lý thuyết và bài tập Thức giả định trong tiếng Anh Subjunctive Mood

7 18 0
  • Loading ...
1/7 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 12/02/2019, 21:50

The Subjunctive Mood * Thức giả định: Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive Past perfect Subjunctive I Hiện giả định: Hình thức: Hiện giả định tất ngơi có hình thức giống động từ ngun thể ko có “ to ” Từ “that” phải ln xuất câu giả định ngoại trừ số thành ngữ ( Nếu “that” bị lược bỏ hầu hết động từ theo sau to infinitive ) Ex: We urge that he leave now  We urge him to leave now Cách dùng: a) Dùng số câu thành ngữ/ câu cảm thán để thể ao ước, hy vọng hay lời cầu chúc ( thường có liên quan đến sức mạnh siêu nhiên) Ex: (God) bless you ! Heaven help us ! God save the queen ! Long live Vietnam ! Heaven forbid! (Lạy trời!) Long live the Communist Party of Vietnam! Success attend you! * “May” thường dùng để diễn tả lời cầu chúc : May you be happy all your life May the friendship between us last forever b) Dùng sau số động từ để thể ý muốn, yêu cầu, đề nghị Advise Insist Recommend Request demand propose suggest Urge prefer stipulate decree ask require commandmove order với cấu trúc sau: S + V ( any tense) + that + S + (not) + V ( present subjunctive ) Note: Từ “want” ko thuộc loại động từ Ex: The university requires that all its students take this course The doctor suggested that his patient stop smoking Congress had decreed that the gasoline tax be abolished We proposed that he take a vacation c) Dùng sau số tính từ : Important Advised suggested necessary recommended urgent required obligatory mandatory essential proposed Với cấu trúc: It + be ( any tense) + Adj + that + S + (not) + V ( present subjunctive) Page Lưu ý bảng có số tính từ phân từ cấu tạo từ động từ bảng Nếu muốn cấu tạo phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ trước nguyên thể bỏ to Ex: It is necessary that he find the book It was urgent that she leave at once It has been proposed that we (not) change the topic It is important that you remember this question It is important that they be told the truth Nếu bỏ that chủ ngữ biến thành tân ngữ sau giới từ for, động từ trở dạng ngun thể có to câu tính chất giả định trở thành dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp Ex: It is necessary for him (not) to find the books It has been proprosed for us (not) to change the topic d) Tất danh từ xuất phát từ động từ tính từ buộc mệnh đề sau phải dạng giả định, diễn đạt yếu tố demand request preference Ex: recommendation proposal insistence suggestion There is suggestion from the doctor that the patient stop smoking It is recommendation that the vehicle owner be present at the court Note: Trong ngữ pháp Anh-Anh trước động từ mệnh đề thường có should, người Anh bỏ should sau động từ to be ngữ pháp Anh-Mỹ khơng dùng should cho tồn động từ mệnh đề B EXERCISES Exercise 1: Choose the best answer: It's about time you .harder for the next exam A.work B.are working C.worked D.have worked The ceiling in this room doesn't look very safe It looks as if it down A.would fall B.falls C.is falling D.is going to fall I wish they change their minds so often! A.shouldn't B.wouldn't C.mightn't D.couldn't I wish I the direction closely A.be followed B.will follow C.would follow D.had followed I wished I .on another diet A.could live B.can live C.will live D.am living Team rules require that each player …………… responsible for memorizing one rule and then for teaching that rule to all of the players A.is B.was C.be D were To avoid unnecessary injury, the coach insisted that the players' tackling drills …………… on the proper way to fall down A.focused B.focus C.were focused D to focuse II Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form I’d rather you (not/drive) so fast, Pat Sue went to France this year, but she says she would rather (go) to Spain Page It’s a shame you missed the party; I would rather you (be) there John had better (not/speak) to me like that again He says he’d rather (cook) his own food than eat in restaurants I’d rather you (not/mention) this to anyone until next week Tim’s mother would rather he (work) closer to home than he does Greg says he would rather ( not/leave) things as they are She would prefer to meet you personally rather than (talk) to you over the phone 10 Sean prefers playing football to (watch) it 11 Would you rather (write) in ink or in pencil? 12 Sheila prefers (get up) early in the morning rather than (oversleep) 13 Would he prefer (drive) to work tomorrow rather than cycle? 14 I would rather (speak) directly to the manager than (deal) with his rude secretary as I did 15 My father prefers to have a beard rather than (have) a shave every day 16 Tom prefers (ski) to (skate) 17 Wouldn’t you prefer to sit on this seat rather than (stand) for the whole journey? 18 We’d better (take) some money for a taxy in case we (miss) the bus home 19 We would rather (stay) at home tonight 20 Mr Jones would rather (stay) at home last night 21 The policeman would rather (work) on Saturday than on Sunday 22 Maria would rather that we (study) more than we 23 George would rather (not study) tonight 24 The photographer would rather (have) more light 25 The photographer would rather that we (stand) closer together than we are standing 26 Carmen would rather (not cook) for the entire family 27 She would rather that you (not arrive) last night 28 John would rather (sleep) than worked last night Page III Transformation Please don’t tell anyone about it - I’d rather you _ I would prefer you deliver the sofa this afternoon - I’d rather you Why don’t you ask her yourself ? - My friend suggests that She urged her husband to apply for the post in the government - She urged that her husband They insisted on my coming early - They insisted that _ An accountant needs to master computer science - It is necessary that _ It’s time for us to leave now - It’s time we What a pity ! Your sister can’t come with us - If only Everyone find it important for us to something save the environment - It is important that we 10 Michael lost his job last month, so he cannot buy a car - If Michael _ 11 He regrets applying for the job in that company - He wishes 12 The headmaster insists on every schoolgirl’s wearing ao dai every Monday - The headmaster insists that 13 They advise her to eat less meat and fat to keep herself healthy - It is advisable that she 14 Naturally, a child had better respect his parents - It is natural that _ 15 He needs to come to the interview early - It is necessary that 16 She must find it important to take two medicines every day - It is important that _ 17 It’s too late He must go home - It’s high time he _ 18 Every student must wear uniform It is obligatory - It is obligatory that 19 They recommended her to go to the best doctor in town - They recommended that she _ 20 The man demanded to be told everything about the accident - The man demanded that everything _ IV Rewrite the following sentences without chaging their meaning: He appears to be running away from your fierce dog ……………………………………………………………………………………… Page I would love to be rich and famous …………………………………………………………………………………… I’d love to be in a secluded beach in Mexico ……………………………………………………………………………………… I really think you ought to acquire a few manners ……………………………………………………………………………………… I’m really sorry I didn’t invite her to the party ……………………………………………………………………………………… Would you mind not smoking here? ……………………………………………………………………………………… Please don’t say things like that ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………….The End……………… f ) Dùng cấu trúc với would rather có chủ ngữ Là loại câu người thứ muốn người thứ hai làm việc (nhưng làm hay khơng phụ thuộc vào người thứ hai) Trong trường hợp động từ mệnh đề hai để dạng nguyên thể ko to Nếu muốn thành lập thể phủ định đặt not trước nguyên thể ko to S1 + would rather that + S2 + (not) + V ( present subjunctive) Page Ex: I would rather that you call me tomorrow He would rather that I not take this train Ngữ pháp nói ngày đặc biệt ngữ pháp Mỹ cho phép bỏ that cấu trúc mà giữ nguyên hình thức giả định II Quá khứ giả định: Hình thức: Quá khứ giả định tất ngơi có hình thức giống khứ đơn riêng với to be ta chia were cho tất ( văn phong giao tiếp hàng ngày có xu hướng dùng was cho chủ ngữ danh từ số ít) Cách dùng: a) Dùng câu điều kiện loại để diễn tả điều kiện ko có thật ko thể xảy tương lai Ex: If I were you, I would go If he knew this, he would be happy b) Dùng câu ước ko có thực : wish = If only I wish I could speak Chinese ( but I can’t) If only my son were good at Math Note: Ta dùng wish khứ mà ko thay đổi giả định thức Ex: I wish(ed) I knew her address c) Được sử dụng sau as if / as though để ám điều ko có thật ko thể xảy ( ko có khác as if as though) S1 + V ( present) + Ex: as if as though + S2 + V ( past subjunctive) He talks as if he were my father He behaves as though he owned the place c) Dùng mẫu câu: would rather sb did sth ( sb didn’t sth) để ao ước đối lập với S1 + would rather that + S2 + V ( past subjunctive) Ex: I’d rather you came with us Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same department as he does (His girlfriend does not work in the same department) Jane would rather that it were winter now (Infact, it is not winter now) Note: Nếu muốn thành lập thể phủ định dùng didn't + verb were not sau chủ ngữ hai Henry would rather that his girlfriend didn’t work in the same department as he does Jane would rather that it were not winter now I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said d) Dùng cấu trúc : It’s (high/ about ) time sb did sth = It’s time for sb to sth It’s high time we went home Note: Nếu sau: “ It’s time + I/ he/ she/ it “ động từ to be ta dùng was III Quá khứ hoàn thành giả định Page Hình thức: Q khứ giả định có hình thức giống q khứ hồn thành Cách dùng: a) Dùng mệnh đề điều kiện câu điều kiện loại Ex: If I had been there, I should have understood b) Dùng sau : wish, If only để diễn đạt ý cầu mong giả định ko xảy khứ Ex: I wish that I hadn’t spent so much money If only she had asked someone’s advice Ta dùng wished thay mà ko làm thay đổi mệnh đề phía sau: Ex: I wished (that) I hadn’t spent so much money c) Dùng sau as if , as though để giả định ko có thật khứ S1 + V ( past) + as if as though + S2 + V ( past perfect subjunctive) Ex: He looked as if he had seen ghosts Lưu ý: công thức giả định với “ as if “ “ as though “ áp dụng chúng điều đối lập với thực tế khứ Nếu dự đốn điều mà xảy ko ta ko áp dụng công thức giả định Ex: He looks as if he has finished the test ( perhaps he has finished) He looked as though he was leaving ( Perhaps he was leaving) d) Dùng với cấu trúc would rather ( chủ ngữ) để mong muốn ko xảy khứ S1 + would rather that + S2 + had(n’t) + V3 Ex: Page Bob would rather that Jill had gone to class yesterday (Jill did not go to class yesterday) Bill would rather that his wife hadn’t divorced him ... pháp Mỹ cho phép bỏ that cấu trúc mà giữ nguyên hình thức giả định II Quá khứ giả định: Hình thức: Quá khứ giả định tất ngơi có hình thức giống khứ đơn riêng với to be ta chia were cho tất (... time + I/ he/ she/ it “ động từ to be ta dùng was III Quá khứ hoàn thành giả định Page Hình thức: Q khứ giả định có hình thức giống q khứ hồn thành Cách dùng: a) Dùng mệnh đề điều kiện câu điều... if , as though để giả định ko có thật khứ S1 + V ( past) + as if as though + S2 + V ( past perfect subjunctive) Ex: He looked as if he had seen ghosts Lưu ý: công thức giả định với “ as if “
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: lý thuyết và bài tập Thức giả định trong tiếng Anh Subjunctive Mood, lý thuyết và bài tập Thức giả định trong tiếng Anh Subjunctive Mood

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay