Trevor, Douglas, 59n1 Trexler, Richard, 187n5 Trent, Council of (also Tridentine), 9, 213n20, 215n29, 216, 217n37, 226 Trinkaus, Charles, 2n2, 36n22 Turner, James Grantham, 56n83, 174n71, 287 Tweedie, Fiona J., 263n57 Tyacke, Nicholas, 263n59 Tyndale, William, 8, 14, 21, 38, 49n59 Underdown, David, 117n44 Valency, Maurice, 66n19 Van Doren, Mark, 154n3 Veith, Gene Edward, 21n53 Vendler, Helen, 76, 77, 79, 80n63, 85n75, 92, 93n98, 94 Vergerio, Pier Paolo, 221n57 Vergil, 62n9, 70, 75 Verstegan, Richard, 176n79 Villey, Pierre, 211n16 Vives, Juan Luis, 32, 33n11, 189n15 Vlastos, Gregory, 32, 207n3, 276n93 Vries, Jan de, 159n23 Wallace, John M., 20n48 Walter, J H., 123n59 Warburton, William, 143n31 Warren, Michael, 49n61 Washington, Ned, 83n72 Watkins, W B C., 22 Wayne, Valerie, 45n51, 178n82 Webber, Joan, 259 Weber, Max, 155, 175, 187–88, 198n40 Weil, Simone, 54n80 Weintraub, Karl Joachim, 208n4 Weis, René, 48n57, 109n31 Weisinger, Herbert, 2n3 Werner von Urslingen, 4, 24 West, William N., 4n8 Westminster Catechism, 279 Whigham, Frank, 195n33, 201n52, 202n53 Whitaker, Virgil K., 254n30 Wicks, Jared, 56n84 Wilcox, Helen, 54n80 Wild, Christopher, 234n9 Wilkins, Ernest Hatch, 63n10, 63n12, 69, 80n26, 80n27 Williams, Bernard, 98–99, 109, 121n54, 261n54 Williams, George Huntston, 12n27 Williams, Roger, 291n17 Winter, Ian, 217n39, 219n46, 220n50 Wittreich, Joseph, 274n88 Wolfe, Don M., 285n3, 290n15 304  Index Woodhouse, A S P., 274n89 Worden, Blair, 274n89 Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 73n43, 85n76 Young, Paul A., 250n10 Young, Victor, 83n72 Zagorin, Perez, 13n29 Zambeccari, Peregrino, 30–31 Zanger, Abby, 231, 242n115, 245 Zeitlin, Jacob, 202n53 Zurcher, Andrew, 160n28 Zwingli, Huldreich, 249, 250, 291n16 .. .The Unrepentant Renaissance The Unrepentant Renaissance from petrarch to shakespeare to m i lto n Richard Strier The University of Chicago Pressâ•… c h... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Strier, Richard â•… The unrepentant Renaissance : from Petrarch to Shakespeare to Milton / Richard Strier â•…â•… p.â•…â•… cm â•… Includes bibliographical... Praise of Passion from Petrarch to Luther to Shakespeare to Herbert 29 2Against Judgment: Petrarch and Shakespeare at Sonnets 59 3Against Morality: From Richard III to Antony and Cleopatra
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Xem thêm: Richard strier the unrepentant renaissance from petrarch to shakespeare to milton 2011 , Richard strier the unrepentant renaissance from petrarch to shakespeare to milton 2011 , Against the Rule of Reason: Praise of Passion from Petrarch to Lutherto Shakespeare to Herbert, Against Judgment: Petrarch and Shakespeare at Sonnets, Against Morality: From Richard III to Antony and Cleopatra, Sanctifying the Bourgeoisie: The Cultural Work of The Comedy of Errors

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