Research methods in educational management ann r j briggs (1)

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RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT Education at SAGE SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets Our education publishing includes: accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field Find out more at: www.sagepub.co.uk/education 3RD EDITION RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT Edited by ANN R J BRIGGS, MARIANNE COLEMAN & MARLENE MORRISON Editorial Material © Ann R.J Briggs, Marianne Coleman and Marlene Morrison 2012 Foreword © Robert Burgess 2012 Chapter © Ann R.J Briggs, Marianne Coleman and Marlene Morrison 2012 Chapter © Marlene Morrison 2012 Chapter © Margaret Grogan and Juanita M Cleaver Simmons 2012 Chapter © David Stephens 2012 Chapter © Jacqui Weetman DaCosta 2012 Chapter © Tony Bush 2012 Chapter © Hugh Busher and Nalita James 2012 Chapter © David Scott 2012 Chapter © Mary F Hibberts and R Burke Johnson 2012 Chapter 10 © Daniel Muijs 2012 Chapter 11 © Michael Bassey 2012 Chapter 12 © Rachel Lofthouse, Elaine Hall and Kate Wall 2012 Chapter 13 © Clive Dimmock and Martha Lam 2012 Chapter 14 © Marlene Morrison 2012 Chapter 15 © Alan Floyd 2012 Chapter 16 © Jacky Lumby 2012 Chapter 17 © Marianne Coleman 2012 Chapter 18 © Judith Bell and Pam Woolner 2012 Chapter 19 © Anna Vignoles and Shirley Dex 2012 Chapter 20 © Tanya Fitzgerald 2012 Chapter 21 © Jane Perryman 2012 Chapter 22 © Marlene Morrison 2012 Chapter 23 © Pauline Dixon and Pam Woolner 2012 Chapter 24 © Daniel Muijs 2012 Chapter 25 © Rob Watling, Veronica James and Ann R.J Briggs 2012 Chapter 26 © Ann R.J Briggs 2012 First published 2012 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers All material on the accompanying website can be printed off and photocopied by the purchaser/user of the book The web material itself may not be reproduced in its entirety for use by others without prior written permission from SAGE The web material may not be distributed or sold separately from the book without the prior written permission of SAGE Should anyone wish to use the materials from the website for conference purposes, they would require separate permission from us All material is © Ann R.J Briggs, 2012 SAGE Publications Ltd Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B 1/I Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road New Delhi 110 044 SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd Church Street #10-04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Library of Congress Control Number: 2011938814 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-4462-0043-8 ISBN 978-1-4462-0044-5 (pbk) Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY Printed on paper from sustainable resources Contents Notes on contributors Foreword Robert Burgess Introduction Ann R.J Briggs, Marianne Coleman and Marlene Morrison PART A: THE CONCEPT OF RESEARCH Understanding methodology Marlene Morrison Taking a critical stance in research Margaret Grogan and Juanita M Cleaver Simmons The role of culture in interpreting and conducting research David Stephens Reviewing educational literature Jacqui Weetman DaCosta Authenticity in research: reliability, validity and triangulation Tony Bush The ethical framework of research practice Hugh Busher and Nalita James PART B: APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Research design: frameworks, strategies, methods and technologies David Scott Mixed methods research Mary F Hibberts and R Burke Johnson 10 Surveys and sampling Daniel Muijs 11 Case studies Michael Bassey 12 Practitioner research Rachel Lofthouse, Elaine Hall and Kate Wall 13 Grounded theory research Clive Dimmock and Martha Lam 14 Ethnography Marlene Morrison 15 Narrative and life history Alan Floyd 16 Learner voice in educational leadership research Jacky Lumby PART C: RESEARCH TOOLS 17 Interviews Marianne Coleman 18 Developing and using questionnaires Judith Bell and Pam Woolner 19 Making use of existing data Anna Vignoles and Shirley Dex 20 Documents and documentary analysis Tanya Fitzgerald 21 Discourse analysis Jane Perryman 22 Reflection as research: using diaries and blogs Marlene Morrison PART D: ANALYSING AND PRESENTING DATA 23 Quantitative data analysis: using SPSS Pauline Dixon and Pam Woolner 24 Advanced quantitative data analysis Daniel Muijs 25 Qualitative data analysis: using NVivo Rob Watling and Veronica James with Ann R.J Briggs 26 Academic writing Ann R.J Briggs Author Index Subject Index Notes on Contributors Professor Michael Bassey is now retired, but still active His formal academic career ended as Professor of Education at Nottingham Trent University Elected Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences in 2001, he has published extensively in the fields of education, research, environment and sustainability He lives in Nottinghamshire Dr Judith Bell is now retired but has worked as a college lecturer, head of department and vice-principal, as a lecturer in several universities, as a course team writer in the Open University and as one of Her Majesty’s Inspectors specialising in further and higher education Dr Ann R.J Briggs is Emeritus Professor of Educational Leadership at Newcastle University, UK She has published on research methods, middle leadership, 14–19 education and management structures in post-compulsory institutions Ann is a past Chair of British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society (BELMAS) and is currently National Secretary of New Zealand Educational Administration and Leadership Society (NZEALS), having retired to New Zealand in 2009 Professor Sir Robert Burgess is Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leicester He has engaged in a wide range of research, writing and teaching on research methods in the Social Sciences He was Director of the Centre for Educational Development, Appraisal and Research (CEDAR) at the University of Warwick from 1987 to 1999 Professor Tony Bush is Chair of Educational Leadership at the University of Warwick, UK, and Visiting Professor of Education at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa He has published more than 30 books and 70 articles in refereed journals He is the editor of the leading international journal, Educational Management, Administration and Leadership Dr Hugh Busher is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Education, University of Leicester, with extensive experience of teaching and examining at Masters and Doctoral level He is currently researching students’ and teachers’ perspectives on education, and teaches courses on research methods and on leadership, inclusive schooling and learning communities Office of National Statistics (ONS) 68, 288, 291 Ofsted 315 online repositories 68 online research blogs 327 data collection 117 diaries 332–3, 334 ethical issues 94, 96–7 ethnographic 218 interviews 218, 257–8 invisibility in 92 non-response 148 questionnaires 147, 274–5 systematic reviews 69 see also virtual ethnography ontic fallacy 109 ontology 15, 20, 30, 107, 109, 110, 172f, 230 open access movement 73 open coding 197, 198 open-ended questions 149, 227, 253 open-source journals 66 opinions 408 opportunity sampling 195 ordinal regression 371–2 ordinal variables 342, 350 in multiple linear regression 367 Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 292–3 organisational path, leadership influence organisational sociology 207 originality of research 391, 404 other 37 outcome variables 365 outliers 347, 351–2 outsider researchers 39 ownership, of research 92, 96–7, 173, 174 P p-value 354, 355, 356, 366, 370 panoptic performativity 312 Panopticon 32 paradigm emphasis 127, 128 paradigmatic mixing validity 134 paradigms 16–26, 29–30, 30–1, 50, 107 parallel sample relation 131–2 parametric methods 356–7 paraphrasing 72 parsimony, statistical modelling 364 participant experience 217–18 participant observation 21, 241 ethnography 206, 213 reliability 80 validity 83 participant observers 115–16 participatory paradigm 30 participatory research 34, 37, 56 partitioning variables 393 patterns, noting 393 Pearson correlation 359–61 peer debriefing 202 peer-reviewed sources 62, 66 pencil-and-paper questionnaires 147, 148 personal data, storage 94–5, 99 phenomenologically-based interviews 253 phenomenology 16, 20, 21 philosophical positions 16 photographs 25, 212, 270 picture-drawing 159, 160–1 pie charts 351 piloting 80, 152–3, 276–7 plagiarism 72 plan, do, review 174 PLASC (Pupil Level School Census) 286 plausibility 393 political validity 134 Polytomous Universal Model (PLUM) 371 portals (Internet) 67 positive response bias 150–1 positive skew 346f, 347 positivism 16–18 see also anti-positivism; post-positivism positivist research and quantitative research 18–20 research design 107–9 triangulation 85 US funding 50 validity 82, 83 post-diary interviews 335 post-positivism 30 postcolonial theory 31, 38–9 postmodern feminist stance 33–4 postmodernism 16, 21, 31–2, 37, 108 poststructuralism 31–2, 37 power 32 ethics of 97–9 interview research 262–3 power relations 95, 237, 238, 240, 244, 313 power-knowledge 310 practical approach practical ethnography 211 practitioner research 170–86 collaborative 171f, 183–5 data collection 178–83 defined 172–4 different levels of 171f ethics 99–101, 173 individual 171f institution-wide development 171f, 184–5 knowledges and approaches to 172f ownership 173, 174 professional learning environment 171–2 research questions 175–8 school improvement 170–1 and student outcome undertaking 99–101 see also action research pragmatic paradigm 30 pragmatism 124–5 praxis 37 pre-diary interviews 335 preconceptions 116 prediction 18, 161 predictors 365 presentation academic writing 400 analysed data 406–7 of new insights 404 of questionnaires 270–1, 272–3 research findings 401 presuming questions 269–70 ‘pretend’ ethnography 210 primary data 212 primary sources 298, 299–300 print resources, obtaining 69–70 probabilities, in ordinal regression 371–2 probability sampling 143–5, 407 probes 252, 256 probity, tests of 167, 168f process, cross-cultural research 58 process theory 189 process-oriented questions 191 professional discourse 310–11 profiles, narrative 133, 229–30 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 171 Pseudo R2 measures 371 PsychINFO 66 psychoanalytic interviews 253 psychological stress 93t publication, ethics 99 purposive sampling 195, 226, 259, 260 Q qualitative data from diaries 334 interpretation 135 qualitative data analysis 381–95 analytical writing in 401 and culture 48 documentary see documentary analysis methods and methodology 384–5 in mixed research 133 six elements of 385 data collection and storage 388–90 data reduction and sampling 390 defining and identifying 386–8 reporting and writing up research 394–5 structuring and coding data 391–2 theory building and theory testing 392–4 systems and software 325, 383 qualitative dominant sequential design 129 qualitative research case study 56 feminist 34 holistic picture in 24 inimical attitude to 50–1 interpretivism and 23–5 interviews 23, 259 longitudinal element 24 observation in 24 postcolonial theory 39 queer theory 37 reliability 76 sampling 132 strengths and weakness 124t validity 76, 82, 83, 135 see also case studies; documentary research qualitisation 133 quality assurance, surveys 151–2 Quality Education Project 54–8 quantitative data accuracy 344 coding 344 diaries 334 ethical presentation 99 interpretation 135 types 341–2 quantitative data analysis advanced 363–79 logistic regression 369–71 multilevel modelling 372–5 multiple linear regression 364–9 ordinal regression 371–2 statistical modelling 363–4 structural equation modelling 375–9 in mixed research 133 using SPSS 340–62 bivariate analysis 353–61 handling 343–4 univariate analysis 345–53 quantitative research appropriacy of design 130 feminist 34 misconceptions, misunderstandings and inflated claims 342–3 positivism and 18–20 reliability 76 sampling 132 strengths and weaknesses 123t US funding 50 validity 76, 134–5 quantitisation 133 queer theory 31, 36–8 questionnaires 19, 266–79 checking and considering presentation 272–3 checklist when planning 278–9 discourse analysis 316–17 distinguished from structured interviews 251–2 distributing 277 identifying priorities 267–8 importance of wording 268–72 non-response 148 online 147, 274–5 pencil-and-paper 147, 148 piloting 276–7 producing reports or dissertations 277–8 question order and appearance 274 questions or statements 273–4 reliability in 77 respondents’ rights 275–6 see also research questions; surveys quota sampling 144 quotations 72 use of 390 R race theory, critical 31, 34–6 radical relativism 108, 109 random sampling 132, 143–4, 372 randomised experiments 111–12 range 349, 350 rank variables 361 rapprochement 50 rating scales 149, 150, 151, 152, 342 rational path, leadership influence rationale, mixed research design 130–1 rationalism 50 raw data 196–7, 352 re-description/evaluation 22 realism 107–9 realist ontology 20 reality 15, 20, 21, 22, 30, 34, 107, 312 reciprocal borrowing agreements 70 recording interviews 254–5, 262 records, computerised 302 reference books 64 reference management software 71, 72 referencing 72, 408 referential adequacy 202 reflection as research see blogs; diaries reflexivity 34, 37, 47, 50, 53–4, 210, 230 The Registry of Open Access Repositories 68 regression see logistic regression; multiple linear regression; ordinal regression regression coefficient 366 regularities 17 reliability 69, 86 case studies 78–81 definition 76 documentary research 80–1, 298 in interviews 79 narrative research 230 observation 79–80 in surveys 77–8 repeat cross-section data 284–5 replication 84 reports see research reports repositories 68 representation 116, 210 representational realism 107 representativeness 19, 301–2 research foundations 30–1 see also educational research research bargain 226 research designs 106–19 appropriacy 130 characteristics 109–11 cultural approach 52 diaries 329 focus and purpose 6–7 grounded theory 190 method 117 mixed method 127–9 positivism/empiricism 107–9 qualitative 24 strategies 111–16 surveys 145–51 research findings paring down 400 presentation 401 research informants see research participants research issues 163–4 research objectives case studies 162–4 grounded theory 191 mixed research design 130 survey designs 145–6 research outcomes case studies 167 statistical 99 research participants creating collaborative cultures among 92–7 diaries 327–9 ethical issues 93t, 94–5, 99, 100 see also interviewees; respondents research problems 163 GT studies 191 research questions case studies 164 GT studies 191–2 interviews 252 online 117 practitioner research 175–8 standpoint feminist research 33 surveys 141, 148–51 see also questionnaires research reports diaries 334 from questionnaires 277–8 mixed research 135–6 qualitative data 394–5 using databases to find 65–7 see also academic writing; case reports researchers accountability 37, 53 centrality 210, 314 cross-cultural research 58 diaries 324–7 ethics see ethics insider 4, 100 key questions for 14–15 as leaders of research project communities 97–9 outsider 39 qualitative 24 see also interviewers residuals 368–9 respect 157, 168f respondent triangulation 85 respondent validation 83 respondents rights, questionnaires 275–6 see also non-respondents; research participants rich data 390 rich description 24, 217 risk of harm 93t Root Mean Square Error of Approximation 378 RSS feed 71 rubrics 97, 98f rules 90–1, 97, 98t, 117 S sample integration validity 134 sample relationships 131–2 sample size GT studies 195 narrative/life history approach 226 sampling 143 GT studies 194–6 interviews 259–60 methods non-probability 145 probability sampling 143–5 mixed research design 131–2 narrative and life history research 226 non-response 148 qualitative data 390 saturation 195, 213, 390 scale variables 342, 350 scatter diagrams 357–9 scientific knowledge 17 SCONUL Access Scheme 70 search engines, using 63–4, 73 search strategies 63–4 searching electronic databases 65–7 Internet 67–8 online tutorials 73 secondary data 212 secondary data analysis 282–3 secondary sources 298, 299 secure environments 96, 98–9, 101 selective coding 196, 197, 198, 199 self-administered surveys 78 self-appointed experts 256 self-completion questionnaires 252 self-reflection 240 semi-structured interviews 78, 79, 115, 227, 252, 262 sense data 108, 109 sensitising concepts 24 sensitive topics 93t sensitivity, in research 37, 47, 152, 250, 258 sequential validity 134 serial code 389 shared diaries 332 simple random sampling 143–4 single case studies 84 singularities 84 skewed distribution 346f, 347, 350 Skype 254 snowball sampling 226, 260 social category diversity 255–6 ‘social mosaic’ approach 206 social structures 97 social surveys 291 Social Trends 291, 292 socialization, online interviews 258 software packages multilevel modelling 373 qualitative data analysis 325, 383 reference management 71, 72 structural equation modelling 377 see also NVivo; SPSS specialist data 68 specialist terminology 408 spiritualist stance 36 SPSS 274, 282, 285, 340–62, 373 bivariate analysis 353–61 handling data 343–4 univariate analysis 345–53 standard deviation 347, 349–50 standardisation 140 standardised regression coefficients 366, 378 standpoint, feminism 32–3 Statistical Abstract 68 statistical generalisations 84 statistical modelling 363–4 statistical packages see Excel; SPSS statistical significance 353–6 statistics 68 see also quantitative data stereotypes/stereotyping 22–3, 36, 53, 258 ‘stop-go’ cards 240 story-telling 159–60, 401 storylines, GT research 199–200 stratified random sampling 144 structural equation modelling example 377–9 reasons for using 375–7 structural ethnography 211 structure, in writing 405–6 structured diaries 325–6 structured interviews 251–2 structured observation 19 student voice see learner voice ‘Students as Researchers’ project 243–4 sub-sections (writing) 406 subject perspective 20, 23 subject reference books 64 subjective reality 190, 210 subjectivity 31, 33 subjects of study, learners as 239 supplementing data 230 surveillance, of CMC 96 surveys advantages 141 cross-sectional 19 data collection 112, 147–8 defined 140 epistemological foundations 142–3 example 142 invalidity 82–3 limitations 141 online 275 piloting and testing 152–3 quality assurance 151–2 reliability in 77–8 research designs 112–13 question types 148–51 stages 145–8 sampling see sampling time budget 330 see also questionnaires symbolic interactionism 19–20, 21, 190 synchronous discussion 333 synchronous online interviews 218, 257, 258 syndoche 214 synthesis (data) 135 systematic GT 190, 191 systematic review 69 Szalai system 330 T t-tests 356–7, 358t ‘tabula rasa’ assumption 108 technical studies technology 72 technophobia 147 telephone interviews 147, 254, 257 ‘test-retest’ procedure 77 tests of probity 167, 168f textual analysis 24, 33, 302 textual data 217 thematic analysis 228, 302 themes 393, 406 theoretical complexity 172 theoretical generalisations 211 theoretical sampling 195, 196 theoretical triangulation 85 theoretical will 219 theory(ies) 17, 31, 108 theory building 383, 392–4 theory development 114 theory seeking 161 theory testing 84, 161, 392–4 therapeutic interviews 253 theses 67, 78, 400 third spaces 95–6 third-person stance 408 tick-box schedules 227 time budget surveys 330 time orientation 127, 128, 132 time series data 285, 288–9, 291 Times Educational Supplement 66 Times Higher Educational Supplement 66 training, in educational research transcription interview data 257, 262 narrative data 228–9 transferability 202, 211 transformative research 30–1, 37 triangulation 83, 84–6 mixed research design 130 narrative research 230 post-diary interviews 335 triple questions 271–2 truncation 63–4 trust 96–7, 100, 243 trustworthiness 81, 82, 158, 168f, 202 truth(s) 31, 108, 125, 311 tweeting 323 U UNESCO 51, 291 United Nations 292 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 94 univariate analysis 345–53 unstructured interviews 78, 79, 252–3, 262 utilitarian approach 94 V validity 86 definition 81–2 internet sources 64 mixed research designs 134–5 narrative research 230 through triangulation 86, 230 types of 82–4 value-driven learning communities, projects as 91–2 value-free research 19 values 18, 108, 116 variables 18, 19, 341–2 see also continuous variables; dependent variables; dummy variables; independent variables; rank variables variance 357, 374–5 verifiability 69, 82 verstehen 23 video images 25 video-link interviews 254 viewpoints 50, 107, 116 virtual ethnography 216–18, 332 visual clues, in interviews 256 visual data 217 visual presentation, questionnaires 270–1 volunteer sampling 145 vulnerability, in participatory research 237–8 vulnerable groups 93t, 94 W warranted assertability 124–5 weakness minimisation validity 134 weblogs see blogs websites 226, 399–40 wedges 239, 242 Western colonialism/hegemony 38 Western culture, educational research and 49–51 Western feminist researchers 263 whiskers 351 Wikipedia 64 Wilcoxon test 357 wildcards 64 word limits, academic writing 409–10 World Bank 292 World Development Report 292 writing reflexive 327 see also academic writing; research reports Y Yearbook of Labour Statistics 292 Yearbook of the United Nations 292 YouTube 73 Z ZETOC 66–7 Zetoc Alert 71 Zotero 71 ... Africa He is particularly interested in the role of culture in the research process and is currently writing a book on narrative in the research process Professor Anna Vignoles is a Professor in. .. from sustainable resources Contents Notes on contributors Foreword Robert Burgess Introduction Ann R. J Briggs, Marianne Coleman and Marlene Morrison PART A: THE CONCEPT OF RESEARCH Understanding... Chapter 25 © Rob Watling, Veronica James and Ann R. J Briggs 2012 Chapter 26 © Ann R. J Briggs 2012 First published 2012 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or
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