A STUDY ON TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY M.A THESIS A STUDY ON TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY (KHẢO SÁT CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM CẤU TẠO TỪ CỦA THUẬT NGỮ Y HỌC TIẾNG ANH) HOANG THI HAN Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Hanoi, 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY M.A THESIS A STUDY ON TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY (KHẢO SÁT CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM CẤU TẠO TỪ CỦA THUẬT NGỮ Y HỌC TIẾNG ANH) HOANG THI HAN Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Assoc Prof., Dr Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong HANOI, 2018 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled “A study on typical features of word formation in English medical terminology” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2018 Hoang Thi Han Approved by SUPERVISOR Assoc Pro., Dr Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Ph.D Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, who has patiently supported me through the stages of the study, and whose stimulating ideas, expertise, and suggestions have inspired me greatly through my growth as an academic researcher I would like to express my gratitude to other lecturers for the useful comments, remarks and engagement through the learning process of this master thesis Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis This accomplishment would not have been possible without them Thank you ii ABSTRACT The study is carried out to investigate typical features of word formation in English medical terminology The main purpose of the study is word formation but besides that it also looks into if the word formation affects the syntactic semantic (the use of prefix and suffix) of the word or not The study is limited to 396 terminologies which were taken from the two chapters: 3, and of the book Medicine and Surgery After being collected, 396 terminologies are described and analyzed by descriptive method and then classified into groups of semantic features The writer also conducts a qualitative research as a description of data from the source Data analysis techniques used are collecting, analyzing and classifying Morphological features are presented through ways of creating terminology and types of English medical terminology The study will be conducted through three steps: first, data are collected from the chosen materials and other references; then, the data are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to figure out the typical features of word formation in English medical terminology; finally, the results are classified and presented in form of tables, after that the rate of typical ways of word formations are shown in the diagrams The findings of the study on typical features of word formation in English medical terminology would be a great contribution to help the learners at Nam Dinh university of Nursing to use medical terminology in general and read the foreign documents effectively in particular The findings are also helpful to the readers with translating English medical terminology while reading medical documents iii LIST OF TABLES AND DIAGRAMS Diagram 1: Derivative medical terminologies in English 37 Diagram 2: Popularity of suffixes in derivative medical terminologies in English 37 Diagram 3: Kinds of suffixes in derivative medical terminologies in English 40 Diagram 4: Kinds of compound in medical terminologies in English 41 Diagram 5: Shortenings in medical terminologies in English 42 Table 3.1: Kinds of suffixes in derivative medical terminologies in English 38 Table 3.2.1 Main types of meanings .46 Table 3.2.2 Terminology meanings 47 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study 1.3 Research questions .3 1.4 Methods of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Design of the study .4 Chapter 2.LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Previous studies 2.2 An over view of word and word formation 2.2.1 Word 2.2.2 Word Formation 2.3 Morpheme 2.4 Affixes 10 2.5 Concept of Derivation and Inflection 11 2.6 Concept of Derivation without Affix 13 2.7 The transpositions which happen due to the process of derivation according to Rozelin (2011) 14 2.8 Compound 16 2.9 Shortenings 18 2.10 Definition of terminology 19 2.11 Main features of terminology 20 2.11.1 Accurateness 20 2.11.2 Systematism 21 2.11.3 Internationalism 21 2.11.4 Nationalism 22 2.11.5 Popularity 22 2.12 The creation of terminology .22 2.13 The distinction between terminology and word .23 2.14 Definition of medical terminology 23 v 2.15 Main features of medical terminology .25 2.15.1 Synonymous character of medical terminology 26 2.15.2 Eponyms in medical terminology 28 2.15.3 The structure of medical terminology of Greek-Latin origin and their adaptation in medical terminology 29 2.15.4 Word-formation principles of medical terminology of Greek-Latin origin 29 2.15.5 Adaptation of medical terms of Greek-Latin origin in medical terminology 30 2.16 English for specific purpose .31 2.17 Summary 33 Chương 3.MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC FEATURE OF ENGLISH MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 34 3.1 Morphological features of English medical terminology 34 3.1.1 Typical ways of forming medical terminologies in English 34 3.1.1.1 Affixes 34 3.1.1.2 Compound words 40 3.1.1.3 Shortenings 41 3.1.1.4 Back-formation 43 3.1.1.5 Conversion or functional shift 43 3.1.1.6 Semantic shift .43 3.1.2 Borrowing words .44 3.1.3 Creating from scratch 44 3.2 Semantic features of English medical terminology 45 3.2.1 Meaning and meaning perspectives 45 3.2.2 Classification of English medical terminologies in terms of semantics 47 Chapter 4.TEACHING AND LEARNING TRANSLATING ENGLISH MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY .50 4.1 Subjects 50 4.2 Tasks 52 4.2.1 For teaching English medical terminologies 52 4.2.2 For learning English medical terminologies 53 4.3 Procedures 53 4.4 Data collection 53 4.5 Difficulties 53 vi 4.5.1 Word formation .53 4.5.2 Translation .58 Chapter 5.CONCLUSION 68 5.1 Recapitulation 68 5.2 Concluding remarks 70 5.3 Limitation of the study .70 5.4 Implications for teaching and learning English medical terminology .70 5.5 Recommendations for further studies 71 REFERENCE 72 vii Chapter INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale Theoretically, medical terminology is a topic which has been interested in by many scientists and researchers In the word, there are many researchers investigating characteristics of English medical terminology in some aspects such as: An Introduction to Medical Terminology - Greek and Latin Derivations by George L Banay, Ph.D, Librarian, Worcester State Hospital, Worcester, Mass PhDr Božena Džuganova, Comenius University had an article about – different ways of forming medical terms Anna BROWNE (Akademia im Jana Długosza Częstochowie) wrote an article about “selected medical translation problems” in 2016 Other researchers have carried out researches about translation English medical terminology into different languages In Vietnam, the dissertation “Khảo sát thuật ngữ y học tiếng Anh cách phiên chuyển sang tiếng Việt” was carried out by Vuong Thi Thu Minh Many articles about word formation of English medical terminology have also written by Nguyen Phuoc Vinh Co and his partners In recent years, there has been an increase in the amount of studies on medical terminology Many of which have had considerable contribution to the improvement of health care However, studies on English medical terminology seem not to have fulfilled the need of this area, the reason for this deficiency, as consider before, is that the number of terminologies is huge As a matter of fact, in the process of using medical terminologies not only doctors, nurses or specialists in health care but also especially medical learners who want to learn them for their learning have difficulties in thoroughly understanding medical terminology 17 RSI .………………………………………………………………… 18 SAD ………………………………………………………………………… 19 SIDS ………………………………………………………………………… 20 STI …………….……… …………………………………………………… 21 TB .…………………………………………………………………… 22 TBI .………………………………………………………………… 23 UV .…………………………………………………………………… 24 CPR ………………………………………………………………………… 25 WHO ………………………………………………………………………… Matching In this exercise, students are required to match terms with their definitions or explanation This exercise gives students a set of definitions or explanations and asks them to find out the term standing for these definitions or explanations Teachers may take the terms from a reading text in the lessons This exercise aids student in practicing equivalent finding skills Task Each of the words in the left-hand column contains a word part that matches one of the definitions in the right hand column Write the letter of the answer that best fits into the left-hand column No1 is completed as an example o antipsychotic a in the shape of polycystic b without acephaly tenosynovitis d abnormally low myotrophy e nutrition laryngoscope f self dysgnosia g outside of c enlargement 60 decontamination h inflammation chyliform i instrument for viewing 10 autoinfection j abnormal 11 cardiomegaly k between 12 extrasensory l away from 13 intercerebral m condition 14 osteoporosis n many 15 hyposthenia o against Task Build a word for each of the following definitions Disease of the heart muscle Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart X-ray of a vein Inflammation of a vein Operation for reconstruction of an artery A disease involving both nerves and blood vessels Enlargement of the heart Inflammation of the artery with a thrombus Relating to the heart and lungs 10 Establishing an opening into the pericardium 11 Inflammation of the endocardium 12 Repair of a vein 13 Inflammation of the inner layer of the heart: 14 Abnormally slow heart rate: 61 15 Disease of the heart muscle: 16 Abnormally enlarged heart: 17 Viewing the aorta by x-ray with contrast: 18 Using sound waves to produce images of the heart (structure and motion): 19 An electrical tracing of the heart conduction system: 20 Unusually rapid, fast heart rate: 21 Hardening of the arteries: 22 Study of the heart: 23 Abnormally low body temperature: 24 Study of blood: 25 Pertaining to the heart: 26 Instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart: 27 Radiographic imaging of a blood vessel: 28 Process of recording the electrical activity of the heart: 29 Incision into a vein: 30 Inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart: Task Give the abbreviation for each of the followings Left lower lobe(of the lung) Left upper lobe(of the lung) acute respriatory disease auscultation and percussion metered dose inhaler severe acute respiratory syndrome 62 shortness of breath sudden infant death syndrome Upper respiratory infection Task Give the meaning for each of the following abbreviations ARF BS COLD CPR CXR ABG DPT ENT HBOT _ 10 RD _ 11 RDS 12 T & A _ 13 TB 14 TPR Task Put the letter of the correct definition in the space provided pneumothorax a runny nose hyperpnea b whooping cough CPR c inflammation of the adenoids 63 Abdominal thrust maneuver spirometer d voice box e saliva and mucus from the lung rhinorrhea f air sacs sputum g instrument for measuring breathing alveoli h inflammation of the parasinuses larynx i cardiopulmonary resuscitation 10 epiglottis j air in the pleura 11 parasinusitis k abnormally fast breathing 12 nasopharynx l Heimlich maneuver 13 pertussis m removal of a lung 14 pneumonectomy n flap of cartilage 15 adenoiditis o just above the soft palate Task Define the following abbreviations ADH ……………………………………………………………… pH ……………………………………………………………… CAPD ……………………………………………………………… VCU ……………………………………………………………… HD ……………………………………………………………… PKU ……………………………………………………………… BUN ……………………………………………………………… KUB ……………………………………………………………… ESWL ……………………………………………………………… 64 10 UTI …………………………………………………………… 11 RP ……………………………………………………………… Task Read the descriptions below and match them to the names of the illnesses in the box on the right An infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract allergic rhinitis with fever and muscular aches, which is transmitted coryza infectious parotitis by a virus and can occur in epidemics ………………………………………………………… influenza A common infectious viral disease of children, with pertussis mild fever, swollen lymph nodes and a rash It can cause stillbirth or malformation of an unborn baby if the mother catches the disease while pregnant rubella rubeola varicella ……………………………………………………………… An illness, with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which someone sneezes and coughs and has a blocked and running nose …………………………………………………………………………………… An infectious disease of children, caused by a herpes virus, and characterised by fever and red spots which turn to itchy blisters …………………………………………………………………………………… An infectious disease of children where the body is covered with a red rash It can weaken the body's resistance to other disease, especially bronchitis and ear infections If caught by an adult it can be very serious …………………………………………………………………………………… An infectious disease of children, with fever and swellings in the salivary glands, caused by a paramyxovirus 65 …………………………………………………………………………………… An infectious disease affecting the bronchial tubes, common in children and sometimes very serious The patient coughs very badly and makes a characteristic 'whoop' when inhaling after a coughing fit …………………………………………………………………………………… Inflammation in the nose and eyes caused by an allergic reaction to plant pollen, mould spores, dust mites or animal hair …………………………………………………………………………………… Task Circle T for true or F for false The term atrioventricular relates to the atria and the ventricles of the heart TF An image of a blood vessel is called an angiography T F A patient with an abnormally large heart is diagnosed with cardiopathy T F A arteriography is the x-ray of an artery after the injection of a contrast medium TF A test that measures the blood pressure, heart rate, and other functions while the patient is exercising on a treadmill is called an echocardiogram T F A portable device that is used to perform a 24-hour electrocardiogram is a Holter monitor T F Task 10 Translate the following paragraphs into Vietnamese In the past, the only way to tell if a woman had adenomyosis was when her womb was examined after a hysterectomy Now, it can be detected by ultrasound, but these are not routinely carried out on the NHS and it still takes an experienced sonographer to spot the condition The research team, led from Brigham and Women’s hospital in Boston, tested whether targeting the inflammation with a potent anti-inflammatory agent would provide an extra benefit over statin treatment For patients who received the canakinumab injections the team reported a 15% reduction in the risk of a cardiovascular event, including fatal and non-fatal heart 66 attacks and strokes Also, the need for expensive interventional procedures, such as bypass surgery and inserting stents, was cut by more than 30% There was no overall difference in death rates between patients on canakinumab and those given placebo injections, and the drug did not change cholesterol levels They tested 149 samples of bacteria from hospital patients with infections in the throat, urethra, cervix and rectum Very small amounts of the antibiotic were effective against 146 of the 149 samples The drug was also effective against samples of the drug-resistant bacteria provided to the researchers by the World Health Organisation People living near Heathrow Airport, found that those with the highest noise exposure were 10-20% more likely to be admitted to hospital for stroke, coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease It is true that GPs are generalists, but we are experts, too, in prescribing and monitoring in many clinical areas that we commonly encounter, or that we may have developed an interest in At present, gender dysphoria remains a niche field Patients need specific management with a multi-disciplinary team approach that encompasses endocrinologists, surgeons, psychiatrists, pharmacists and others: something that GPs are not able to offer in our time-poor and under-resourced primary care 4.6 Summary The chapter has presented the result of the study based on the data gathered during the teaching typical features of word formation in English medical terminology Firstly, it is a detailed presentation of the subjects which is about subjects of the application Then, the tasks designed for students with specific aim of each lesson to consolidate the knowledge they have learnt The next is procedure in which the steps of carrying out the tasks were fully described Data collection describes the process of collecting data And the major findings include the typical features of word formation in English medical terminology, the difficulties faced by the students at Nam Dinh university of Nursing when learning English medical terminology Finally, the study gives the conclusion and comments on the results 67 Chapter CONCLUSION 5.1 Recapitulation Medical terminology is specially used in science by specialists who work in health care field Having knowledge of English medical terminology is not only very important to them in their work but also important to Nursing students and non-medical people who are interested in health care in through health sections in English newspapers However, medical terminology belongs to terminology system, it has different and special characteristics from the others It is its structure and meanings that make learners as well as readers heave difficulties in learning and translating them Being aware of its importance and these difficulties, the author decided to conduct the study on typical features of word formation in English medical terminology The study has given the rationale, aims and objectives, the description of chosen terminologies which present features of English medical terminology Especially, the implications for teaching and learning English medical terminology to help students understand about English medical terminology, use English medical terminology and classify them into groups of semantics For the first question, according to the results of the study, there are many ways to form English medical terminology They are Affixes, Compounding, Shortenings, Back formation, Conversion or functional shift, Semantic shift, Borrowing words and Creating from scratch In 396 English medical terminologies of all, the most popular form of English medical terminology is affixes- 417 derivative terms with the rate is 83.4 %, 385 terms consist suffixes accounting for 92.33%, 32 medical terminologies consist prefixes accounting for 7.7% compounding is 83 terminologies taking up 16.6% Furthermore, English derivation has absorbed some of affixation of other languages 68 In accordance with the study which has been conducted based on the concept described in the previous chapter, it is concluded that there are quite a lot derivatives containing in the material However, not all the types of word formation occur in the data analysis In contrast, derivation is found numerously in the articles There are a lot of compound nouns appearing frequently in the articles, the second position is compound and the third is abbreviation and the last is acronyms In structural morphology, there are four steps in analyzing word formation Evidently, there are some medical terms which have not been listed in dictionary, and they usually occur on abbreviation and acronym From this analysis, some words are not found in dictionary, yet, those words are still used by medical group as the name of a disease and an organization And it has already been considered by society For the second question, some of the new words have a predictable meaning and some other have an unpredictable meaning There are several meanings of derivatives which are visible to be guessed just by looking to the meaning of the base words, however, the meaning can be guest just by referring to the meaning of the base Therefore, the students can easily know the meaning Furthermore, derivatives which have an invisible meaning to be guest also exist It cannot be guest just by looking to the meaning of the base, but, the meaning must be sought through dictionary For the last question, because most of the students find English medical terminology very difficult to understand and remember, they have tendency to complain and worry about translating English medical terminology This study has proposed pedagogical suggestions for teaching translating them For example, instead of asking students and readers to learn, remember terminologies through dictionaries, teachers encourage students to learn, remember typical morphological and semantic characteristics of these terminologies When giving, exercises on word parts (root, prefix, suffix and combining form) should be focused so that students 69 can practice more Some tasks are also designed such as word formation, translation, etc 5.2 Concluding remarks According to the productivity of word formation processes, morphological features of English medical terminology are indicated through main parts These features have been mention in some previous study but rarely did the studies analyze them systematically with the English medical terminologies The characteristic of medical terminology is that it is linked to the organs of the human body, the characteristics of human anatomy, pathophysiology, the treatments for human, etc The inner form is inextricably linked to the word etymology Thus, in order to classify the term we have to rely on their particular characteristics It can be seen that English medical terminologies share the similar morphological features with terminologies in other fields In terms of semantics, the write chooses to divide English medical terminology into groups which distinctive features are released Under the theory of conceptual meaning, 396 terminologies are classified into groups according to their meaning Then some pedagogical implications are drawn mostly for learning English medical terminology of Vietnamese students 5.3 Limitation of the study The study focuses only on typical features of word formation in English medical terminology collected from the three chapters in the book: Medicine and surgery not all terminologies in the book The findings, therefore, can’t be applied to all terminologies of other fields 5.4 Implications for teaching and learning English medical terminology In the scope of research, the teaching focuses mainly on teaching vocabulary or English medical terms in particular However, student’s development is not only 70 concerned with dictionaries or homework, but also the continuous nurturing of selfawareness and self-development To enhance the student’s progress, teachers need to intergrate teaching terms into teaching other areas such as reading and translation Many Instead of teaching a great deal of terms, teachers should raise only frequent ones, and then provide the rules of creating terms (like morphological terms) Teachers should introduce semantic features to students so that they can find themselves logical ways to learn the terms When there is no equivalent for a certain term, student should borrow it, providing that they not overuse it In addition, it is unnecessary for Vietnamese students to use English medical materials written in Vietnamese Anyone who can study with English books should be encouraged 5.5 Recommendations for further studies The analysis of typical features of word formation is sometimes taken for granted by many people In fact, each presence of words can be a major influence in a language Therefore, it is important to have a further understanding about words and its form Since language is arbitrary, it is necessary to conduct continuous research in order to increase the knowledge about phenomena of word formation In the future, it is hope that the following topic should be considered: study on translation of English medical terminology; comparison between English medical terminologies and their Vietnamese equivalents; types of equivalence relationship of English medical terminologies And in context of Nam dinh University of Nursing I would like to suggest the materials on word formation of English medical terminology should be done more to help nurse students learn and memorize English medical terminology in the most effective way 71 REFERENCE A ENGLISH Betty Davis Jones, R.N., M.A., C.M.A.(2015) Terminology Dictionary - Third 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(2012) Concepts of Programming Languages Boston: Addison-Wesley 33 Shortis, T (2001) The Language of ICT London: Routledge 34 Shortis, T (2007) The Language of ICT London: Routledge 35 TRNKA, B (1969) Converstaio n in English Prague: Caroline University 36 Valeontis, K & Mantazari, E (2006) The Linguistic Dimension of Terminology: Principles and Methods of Term Formation (Unpublished master’s thesis) University of Western Australia 37 Wilson, H.W (Eds.) (2011) Dictionary of Information Technology Terms 38 Wuster, E (1979) Introduction to the General Theory of Terminology and Terminological Lexicography Springer, Wien 39 Yule, G (1996) Pragmatics Oxford: Oxford University Press B VIETNAMESE Đái Xuân Ninh, Nguyễn Đức Dân, Nguyễn Quang, Vương Tồn (1986) Ngơn ngữ học: Khuynh hướng-Lĩnh vực-Khái niệm Hà Nội: NXB Khoa học Xã hội Đỗ Hữu Châu (1981) Từ vựng Ngữ Nghĩa Tiếng Việt Hà Nội: NXB Giáo dục Nguyễn Thiện Giáp (1999) Từ vựng học Tiếng Việt Hà Nội: NXB Giáo dục Nguyễn Văn Tu (1968) Từ vựng học Tiếng Việt Hiện Đại Hà Nội: NXB ĐH&TCHCN 74 ... after that the rate of typical ways of word formations are shown in the diagrams The findings of the study on typical features of word formation in English medical terminology would be a great... syntactic features of English medical terminology, apply typical features of word formation in teaching and learning English medical terminology 1.3 Research questions The study on typical features. .. into two shares, namely, inflection and word- formation Again, Word- formation divided into two, consisting of derivation and compounding And derivation can be subdivided into class changing and
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