Jessica bomarito jeffrey w hunter, editors feminism in literature a gale critical companion volume 1 antiquity 18th century (2005)

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Ở hậu kỳ trung đại, phần lớn các tác phẩm thành văn của văn học Việt Nam được viết bằng chữ Hán và số ít bằng chữ Nôm. Về sau, văn học Việt Nam được thống nhất viết bằng chữ quốc ngữ.Văn học dân gian là nền tảng của văn học viết, là chặng đầu của nền văn học dân tộc. Khi chưa có chữ viết, nền văn học Việt Nam chỉ có văn học dân gian; khi có chữ viết, nền văn học Việt Nam mới bao gồm hai bộ phận: văn học dân gian và văn học viết.Văn học viết chịu ảnh hưởng của văn học dân gian về nhiều phương diện, từ nội dung tư tưởng đến hình thức nghệ thuật. Văn học viết cũng có tác động trở lại đối với văn học dân gian trên một số phương diện. Mối quan hệ giữa văn học dân gian với văn học viết cũng như vai trò, ảnh hưởng của văn học dân gian đối với văn học thể hiện trọn vẹn hơn cả ở lĩnh vực sáng tác và ở bộ phận thơ văn quốc âm.Văn học dân gian Việt Nam cũng như văn học dân gian của nhiều dân tộc khác trên thế giới có những thể loại chung và riêng hợp thành một hệ thống. Mỗi thể loại phản ánh cuộc sống theo những nội dung và cách thức riêng. Hệ thống văn học dân gian Việt Nam gồm có: sử thi, truyền thuyết, thần thoại, truyện cổ tích, truyện ngụ ngôn, truyện cười, tục ngữ, câu đố, ca dao, vè, thơ, chèo,... Volume 1: Antiquity–18th Century, Topics & Authors FEMINISM IN LITERATURE A Gale Critical Companion GALE CRITICAL COMPANION ADVISORY BOARD Barbara M Bibel Librarian Oakland Public Library Oakland, California Mary Jane Marden Collection Development Librarian St Petersburg College Pinellas Park, Florida James K Bracken Professor and Assistant Director University Libraries The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio Heather Martin Arts & Humanities Librarian University of Alabama, Sterne Library Birmingham, Alabama Dr Toby Burrows Principal Librarian The Scholars’ Centre University of Western Australia Library Nedlands, Western Australia Celia C Daniel Associate Librarian, Reference Howard University Washington, D.C David M Durant Reference Librarian Joyner Library East Carolina University Greenville, North Carolina Nancy Guidry Librarian Bakersfield Community College Bakersfield, California Steven R Harris Collective Development Librarian Utah State University Logan, Utah Susan Mikula Director Indiana Free Library Indiana, Pennsylvania Thomas Nixon Humanities Reference Librarian University of North Carolina, Davis Library Chapel Hill, North Carolina Mark Schumacher Jackson Library University of North Carolina Greensboro, North Carolina Gwen Scott-Miller Assistant Director Sno-Isle Regional Library System Marysville, Washington Donald Welsh Head, Reference Services College of William and Mary, Swem Library Williamsburg, Virginia FEMINISM IN LITERATURE A Gale Critical Companion Volume 1: Antiquity–18th Century, Topics & Authors Foreword by Amy Hudock, Ph D University of South Carolina Jessica Bomarito, Jeffrey W Hunter, Project Editors Some fragments of text and some images removed from the e-book due to copyrights restrictions Feminism in Literature, Vol Project Editor Permissions Composition and Electronic Capture Jessica Bomarito, Jeffrey W Hunter Emma Hull, Lori Hines, Shalice Shah-Caldwell Carolyn Roney Editorial Imaging and Multimedia Manufacturing Tom Burns, Jenny Cromie, Kathy D Darrow, Michelle Lezlie Light, Daniel Newell, Kelly A Quin Kazensky, Jelena O Krstovic, Michael L LaBlanc, Julie Landelius, Michelle Lee, Allison McClintic Marion, Ellen McGeagh, Joseph Palmisano, Linda Pavlovski, James E Person Jr., Thomas J Schoenberg, Marie Toft, Lawrence J Trudeau, Russel Whitaker Indexing Services Product Design Synapse, the Knowledge Link Corporation Michael Logusz, Pamela Galbreath © 2005 by Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition, and other applicable laws The authors and editors of this work have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, expression, arrangement, and classification of the information Thomson and Star Logo are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under 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constitute an extension of the copyright notice While every effort has been made to secure permission to reprint material and to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Thomson Gale neither guarantees the accuracy of the data contained herein nor assumes any responsibility for errors, omissions or discrepancies Thomson Gale accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Feminism in literature : a Gale critical companion / foreword by Amy Hudock ; Jessica Bomarito, project editor, Jeffrey W Hunter, project editor p cm (Gale critical companion collection) Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-7876-7573-3 (set hardcover : alk paper) ISBN 0-7876-7574-1 (vol 1) -ISBN 0-7876-7575-X (vol 2) ISBN 0-7876-7576-8 (vol 3) ISBN 0-7876-9115-1 (vol 4) -ISBN 0-7876-9116-X (vol 5) ISBN 0-7876-9065-1 (vol 6) Literature Women authors History and criticism Women authors Biography Women History I Bomarito, Jessica, 1975- II Hunter, Jeffrey W., 1966- III Series PN471.F43 2005 809'.89287 dc22 2004017989 Printed in the United States of America 10 Preface .xxv Acknowledgments .xxix Chronology of Key Events xlix VOLUME Women and Women’s Writings from Antiquity through the Middle Ages Introduction Representative Works Primary Sources Women in the Ancient World 12 Women in the Medieval World 34 Women in Classical Art and Literature 44 Women in Medieval Art and Literature 56 Classical and Medieval Women Writers 74 Further Reading 96 Sidebars: On the Subject Of Women in Chinese Religion On the Subject Of St Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) 11 On the Subject Of Nefertiti (c 1390 B.C.-1360 B.C.) and Cleopatra (69 B.C.-c 30 B.C.) 27 On the Subject Of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) On the Subject Of Marie de France (fl 12th century) On the Subject Of Hypatia (c 370- 415) On the Subject Of Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) Women in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries: An Overview Introduction Representative Works Primary Sources Overviews Society Politics Women in Literature Further Reading Sidebars: On the Subject Of Laura Cereta (1469-1499) and Moderata Fonte (1555-1592) On the Subject Of St Teresa de Avila (1515-1582) On the Subject Of Cassandra Fedele (1465-1558) On the Subject Of Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549) 37 70 82 91 101 103 104 112 132 164 177 190 110 113 151 161 v CONTENTS Foreword by Amy Hudock xix CONTENTS On the Subject Of Catherine the Great (1729-1796) 175 On the Subject Of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) 188 Women’s Literature in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries Introduction Representative Works Primary Sources Overviews Women’s Literature in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries Further Reading Sidebars: On the Subject Of Madeleine de Scudéry (1607-1701) On the Subject Of Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) On the Subject Of Aphra Behn (1640-1689) On the Subject Of Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814) On the Subject Of Catherine Parr (1512-1548) On the Subject Of Abigail Adams (1744-1818) Margery Kempe 1373-1440 193 194 195 202 239 278 200 213 239 247 273 French poet, prose writer, allegorist, epistler, and biographer Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Dedicatory Letter to the Queen of France, in La Querelle de la Rose From the Author: Letter to Gontier Col, October, 1401 From the Author: Lament to God that opens The Book of the City of Ladies 281 283 284 288 298 319 289 314 Mexican poet, playwright, and prose writer vi Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: On the Subject Of Julian of Norwich Excerpt from The Shewings of Julian of Norwich From the Author: Excerpt from The Book of Margery Kempe 359 360 360 364 391 363 374 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 1689-1762 English epistler, poet, essayist, translator, and playwright Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Letter to Lady Mar, 10 March 1718 About the Author: Mary Astell’s Preface to the Turkish Embassy Letters, 1763 393 394 395 399 407 421 401 409 Sappho fl 6th century B.C Greek poet 290 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 1651-1695 English autobiographer 225 Christine de Pizan 1365- c 1431 Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Villancico VI, from “Santa Catarina,” 1691 328 From the Author: Poem 146 349 321 323 323 326 349 357 Introduction Principal English Translations Primary Sources General Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Two Translations of “Fragment 130” About the Author: H D., “The Wise Sappho,” in Notes on Thought and Vision, 1982 From the Author: “Fragment 10” 423 425 425 426 469 427 433 459 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , V O L American poet Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Excerpt from “On Being Brought from Africa to America,” 1773 About the Author: Letter from George Washington to Phillis Wheatley, 28 February 1776 About the Author: Excerpt from Jupiter Hammon’s poem “An Address to Miss Phillis Wheatley” 471 472 473 474 499 521 475 492 510 Overviews 15 Early Feminists 50 Representations of Women in Literature and Art in the 19th Century 67 Further Reading 86 Sidebars: On the Subject Of Lucy Stone (1818-1893) and Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910) On the Subject Of Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911) 13 On the Subject Of John Stuart Mill, excerpt from The Subjection of Women, 1869 32 On the Subject Of Caroline Sheridan Norton (1808-1877) 35 On the Subject Of Sarah Winnemucca (1844?-1891) 58 On the Subject Of Anna Julia Haywood Cooper (1858-1964) 78 Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797 English essayist and novelist Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Excerpt from “To M Talleyrand-Périgord,” in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792 About the Author: Excerpt from A Defense of the Character and Conduct of the Late Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, 1803 About the Author: William Godwin, excerpt from Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft, 1798 523 526 526 531 550 570 530 539 558 Author Index 577-581 Women’s Literature in the 19th Century Introduction 89 Representative Works 90 Primary Sources 91 Overviews 99 American Women Writers 141 British Women Writers 177 Further Reading 204 Sidebars: On the Subject Of Frances Power Cobbe (1822-1904) 98 On the Subject Of Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (1810-1865) 104 On the Subject Of Victoria Earle Matthews (1861-1907) 143 On the Subject Of Caroline M Kirkland (1801-1864) 164 On the Subject Of Lydia Maria Child (1802-1880) 173 On the Subject Of Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901) 196 Title Index 583-599 Subject Index 601-662 VOLUME Women in the 19th Century: Overview Introduction Representative Works Primary Sources An United States Suffrage Movement in the 19th Century Introduction Representative Works Primary Sources Overviews The Civil War and Its Effect on Suffrage Suffrage: Issues and Individuals Further Reading Sidebars: On the Subject Of Sojourner Truth (c 1797-1883) F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , V O L 207 208 209 229 239 253 294 220 vii CONTENTS Phillis Wheatley 1753-1784 CONTENTS On the Subject Of Susan B Anthony (1820-1906) On the Subject Of Lucretia Coffin Mott (1793-1880) On the Subject Of Sarah Moore Grimké (1792-1873) and Angelina Emily Grimké (1805-1879) On the Subject Of Victoria Woodhull (1838-1927) On the Subject Of Matilda Joslyn Gage (1826-1898) 227 232 249 Sidebars: About the Author: Elizabeth Gaskell, excerpt from The Life of Charlotte Brontë, 1857 393 From the Author: Letter to Elizabeth Gaskell 398 From the Author: Letter to G H Lewes, November 1849 422 279 288 Emily Brontë 1818-1848 English novelist and poet Louisa May Alcott 1832-1888 American novelist, short story writer, and playwright Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Letter to the Editor of Woman’s Journal, May 1884 From the Author: “Happy Women,” in the New York Ledger, 11 April 1868 From the Author: Letter to Maria S Porter, 1874 297 299 299 301 319 330 302 310 325 432 440 458 English poet and translator English novelist Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Letter to James Stanier Clarke, 11 December 1815 From the Author: Excerpt from Plan of a Novel From the Author: Letter to James Stanier Clarke, April 1816 333 335 335 338 353 382 337 345 363 Charlotte Brontë 1816-1855 Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: From the Author: Excerpt from a letter to Henry Chorley, January 1845 From the Author: Excerpt from an untitled, unpublished essay From the Author: Excerpt from a letter to Mary Russell Mitford, 30 December 1844 467 469 469 473 488 501 471 477 488 Fanny Burney 1752-1840 English novelist and poet viii 429 431 431 432 441 464 Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1806-1861 Jane Austen 1775-1817 Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: About the Author: Harriet Martineau, excerpt from an obituary for Charlotte Brontë, Daily News, April 1855 About the Author: G H Lewes, excerpt from a review of Wuthering Heights and Agnes Grey, the Leader, 28 December 1850 About the Author: Charlotte Brontë, excerpt from a Preface to Wuthering Heights, 1847 English novelist, playwright, and diarist 385 387 387 393 405 427 Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading 503 505 505 508 516 538 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , V O L Author Index 545-549 Title Index 551-567 Subject Index 569-630 VOLUME English novelist, short story writer, essayist, and playwright Introduction 93 Principal Works 94 Primary Sources 95 General Commentary 98 Title Commentary 115 Further Reading 127 Sidebars: About the Author: Mitzi Myers, excerpt from “‘We Must Grant a Romance Writer a Few Impossibilities’: ‘Unnatural Incident’ and Narrative Motherhood in Maria Edgeworth’s Emilie de Coulanges,” in The Wordsworth Circle, Summer, 1996 99 George Eliot 1819-1880 English novelist, essayist, poet, editor, short story writer, and translator Kate Chopin 1851-1904 American novelist and short story writer Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary 34 Further Reading 44 Sidebars: About the Author: Willa Cather, excerpt from an essay in the Leader, July 1899 From the Author: Excerpt from “‘Is Love Divine?’ The Question Answered by Three Ladies Well Known in St Louis Society.” 13 Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: About the Author: Anonymous, excerpt from “Dreams,” The Overland Monthly, February 1892 From the Author: Excerpt from “Belles Lettres,” Westminster Review, 1867 129 130 130 132 143 165 132 134 Margaret Fuller 1810-1850 American essayist, critic, travel writer, translator, and poet Emily Dickinson 1830-1886 American poet Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: About the Author: Martha Dickinson Bianchi, excerpt from “The Editor’s Preface,” in The Single Hound: Poems of a Lifetime, by Emily Dickinson, 1914 On the Subject Of Review of Letters of Emily Dickinson, Philadelphia Public Ledger, December 1894 Maria Edgeworth 1768-1849 47 49 50 51 62 91 54 71 Introduction Principal Works Primary Sources General Commentary Title Commentary Further Reading Sidebars: About the Author: Vernon Louis Parrington, excerpt from “Margaret Fuller, Rebel” About the Author: Annette Kolodny, excerpt from “Inventing a Feminist Discourse: Rhetoric and Resistance in Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century,” New Literary History, spring, 1994 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , V O L 167 169 169 173 188 197 174 181 ix CONTENTS Sidebars: About the Author: Hester Lynch Thrale, excerpt from Thraliana: The Diary of Mrs Hester Lynch Thrale 508 From the Author: Excerpt from a letter to Suzy Burney, July 1778 516 WOLLSTONECRAFT SUSAN GUBAR (ESSAY DATE 1995) ABOUT THE AUTHOR WOLLSTONECRAFT’S HUSBAND WILLIAM GODWIN ON HER VINDICATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMAN, FROM 1798 Never did any author enter into a cause, with a more ardent desire to be found, not a flourishing and empty declaimer, but an effectual champion She considered herself as standing forth in defence of one half of the human species, labouring under a yoke which, through all the records of time, had degraded them from the station of rational beings, and almost sunk them to the level of the brutes She saw indeed, that they were often attempted to be held in silken fetters, and bribed into the love of slavery; but the disguise and the treachery served only the more fully to confirm her opposition She regarded her sex, in the language of Calista, as “In every state of life the slaves of man:” the rich as alternately under the despotism of a father, a brother, and a husband; and the middling and the poorer classes shut out from the acquisition of bread with independence, when they are not shut out from the very means of an industrious subsistence Such were the views she entertained of the subject; and such were the feelings with which she warmed her mind Godwin, William Excerpt from Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft, 1927 Reprint, edited by W Clark Durant, pp 53-4 New York: Haskell House, 1969 558 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L WOLLSTONECRAFT F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 559 WOLLSTONECRAFT 560 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L WOLLSTONECRAFT F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 561 WOLLSTONECRAFT 562 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L WOLLSTONECRAFT F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 563 WOLLSTONECRAFT 564 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L WOLLSTONECRAFT F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 565 WOLLSTONECRAFT 566 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L WOLLSTONECRAFT F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 567 WOLLSTONECRAFT 568 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L WOLLSTONECRAFT F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 569 WOLLSTONECRAFT FURTHER READING Criticism Bibliographies Todd, Janet M Mary Wollstonecraft: An Annotated Bibliography New York: Garland Publishers, 1976, 124 p Surveys criticism on Wollstonecraft from her contemporaries through the mid-1970s Windle, John Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, 1759-1797: A Bibliography of the First and Early Editions, with Briefer Notes on Later Editions and Translations New Castle, Del.: Oak Knoll Press, 2000, 71 p Contains entries covering the publishing history of Wollstonecraft’s major and minor works Biographies Flexner, Eleanor Mary Wollstonecraft: A Biography New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1972, 307 p Emphasizes the role of Wollstonecraft’s early life in the development of her ideas, but is somewhat critical of Wollstonecraft’s behavior; updates and corrects Ralph Wardle’s 1951 biography Jacobs, Diane Her Own Woman: The Life of Mary Wollstonecraft New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001, 333 p Uses new letters and sources to update Wollstonecraft’s biography; also discusses the lives and work of her daughters and the scope of her influence in women’s history Jump, Harriet Devine Mary Wollstonecraft, Writer New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994, 172 p Stresses the development of Wollstonecraft’s feminist thought in the context of the political atmosphere of her times, especially the growth of radicalism; also offers a complete overview of Wollstonecraft’s life as an author Rauschenbusch-Clough, Emma A Study of Mary Wollstonecraft and the Rights of Woman New York: Longmans, Green, 1898, 234 p Badowska, Ewa “The Anorexic Body of Liberal Feminism: Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 17, no (fall 1998): 283-303 Focuses on the intersection of the female body and political discourse as sites for constructing feminine identity in Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Barlowe, Jamie “Daring to Dialogue: Mary Wollstonecraft’s Rhetoric of Feminist Dialogics.” In Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women in the Rhetorical Tradition, edited by Andrea A Lunsford, pp 117-36 Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995 Examines Wollstonecraft’s use of different genres as an effort to engage in dialogue with the male-dominated intellectual tradition in the larger service of achieving the practical social ends of feminism Blakemore, Steven “Rebellious Reading: The Doubleness of Wollstonecraft’s Subversion of Paradise Lost.” Texas Studies in Language and Literature 34, no (winter 1992): 451-80 Claims that Wollstonecraft subverted the ideology of Paradise Lost by creating a picture of Eve that both sustains and undermines Wollstonecraft’s feminist myth Brody, Miriam “Mary Wollstonecraft: Sexuality and Women’s Rights.” In Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers, edited by Dale Spender, pp 40-59 New York: Pantheon Books, 1983 Considers Wollstonecraft’s view of sexuality and its implications for her feminist argument in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman ——— “The Vindication of the Writes of Women: Mary Wollstonecraft and Enlightenment Rhetoric.” In Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft, edited by Maria J Falco, pp 105-23 University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996 Contends that A Vindication of the Rights of Woman asserts women’s right to write polemically Links Wollstonecraft to the emerging thought of her time as well as the socialist writers who followed her; the first full-length study of Wollstonecraft Cole, Lucinda “(Anti)Feminist Sympathies: The Politics of Relationship in Smith, Wollstonecraft, and More.” ELH 58, no (spring 1991): 107-40 Todd, Janet Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000, 516 p Discusses the language of sympathy in Wollstonecraft’s works as compared with Adam Smith’s The Theory of Moral Sentiments and the works of Hannah More A scholarly but engaging biography from an important scholar of eighteenth-century women’s writing; details Wollstonecraft’s difficult family relationships, drawing primarily from Wollstonecraft’s letters Conger, Syndy M Mary Wollstonecraft and the Language of Sensibility Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994, 214 p Tomalin, Claire The Life and Death of Mary Wollstonecraft New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974, 316 p Addresses the apparent paradox of Wollstonecraft’s strong faith in reason and her intense emotionalism, applying modern critical insight from diverse fields including linguistics, psychology, and feminist theory Narrative biography recounting Wollstonecraft’s many personal quirks and failings as well as her drive and intellectual achievements; Tomalin is the author of several popular biographies of major writers including Jane Austen, Katherine Mansfield, and Samuel Pepys Wardle, Ralph Mary Wollstonecraft: A Critical Biography Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1951, 366 p Relies heavily on letters to tell the story of Wollstonecraft’s life, noting the course of her intellectual development; considered a milestone in twentieth-century scholarship on Wollstonecraft 570 D’Arcy, Chantal Cornut-Gentille “Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman as Generator of Differing Feminist Traditions.” Links and Letters (1995): 47-61 Relates Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to the development of modern feminist literary theory in its various aspects Ellison, Julie “Redoubled Feeling: Politics, Sentiment, and the Sublime in Williams and Wollstonecraft.” Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 20 (1990): 197-215 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L Gunther-Canada, Wendy “Mary Wollstonecraft’s ‘Wild wish’: Confounding Sex in the Discourse on Political Rights.” In Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft, edited by Maria J Falco, pp 61-84 University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996 Demonstrates how Wollstonecraft disputed the gender distinctions that excluded women from the discourse of political rights; examines both A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and her Vindication of the Rights of Men Guralnick, Elissa S “Radical Politics in Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” Studies in Burke and His Times 18, no (autumn 1977): 155-66 Argues that A Vindication of the Rights of Woman carries implications beyond feminism in that it is a “radical political tract” on the order of, though surpassing, A Vindication of the Rights of Men Harasym, S D “Ideology and Self: A Theoretical Discussion of the ‘Self’ in Mary Wollstonecraft’s Fiction.” English Studies in Canada 12, no (June 1986): 163-77 Examines the novel Maria; or, The Wrongs of Woman, contending that Wollstonecraft’s identification of herself with her protagonist complicated her portrayal of a utopian feminist ideology Homans, Margaret “Feminist Fictions and Feminist Theories of Narrative.” Narrative 2, no (January 1994): 3-16 Compares the ways in which Wollstonecraft’s Maria; or, The Wrongs of Woman and Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God comment on the narrative structures available to women Johnson, Claudia L “Mary Wollstonecraft.” In Equivocal Beings: Politics, Gender, and Sentimentality in the 1790s: Wollstonecraft, Radcliffe, Burney, Austen, p 239 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995 Considers the language of sentiment, particularly “excessive” feminine feeling, as a site of feminist struggle in Wollstonecraft’s writing ———, ed The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 284 p Collects several essays addressing Wollstonecraft’s views on women, education, and religion; contributors include Wollstonecraft scholars Janet Todd, Mitzi Myers, Vivien Jones, Anne K Mellor, Cora Kaplan, and others Jones, Vivien “Femininity, Nationalism, and Romanticism: The Politics of Gender in the Revolution Controversy.” History of European Ideas 16, nos 1-3 (1993): 299-305 Compares Helen Maria William’s Letters From France and Wollstonecraft’s Historical and Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution in terms of the construction of national, sexual, and literary identities Keane, Angela “Mary Wollstonecraft’s Imperious Sympathies: Population, Maternity, and Romantic Individualism.” In Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality, edited by Avril Horner and Angela Keane, pp 29-42 Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2000 Views Wollstonecraft’s feminism as a critique of capitalism as it enforced a mind-body split in women; focuses on images of motherhood in Wollstonecraft’s writing Mackenzie, Catriona “Reason and Sensibility: The Ideal of Women’s Self-Governance in the Writings of Mary Wollstonecraft.” Hypatia 8, no (fall 1993): 35-55 Examines the language of feeling and sentiment in Wollstonecraft’s writings as applied to women and the capacity for individual authority Maurer, Shawn Lisa “The Female (As) Reader: Sex Sensibility, and the Maternal in Wollstonecraft’s Fictions.” Essays in Literature 19, no (spring 1992): 36-54 Contends that Wollstonecraft attempted to develop an active subjectivity for women constituted in relation to a woman’s role as mother Myers, Mitzi “Pedagogy as Self-Expression in Mary Wollstonecraft: Exorcising the Past, Finding a Voice.” In The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women’s Autobiographical Writings, edited by Shari Benstock, pp 192210 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988 Applies a feminist approach and theory of autobiography to reading Wollstonecraft’s autobiographical writings as well as her fiction; addresses the female struggle to craft an identity in writing ——— “Sensibility and the ‘Walk of Reason’: Mary Wollstonecraft’s Literary Reviews as Cultural Critique.” In Sensibility in Transformation: Creative Resistance to Sentiment from the Augustans to the Romantics; Essays in Honor of Jean H Hagstrum, edited by Syndy McMillen Conger, pp 120-44 Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990 Examines Wollstonecraft’s writings for the Analytical Review as attempts to develop her unique voice as a theorist of gender, particularly as she attempts to combine sensibility and reason into a broader humanism Paulson, Ronald “Burke, Paine, and Wollstonecraft: The Sublime and the Beautiful.” In Representations of Revolution (1789-1820), pp 57-87 New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983 Examines Wollstonecraft’s Rights of Men as an answer to Burke, focusing on Wollstonecraft’s critique of feminine beauty as a tyrannical concept Poovey, Mary “Mary Wollstonecraft: The Gender of Genres in Eighteenth-Century England.” Novel 15, no (winter 1982): 111-26 Delineates Wollstonecraft’s central ambivalence in Maria; or, The Wrongs of Woman ——— “Man’s Discourse, Woman’s Heart: Mary Wollstonecraft’s Two Vindications.” In The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology and Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen, pp 48-81 Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1984 Posits that Wollstonecraft’s life and work indicate an unresolved conflict between the author’s belief in female autonomy and her continuing adherence to traditional bourgeois cultural roles Robinson, Daniel “Theodicy versus Feminist Strategy in Mary Wollstonecraft’s Fiction.” Eighteenth-Century Fiction 9, no (January 1997): 183-202 F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L 571 WOLLSTONECRAFT Compares Helen Maria Williams’s Letters from France to Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, noting the relationship between politics and the language of feeling WOLLSTONECRAFT Contrasts the ways in which Wollstonecraft attempts to reconcile her feminism and her religious faith in Mary, A Fiction and Maria; or, The Wrongs of Woman Compares Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to Thomas Paine’s The Rights of Man, emphasizing the treatment of radicalism Sapiro, Virginia A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992, 366 p Woolf, Virginia “Four Figures.” In Collected Essays Vol III, pp 181-206 New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1967 Describes Wollstonecraft’s views on women as part of a fully developed political philosophy; links Wollstonecraft’s thought to modern debates on liberal democracy Characterizes Wollstonecraft’s life, work, and influence, focusing on the writer’s passion and originality Shanley, Mary Lyndon “Mary Wollstonecraft on Sensibility, Women’s Rights, and Patriarchal Power.” In Women Writers and the Early Modern British Political Tradition, edited by Hilda L Smith, pp 148-67 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998 Explores Wollstonecraft’s discussion of the relationship between domestic and political patriarchy; focuses on A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and the novel Maria; or, The Wrongs of Woman Taylor, G R Stirling Mary Wollstonecraft: A Study in Economics and Romance John Lane, 1911, 210 p A very admiring early study of Wollstonecraft’s work and thought, with attention to the condition of women in Wollstonecraft’s time and the ongoing need for improvement in women’s rights Wilson, Anna “Mary Wollstonecraft and the Search for the Radical Woman.” Genders (November 1989): 88-101 572 Yeo, Eileen James, ed Mary Wollstonecraft and 200 Years of Feminisms London: Rivers Oram Press, 1997, 276 p Contains essays addressing Wollstonecraft’s influence on modern feminism and surveying the history of Wollstonecraft’s reputation and critical interpretations of her work OTHER SOURCES FROM GALE: Additional coverage of Wollstonecraft’s life and career is contained in the following sources published by the Gale Group: British Writers Supplement, Vol 3; Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography, 1789-1832; Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vols 39, 104, 158, 252; Feminist Writers; Literature and Its Times, Vol 1; Literature Criticism from 1400-1800, Vols 5, 50, 90; Literature Resource Center; Reference Guide to English Literature, Ed 2; Twayne’s English Authors; and World Literature and Its Times, Vol F E M I N I S M I N L I T E R AT U R E : A G A L E C R I T I C A L C O M PA N I O N , VO L .. .FEMINISM IN LITERATURE A Gale Critical Companion GALE CRITICAL COMPANION ADVISORY BOARD Barbara M Bibel Librarian Oakland Public Library Oakland, California Mary Jane Marden Collection... Library Williamsburg, Virginia FEMINISM IN LITERATURE A Gale Critical Companion Volume 1: Antiquity 18 th Century, Topics & Authors Foreword by Amy Hudock, Ph D University of South Carolina Jessica. .. Friendship with Edna Millay,” Critical Essays on Edna St Vincent Millay, 19 93 Joyce Carol Oates 19 38 17 9 18 0 18 1 18 1 19 2 19 9 18 6 19 4 Marianne Moore 18 87 -19 72 American poet, essayist, translator,
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