The effects of early childhood education attendance on cognitive development evidence from vietnam

70 7 0
  • Loading ...
1/70 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 03/01/2019, 00:09

UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES THE HAGUE THE NETHERLANDS VIETNAM – THE NETHERLANDS PROJECT FOR M.A ON DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION ATTENDANCE ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE FROM VIETNAM BY TRIEU VAN VIET MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY, DECEMBER 2015 UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES THE HAGUE THE NETHERLANDS VIETNAM – THE NETHERLANDS PROJECT FOR M.A ON DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION ATTENDANCE ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE FROM VIETNAM A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS By TRIỆU VĂN VIỆT Academic Supervisor: Dr NGUYỄN HỮU DŨNG HO CHI MINH CITY, DECEMBER 2015 ABSTRACT Over the past several decades, numerous studies have documented the association between early childhood education attendance and children’s cognitive abilities This thesis aims to examine whether the positive relationship between preschool attendance and cognitive skills found in previous studies holds in Vietnam The thesis used the first two rounds of longitudinal data from the Young Lives study in Vietnam The sample is a “younger cohort” of approximately 2000 children who were born in 2001 to 2002 Ordinary least squares (OLS) and instrument variables (IV) estimation methods were applied to examine the link between preschool attendance and child cognition of 5-years-old (measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Cognitive Development Assessment test (CDA)) In line with the literature, a positive and statistically significant relationship between preschool attendance and cognitive attainments was found for 5-years-old children in Vietnam The IV estimation produces a higher coefficient on preschool attendance than the OLS, which implies that a downward bias of OLS model In addition, children living in urban areas, children whose father and caregiver had higher education levels, ethnic Kinh children, and children from wealthier families scored higher on cognitive tests Hence, government should invest more in early childhood development, particularly for rural, poor and ethnic minority children to enhance their cognitive ability before entering primary education i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I had great support and contributions from many individuals and organizations to completion of my thesis I would first like to thank the Young Lives Study for kindly using of the baseline data I am grateful to my academic supervisor, Dr Nguyen Huu Dung for all of his comments and suggestions on this thesis In addition, I have greatly benefited from the support of the Scientific Committee members of Vietnam-The Netherlands Programme for M.A in Development Economics Finally, I am very thankful to all the staff of Vietnam-The Netherlands Programme, who helped me at different stages of my thesis I would also like to thank all of my classmates ii ABBREVIATIONS ADB Asia Development Bank CDA The quantitative of Cognitive Development Assessment test ECE Early Childhood Education ECLS-K Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten HAZ Height-for-age z-score IV Instrument Variables MOET Ministry of Education and Training N Number of observations PPVT Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test OLS Ordinary Least Squares OVERID Over-identification test SD Standard Deviation SES Socioeconomic Status 2SLS Two-stage Least Squares UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund YLs Young Lives iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Research objectives .2 1.3 Research question 1.4 Research scope and data 1.5 The structure of the thesis CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Definitions .4 2.1.1 Early Childhood Education .4 2.1.2 Cognitive Development 2.2 The importance of investing in early childhood care and education .5 2.3 Empirical study review 2.3.1 The impact of pre-school attendance on child cognition 2.3.2 The impact of other factors on child cognition .10 2.3.2.1 The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) 10 2.3.2.2 The impact of number of siblings .11 2.3.2.3 The impact of child health and nutritional status 12 2.4 Previous research of early childhood education attendance in Vietnam 12 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 14 3.1 An overview of pre-school enrolment in Viet Nam 14 3.2 Empirical strategy and econometric modeling 17 3.2.1 Empirical strategy 17 3.2.2 Econometric model 20 3.2.3 Description of key variables 23 3.3 Data source .25 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 27 4.1 Data descriptions 27 4.2 Regression results 33 4.2.1 Results of OLS regressions 33 4.2.1.1 The impact of preschool attendance on the CDA scores of the child 34 4.2.1.2 The impact of preschool attendance on the PPVT scores of the child35 4.2.2 Results of IV estimation with binary endogenous variable 37 iv 4.2.2.1 The impact of preschool attendance on the CDA scores of the child 39 4.2.2.1 The impact of preschool attendance on the PPVT scores of the child41 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION 44 5.1 Conclusion remarks .44 5.2 Policy implications 45 5.3 Limitations and recommendations for future research 46 REFERENCE 48 APPENDICES 55 Appendix 1: The construction of the wealth index 55 Appendix 2: Results of t-test on CDA score by preschool (mean-comparison tests), coded for preschool attendees, for non-preschool attendees 56 Appendix 3: Comparison of densities of level and natural logarithm of the CDA and PPVT scores 56 Appendix 4: Results of t test on PPVT score by ethnicity (mean-comparison tests), coded for ethnic children, for kinh or chinese children 56 Appendix 5: Results of t-test on CDA score by region (mean-comparison tests) 57 Appendix 6: Total bad events between CDA and PPVT model 58 Appendix 7: Results of OLS regression on CDA scores .58 Appendix 8: Results of OLS regression on PPVT score .59 Appendix 9: Results of 2SLS regression with binary endogenous variable (CDA score) 60 Appendix 10: Results of 2SLS regression with binary endogenous variable (PPVT score) 61 Appendix 11: Test for weak instruments .62 v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Rates of return to human capital investment .6 Figure 2: Enrolment in pre-primary education, both sexes (number) .15 Figure 3: Gross enrolment ratio (%) in Pre-primary education 16 Figure 4: Conceptual framework for assessing early cognitive development 18 Figure 5: The distributions of CDA and PPVT scores 29 Figure 6: Kernel density estimates for PPVT and CDA scores at Round 2, by preschool attendance 30 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Enrolment in pre-primary education in Vietnam from 1999 to 2013 15 Table 2: Variables definitions 25 Table 3: Description of variables 27 Table 4: Children’s cognitive development by Pre-school attendance .28 Table 5: Children’s cognitive development by ethnicity 31 Table 6: Children’s cognitive development by region 31 Table 7: Results of OLS regressions on cognitive achievement .33 Table 8: Correlation between pre-school enrollment, number of siblings, .37 Table 9: Results of 2SLS regression with binary endogenous variable 39 Table 10: The OLS and IV estimates of preschool attendance on the CDA scores 40 Table 11: The OLS and IV estimates of preschool attendance on the PPVT scores 42 vi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Early childhood is defined as “the period between birth and eight years of life” (UNESCO & UNICEF, 2012) Research in the field of cognition, psychology, and neuroscience has established that learning process is easier in early childhood than any other periods in the human life (Bransford, 1979; Shore, 1997) In the first three years of life, children’s brain develop rapidly, about two times more active than an adult (Shore, 1997) Additionally, economists argued that skill formation is a life cycle and cumulative process (Carneiro & Heckman, 2003; Cunha et al., 2006; Heckman & Masterov, 2007) The skill obtained at one stage of the life cycle will enhance the skill obtainment at next stage of the life cycle, skill begets skill and that learning begets more learning Early childhood education (ECE) play a large role in building basic skills early in life such as literacy and numeracy, and these skills are critical for long-term skill development such as problem-solving abilities and capacities (European Commission, 2011) From an economic perspective, investments in early childhood development has been shown to improve cognitive and physical development, reduce crime rates, alleviate poverty, and increase economic growth (Barnett & Nores, 2012) In Vietnam, the Education Law 2005 defines Early Childhood Education covers "the nurturing, caring, and educating children from three months to six years of age" (The National Assembly of Vietnam, 2005) Early childhood education system in Vietnam consists of daycare centres, kindergarten, and pre-school or preprimary education The children from three to five years old participating preschool has increased dramatically in recent years, from 39 per cent in 1996 to 60 per cent in 2003(ADB, 2005) The number of children in ECE was 2,480,272 in schooling year 2000-2001, and this figure has increased to 2,754,094 in year 20042005, an increased by 2.3 per cent (UNESCO, 2006) However, low quality education has raised the questions about what is learned in pre-school education and how this relates to children’s cognitive skills development at the ages of years in Vietnam The effects of early childhood education on children’s cognitive outcomes have been widely studied from a variety of aspects, including the variation in methods, types of interventions, national contexts, and outcomes A number of authors have looked into the benefits of early intervention childcare and compensatory education programs (Barnett, 1995; Blau & Currie, 2006; Carneiro & Heckman, 2003; Love et al., 2005) Others have investigated the relationship between maternal employment and childcare during preschool years on cognitive development (see for literature reviews Blau & Grossberg, 1990; Waldfogel et al., 2002) There is substantial empirical evidence that ECE programs improve children’ cognitive outcomes, both in the short and in the long run However, few empirical studies have been investigated about the effect of early childhood education (preschool) attendance on cognitive achievement in Vietnam In addition, more understanding about the relationship between schooling and cognitive development is critical for policymakers to conduct early intervention to improve the children development This thesis will apply ordinary least squares (OLS) and instrument variables (IV) approach with data from Young Lives project in Vietnam for examining the relationship between pre-school attendance and children’s cognitive outcomes The results of analysis contribute to the existing educational literature, and the suggestions for future research are also provided 1.2 Research objectives The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether pre-school attendance affects cognitive abilities of children about 5-year-olds in Vietnam 1.3 Research question - Does preschool attendance affect cognitive achievement of five years old of the child in Vietnam? - How does preschool attendance affect the child cognitive achievement? 1.4 Research scope and data REFERENCE Adams, A V., & others (2012) The role of skills development in overcoming social disadvantage Background Paper Prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report Retrieved from http://www.18ccem.orange.mu/download/The%20Role%20of%20Skills%20 Development%20in%20Overcoming%20Social%20Disadvantage%20by%2 0Avril%20V%20Adams.pdf ADB (2005) Technical Assistance for the Early Childhood Development for the Poor in Vietnam (TA No 4205-VIE) Retrieved from http://www.e.gopfp.gov.vn/documents/20012/538018/Bao+cao+y+te+_E.pdf Alexander, K L., Entwisle, D R., & Olson, L S (2001) Schools, achievement, and inequality: A seasonal perspective Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(2), 171–191 Aurino, E., & Burchi, F (2014) Children’s Multidimensional Health and MediumRun Cognitive Skills in Low-and Middle-Income Countries Retrieved from https://80.237.152.15/uploads/media/Burchi_wp129_aurino_nutrition.pdf Baker, M., Gruber, J., & Milligan, K (2005) Universal childcare, maternal labor supply, and family well-being National Bureau of Economic Research Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w11832 Barnett, W S (1995) Long-term effects of early childhood programs on cognitive and school outcomes The Future of Children, 25–50 Barnett, W S., & Nores, M (2012) Investing in Early Childhood Education: A Global Perspective National Institute for Early Education Research Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED541832 Baydar, N., & Brooks-Gunn, J (1991) Effects of maternal employment and childcare arrangements on preschoolers’ cognitive and behavioral outcomes: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Developmental Psychology, 27(6), 932 Belfield, C R., Nores, M., Barnett, S., & Schweinhart, L (2006) The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program cost–benefit analysis using data from the age-40 followup Journal of Human Resources, 41(1), 162–190 Benjamin T Crookston, Renata Forste, Christine McClellan, Andreas Georgiadis, & Tim B Heaton (2014) Factors associated with cognitive achievement in late childhood and adolescence: the Young Lives cohort study of children in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam BioMed Central Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/14/253 Berlinski, S., Galiani, S., & Gertler, P (2009) The effect of pre-primary education on primary school performance Journal of Public Economics, 93(1), 219– 234 48 Blake, J (1981) Family size and the quality of children Demography, 18(4), 421– 442 Blau, D., & Currie, J (2006) Pre-school, day care, and after-school care: who’s minding the kids? Handbook of the Economics of Education, 2, 1163–1278 Blau, F D., & Grossberg, A J (1990) Maternal labor supply and children’s cognitive development National Bureau of Economic Research Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w3536 Bogin, B., & MacVean, R B (1983) The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Sex to Body Size, Skeletal Maturation, and Cognitive Status of Guatemala City Schoolchildren Child Development, 54(1), 115–128 http://doi.org/10.2307/1129868 Boo, F L (2009) The Production Function of Cognitive Skills: Nutrition, Parental Inputs and Caste Test Gaps in India Young Lives Retrieved from http://www.younglives.org.uk/publications/WP/the-production-function-ofcognitive-skills-nutrition-parental-inputs-and-caste-test-gaps-in-india Bradley, R H., & Corwyn, R F (2002) Socioeconomic status and child development Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371–399 Bransford, J D (1979) Human cognition: Learning, understanding and remembering Wadsworth Belmont, CA Retrieved from http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/clc/526365 Brody, G H (2004) Siblings’ direct and indirect contributions to child development Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(3), 124–126 Brooks-Gunn, J., Klebanov, P K., & Liaw, F (1995) The learning, physical, and emotional environment of the home in the context of poverty: The infant health and development program Children and Youth Services Review, 17(1–2), 251–276 http://doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409(95)00011-Z Brunello, G., & Schlotter, M (2010) The effect of non cognitive skills and personality traits on labour market outcomes Analytical Report for the European Commission Prepared by the European Expert Network on Economics of Education Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/45436342_The_Effect_of_Non_Co gnitive_Skills_and_Personality_Traits_on_Labour_Market_Outcomes/file/7 9e4150b081a45b2ce.pdf Cameron, A C., & Trivedi, P K (2010) Microeconometrics using stata Retrieved from http://www.stata.com/stata-news/statanews.23.4.pdf Campbell, F A., Pungello, E P., Burchinal, M., Kainz, K., Pan, Y., Wasik, B H., … Ramey, C T (2012) Adult outcomes as a function of an early childhood educational program: an Abecedarian Project follow-up Developmental Psychology, 48(4), 1033 Carneiro, P., & Heckman, J (2003) Human capital policy Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=380480 Chiswick, B R., & DebBurman, N (2006) Pre-school enrollment: An analysis by immigrant generation Social Science Research, 35(1), 60–87 49 Church, A T., & Katigbak, M S (1991) Home environment, nutritional status, and maternal intelligence as determinants of intellectual development in rural Philippine preschool children Intelligence, 15(1), 49–78 http://doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896(91)90022-6 Cueto, S., Leon, J., Guerrero, G., & Muñoz, I (2009) Psychometric characteristics of cognitive development and achievement instruments in Round of Young Lives Young Lives Technical Note, 15 Retrieved from http://www.grade.org.pe/upload/publicaciones/Archivo/download/pubs/ND Mtn25.pdf Cunha, F., Heckman, J J., Lochner, L., & Masterov, D V (2006) Interpreting the evidence on life cycle skill formation Handbook of the Economics of Education, 1, 697–812 Dang, H.-A (2012) Vietnam: A widening poverty gap for ethnic minorities Indigenous Peoples, Poverty and Development” Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2346307 Downey, D B (2001) Number of siblings and intellectual development: The resource dilution explanation American Psychologist, 56(6-7), 497 Duncan, G J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Klebanov, P K (1994) Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development Child Development, 65(2), 296–318 http://doi.org/10.2307/1131385 Dunn, L., & Dunn, L (1997) Examiner’s Manual for the PPVT-III Form IIIA and IIIB AGS: Circle Pines, MN Entwislea, D R., & Astone, N M (1994) Some practical guidelines for measuring youth’s race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status Child Development, 65(6), 1521–1540 European Commission (2011) Early childhood education and care: providing all our children with the best start for the world of tomorrow Brussel, COM (2011), 66 Glewwe, P., Chen, Q., & Katare, B (2012) What Determines Learning Among Kinh and Ethnic Minority Students in Vietnam? An Analysis of the Round Young Lives Data Young Lives Working Paper, (80) Retrieved from http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/pdf/outputs/younglives/wp80-what-determineslearning-among-kinh-and-ethnic-minority-students-in-vietnam.pdf Glewwe, P., Jacoby, H G., & King, E M (2001) Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis Journal of Public Economics, 81(3), 345–368 http://doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2727(00)00118-3 Grantham-McGregor, Cheung, Y B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., & Strupp, B (2007) Developmental potential in the first years for children in developing countries The Lancet, 369(9555), 60–70 Grantham-McGregor, S M., Fernald, L C., & Sethuraman, K (1999) Effects of health and nutrition on cognitive and behavioural development in children in 50 the first three years of life Part 1: Low birthweight, breastfeeding, and protein-energy malnutrition Food & Nutrition Bulletin, 20(1), 53–75 Grantham-McGregor, S M., Walker, S P., Chang, S M., & Powell, C A (1997) Effects of early childhood supplementation with and without stimulation on later development in stunted Jamaican children The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(2), 247–253 GSO (2011) Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 (Final Report) Hanoi, Viet Nam Retrieved from http://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?tabid=515&idmid=5&ItemID=1249 Gujarati, D N., & Porter, D C (1999) Essentials of econometrics Retrieved from http://mint.jnu.edu.cn/kezhenqing/ebooks/Gujarati%20%20Essentials%20of%20Econometrics%20(4ed).pdf Guo, G., & Harris, K M (2000) The mechanisms mediating the effects of poverty on children’s intellectual development Demography, 37(4), 431–447 Guo, G., & VanWey, L K (1999) Sibship size and intellectual development: Is the relationship causal? American Sociological Review, 169–187 Heckman, J J., & Masterov, D V (2007) The productivity argument for investing in young children Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 29(3), 446– 493 Lefebvre, P., Merrigan, P., & Verstraete, M (2006) Impact of early childhood care and education on children’s preschool cognitive development: Canadian results from a large quasi-experiment Cahier de recherche/Working Paper, 6, 36 Le, T D (2009) The Effect of Early Age Stunting on Cognitive Achievement Among Children in Vietnam Young Lives Working Paper, 45 Le, T D (2011) Height and cognitive achievement of Vietnamese children World Development, 39(12), 2211–2220 Le, T D., Nguyen, V T., Son, V T., Nguyen, P N., & Tran, M C (2008) Young Lives: Vietnam Round Survey Retrieved from http://www.younglives.org.uk/files/country-reports/round-2-countryreports/country-report-vietnam-2008 Loeb, S., Bridges, M., Bassok, D., Fuller, B., & Rumberger, R W (2007) How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers on children’s social and cognitive development Economics of Education Review, 26(1), 52–66 Love, J M., Kisker, E E., Ross, C., Raikes, H., Constantine, J., Boller, K., … others (2005) The effectiveness of early head start for 3-year-old children and their parents: lessons for policy and programs Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 885 Magnuson, K A., Ruhm, C., & Waldfogel, J (2007) Does prekindergarten improve school preparation and performance? Economics of Education Review, 26(1), 33–51 51 McCulloch, A., & Joshi, H E (2002) Child development and family resources: evidence from the second generation of the 1958 British birth cohort Journal of Population Economics, 15(2), 283–304 McLoyd, V C (1998) Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development American Psychologist, 53(2), 185 Minh Nguyen (2012) CAPITAL PROJECTS VIET NAM Retrieved from http://www.cncf.org/uploads/1/6/5/7/16573282/cncf_vietnam_capital_projec ts_annual_report_2012.pdf Nores, M., & Barnett, W S (2010) Benefits of early childhood interventions across the world:(Under) Investing in the very young Economics of Education Review, 29(2), 271–282 Pham, T L., & Nicola, J (n.d.) Education for All in Vietnam: high enrolment, but problems of quality remain Retrieved from http://www.younglives.org.uk/files/policy-papers/education-for-all-invietnam-high-enrolment-but-problems-of-quality-remain Ready, D D (2010) Socioeconomic Disadvantage, School Attendance, and Early Cognitive Development The Differential Effects of School Exposure Sociology of Education, 83(4), 271–286 Rodgers, J L (2001) What causes birth order–intelligence patterns? The admixture hypothesis, revived American Psychologist, 56(6-7), 505 Rolleston, C., & James, Z (2012) The role of schooling in skill development: Evidence from young lives in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam Young Lives Background Paper Prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report Sammons, P., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Taggart, B., Elliot, K., & Siraj-Blatchford, I (2002) The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) Project: Measuring the impact of pre-school on children’s cognitive progress over the pre-school period Institute of Education, University of London/Department for Education and Skills Retrieved from http://eprints.ioe.ac.uk/5295/1/Sammons2003Effective(Tech.Paper8A).pdf Schweinhart, L J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W S., Belfield, C R., & Nores, M (2005) Lifetime effects: the High/Scope Perry Preschool study through age 40 Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/william_barnett/3/ Shore, R (1997) Rethinking the brain: New insights into early development Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED418770 Sigman, M., Neumann, C., Jansen, A A J., & Bwibo, N (1989) Cognitive Abilities of Kenyan Children in Relation to Nutrition, Family Characteristics, and Education Child Development, 60(6), 1463–1474 http://doi.org/10.2307/1130935 Sirin, S R (2005) Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A metaanalytic review of research Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417– 453 52 Staiger, D., & Stock, J H (1997) Instrumental variables regression with weak instruments Econometrica, 65, 557–586 Taylor, B A., Dearing, E., & McCartney, K (2004) Incomes and outcomes in early childhood Journal of Human Resources, 39(4), 980–1007 The National Assembly of Vietnam The Education Law (2005) Retrieved from http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Viet%20Nam/Viet%20Nam_Educati on_Law_2005.pdf Tuan, T., Lan, P T., Harpham, T., Huong, N T., Thach, T D., Tod, B., … Ha, N T V (2003) Young Lives Preliminary Country Report: Vietnam Retrieved from http://economics.ouls.ox.ac.uk/13614/ UNESCO (2004) Early childhood care and education in South-East Asia: Working for access, quality and inclusion in Thailand, the Philippines and Viet Nam Bangkok Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001378/137867e.pdf UNESCO (2006) “Country Profile commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007, Strong foundations: early childhood care and education” Viet Nam Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) programmes Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001472/147254e.pdf UNESCO & UNICEF (2012) Early Childhood Care and Education Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002171/217145e.pdf Waldfogel, J., Han, W.-J., & Brooks-Gunn, J (2002) The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development Demography, 39(2), 369–392 Watanabe, K., Flores, R., Fujiwara, J., & Tran, L T H (2005) Early childhood development interventions and cognitive development of young children in rural Vietnam The Journal of Nutrition, 135(8), 1918–1925 White, K R (1982) The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement Psychological Bulletin, 91(3), 461–481 http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.3.461 WHO (1997) WHO global database on child growth and malnutrition World Health Organization Geneva Retrieved from http://libdoc.who.int/hq/1997/WHO_NUT_97.4.pdf WHO (2007) WHO Child Growth Standards – Methods and Development Geneva Retrieved from http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/second_set/technical_report_2.pdf Woldehanna Tassew (2011) The Effects of Early Childhood Education Attendance on Cognitive Development: Evidence from Urban Ethiopia Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 28(2), 277–291 Woldehanna, T., & Gebremedhin, L (2012) The Effects of Pre-school Attendance on the Cognitive Development of Urban Children aged and Years Young Lives Retrieved from http://www.younglives.org.uk/files/workingpapers/wp89_woldehanna-gebremedhin Wooldridge, J M (2010) Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data MIT press Retrieved from 53 https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=yov6AQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd &pg=PP1&dq=E+c+o+n+o+m+e+t+r+i+c+A+n+a+l+y+s+i+s+o+f+C+r+o+ s+s+S+e+c+t+i+o+n+a+n+d+P+a+n+e+l+D+a+t+a&ots=iWgXCDIES&sig=GXArtfDw0x6ZZGfKRIwZea1dKcI World Bank (2013) Skilling up Vietnam: Preparing the workforce for a modern market economy (Vietnam Development Report 2014 (Main Report)) Retrieved from http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/11/ 26/000461832_20131126115640/Rendered/PDF/829400AR0P13040Box037 9879B00PUBLIC0.pdf 54 APPENDICES Appendix 1: The construction of the wealth index Categories Housing quality index Housing quality= Sum of items/4 Elements Measurement Number of household members per rooms Continuous variable: Number of rooms divided by the number of household Wall material Dummy variable takes the value of if household has brick or plaster wall Roof material Floor material Dummy variable equal to one if house has sturdy roof It has value of if house has a floor made of finished materials, cement, tile, or laminated material Service quality index Dring water Service quality index= Sum of items/4 Electricity Cooking fuel Sanitation Dummy variable equal to one if house has piped water Dummy variable equal to one if household has access to electricity Dummy variable equal to one if the household uses either electricity, gas, or kerosene Dummy variable equal to one if household has pit latrine or flush toilet Consumer durables index Radio Refrigerator Television Motorcycle/scooter Consumer durables index Dummy variable for ownership = Total of dummy Bicycle of each of the assets variables/9 Motor vehicle Mobile phone Landline phone Electric fan Wealth index = [Housing quality + Service quality + Consumer durables]/3 55 Appendix 2: Results of t-test on CDA score by preschool (mean-comparison tests), coded for preschool attendees, for non-preschool attendees Two-sample t test with equal variances Group Obs Mean 163 1676 combined 1839 diff Std Err Std Dev [95% Conf Interval] 7.638037 10.0185 2215091 056986 2.828039 2.332947 7.200619 9.906725 8.075454 10.13027 9.807504 0577015 2.474446 9.694337 9.920671 -2.38046 1953323 -2.763556 -1.997363 diff = mean(0) - mean(1) Ho: diff = Ha: diff < Pr(T < t) = 0.0000 t = -12.1867 degrees of freedom = 1837 Ha: diff != Pr(|T| > |t|) = 0.0000 Ha: diff > Pr(T > t) = 1.0000 Appendix 3: Comparison of densities of level and natural logarithm of the CDA and PPVT scores Variable N mean p50 sd skewness kurtosis CDA scores 1839 9.808 10 2.474 -0.685 3.138 PPVT scores 1693 37.134 32 18.256 1.197 5.575 Log of PPVT 1693 3.494 3.466 0.509 -0.444 3.539 Appendix 4: Results of t test on PPVT score by ethnicity (mean-comparison tests), coded for ethnic children, for kinh or chinese children Two-sample t test with equal variances Group Obs Mean 1575 264 combined 1839 diff Std Err Std Dev [95% Conf Interval] 10.22349 7.325758 0565342 1436116 2.243632 2.333412 10.1126 7.042983 10.33438 7.608532 9.807504 0577015 2.474446 9.694337 9.920671 2.897734 1500802 2.603389 3.19208 diff = mean(0) - mean(1) Ho: diff = Ha: diff < Pr(T < t) = 1.0000 t = degrees of freedom = Ha: diff != Pr(|T| > |t|) = 0.0000 56 19.3079 1837 Ha: diff > Pr(T > t) = 0.0000 Appendix 5: Results of t-test on CDA score by region (mean-comparison tests) Appendix 5.1: The t-test for PPVT score, by region (coded for rural, for urban) Two-sample t test with equal variances Group Obs Mean 143 1550 combined 1693 diff Std Err Std Dev [95% Conf Interval] 22.46154 38.48774 1.123987 4584546 13.44093 18.04938 20.23963 37.58848 24.68345 39.387 37.13408 4436875 18.256 36.26385 38.00432 -16.0262 1.547669 -19.06175 -12.99065 diff = mean(0) - mean(1) Ho: diff = Ha: diff < Pr(T < t) = 0.0000 t = -10.3551 degrees of freedom = 1691 Ha: diff != Pr(|T| > |t|) = 0.0000 Ha: diff > Pr(T > t) = 1.0000 Appendix 5.2: The t-test for CDA score, by region (coded for rural, for urban) Two-sample t test with equal variances Group Obs Mean 1474 365 combined 1839 diff Std Err Std Dev [95% Conf Interval] 9.514925 10.98904 0667025 0849133 2.560891 1.622266 9.384083 10.82206 9.645767 11.15602 9.807504 0577015 2.474446 9.694337 9.920671 -1.474116 1405611 -1.749792 -1.198439 diff = mean(0) - mean(1) Ho: diff = Ha: diff < Pr(T < t) = 0.0000 t = -10.4874 degrees of freedom = 1837 Ha: diff != Pr(|T| > |t|) = 0.0000 57 Ha: diff > Pr(T > t) = 1.0000 Appendix 6: Total bad events between CDA and PPVT model CDA model Freq Per cent 1290 70,15 411 22,35 120 6,53 17 0,92 0,05 1839 100 Number of bad events Total PPVT model Freq Per cent 1188 70,17 378 22,33 110 6,5 16 0,95 0,06 1693 100 Appendix 7: Results of OLS regression on CDA scores Source SS df MS Model Residual 53.6749645 134.190059 13 1825 4.12884342 0735288 Total 187.865024 1838 102211656 logCDA Coef PRE AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO URBAN central mekong northern _cons 1365466 0132231 0025322 -.2588854 1345934 0076052 0080294 0032905 0122875 0016731 -.0019745 -.1296603 0223732 1.883775 Std Err .024236 0021041 0127472 0262405 0482347 0053366 0023486 0024248 0317015 0215476 0205766 0217989 0250163 0394315 t 5.63 6.28 0.20 -9.87 2.79 1.43 3.42 1.36 0.39 0.08 -0.10 -5.95 0.89 47.77 58 Number of obs F( 13, 1825) Prob > F R-squared Adj R-squared Root MSE P>|t| 0.000 0.000 0.843 0.000 0.005 0.154 0.001 0.175 0.698 0.938 0.924 0.000 0.371 0.000 = = = = = = 1839 56.15 0.0000 0.2857 0.2806 27116 [95% Conf Interval] 0890133 0090965 -.0224684 -.3103499 0399923 -.0028613 0034232 -.0014652 -.0498875 -.0405874 -.0423308 -.1724137 -.0266905 1.806439 18408 0173497 0275328 -.2074209 2291945 0180716 0126356 0080462 0744625 0439336 0383817 -.0869069 0714368 1.961111 Appendix 8: Results of OLS regression on PPVT score Source SS df MS Model Residual 187.929914 249.598506 13 1679 14.4561472 148659027 Total 437.52842 1692 258586537 logPPVT Coef PRE AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO URBAN central mekong northern _cons 2401468 0270783 0127939 -.3117288 2686985 0219765 0153841 0084643 0037611 1057255 -.2970122 -.2069567 033416 2.803947 Std Err .0365197 0031037 0188857 0380733 0720892 0078649 0035246 0035916 0463152 0324141 0301662 0328948 0365429 05944 t 6.58 8.72 0.68 -8.19 3.73 2.79 4.36 2.36 0.08 3.26 -9.85 -6.29 0.91 47.17 59 Number of obs F( 13, 1679) Prob > F R-squared Adj R-squared Root MSE P>|t| 0.000 0.000 0.498 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.000 0.019 0.935 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.361 0.000 = = = = = = 1693 97.24 0.0000 0.4295 0.4251 38556 [95% Conf Interval] 1685178 0209908 -.0242481 -.386405 1273044 0065504 008471 0014197 -.0870804 0421493 -.3561796 -.2714757 -.0382584 2.687362 3117758 0331657 0498359 -.2370526 4100926 0374026 0222971 0155088 0946026 1693017 -.2378449 -.1424376 1050903 2.920531 Appendix 9: Results of 2SLS regression with binary endogenous variable (CDA score) The command in Stata: “treatreg logCDA AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO, treat(PRE= SIBLING BADEVT AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO)” Treatment-effects model MLE Number of obs Wald chi2(13) Prob > chi2 Log likelihood = -579.44204 Coef Std Err z P>|z| = = = 1839 726.28 0.0000 [95% Conf Interval] logCDA AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO PRE _cons 0117827 0033489 -.2525004 1177588 0086025 0022234 -.1222336 0215947 0083572 0077223 0029231 0114744 2098332 1.842058 0021997 0127357 026364 0487673 0217455 0206367 022027 0249858 0053403 0023496 0024273 0316617 0410038 0436542 5.36 0.26 -9.58 2.41 0.40 0.11 -5.55 0.86 1.56 3.29 1.20 0.36 5.12 42.20 0.000 0.793 0.000 0.016 0.692 0.914 0.000 0.387 0.118 0.001 0.228 0.717 0.000 0.000 0074714 -.0216126 -.3041728 0221767 -.0340179 -.0382238 -.1654056 -.0273765 -.0021097 0031172 -.0018342 -.0505815 1294672 1.756498 0160939 0283104 -.2008279 213341 0512229 0426706 -.0790616 0705659 0188241 0123274 0076805 0735303 2901991 1.927619 SIBLING BADEVT AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO _cons -.1925411 -.0191372 1682715 -.0390821 -.1443927 1.748125 -1.11485 -.8477511 -1.165839 -.3508621 -.053326 03934 0341317 2443035 -.5184895 0334758 0748678 0183124 1022113 201052 3762236 2774994 2611378 2513364 2913421 0389882 0185049 0202446 3009249 355237 -5.75 -0.26 9.19 -0.38 -0.72 4.65 -4.02 -3.25 -4.64 -1.20 -1.37 2.13 1.69 0.81 -1.46 0.000 0.798 0.000 0.702 0.473 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.228 0.171 0.034 0.092 0.417 0.144 -.2581524 -.1658754 1323799 -.2394126 -.5384474 1.01074 -1.658738 -1.359572 -1.658449 -.9218822 -.1297414 0030711 -.0055469 -.3454984 -1.214741 -.1269298 1276011 204163 1612484 249662 2.485509 -.5709609 -.3359304 -.6732284 220158 0230894 0756089 0738104 8341054 1777622 /athrho /lnsigma -.1658806 -1.306361 0761622 0167232 -2.18 -78.12 0.029 0.000 -.3151556 -1.339138 -.0166055 -1.273584 rho sigma lambda -.1643756 2708037 -.0445135 0741043 0045287 0202078 -.3051201 2620714 -.08412 -.016604 2798269 -.0049071 PRE LR test of indep eqns (rho = 0): chi2(1) = 60 5.00 Prob > chi2 = 0.0253 Appendix 10: Results of 2SLS regression with binary endogenous variable (PPVT score) The command in Stata: “treatreg logPPVT AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO, treat(PRE= SIBLING BADEVT AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO)” Treatment-effects model MLE Log likelihood = Number of obs Wald chi2(13) Prob > chi2 -1117.629 Coef Std Err z P>|z| = = = 1693 1255.56 0.0000 [95% Conf Interval] logPPVT AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO PRE _cons 0239554 0148221 -.2942971 2327999 1229747 -.287742 -.1908167 0313175 0230988 0145529 0075868 0007101 4178671 2.695817 0032512 0189495 0385405 0730973 0329182 0303806 0333442 0366527 0078946 0035435 0036115 0464565 0648085 0679087 7.37 0.78 -7.64 3.18 3.74 -9.47 -5.72 0.85 2.93 4.11 2.10 0.02 6.45 39.70 0.000 0.434 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.393 0.003 0.000 0.036 0.988 0.000 0.000 0175831 -.0223182 -.3698351 0895319 0584562 -.347287 -.2561701 -.0405203 0076257 0076078 0005084 -.0903429 2908448 2.562719 0303277 0519623 -.218759 376068 1874933 -.2281971 -.1254634 1031554 038572 0214981 0146653 0917631 5448895 2.828916 SIBLING BADEVT AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH URBAN central mekong northern ZHFA FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO _cons -.2146481 -.0142448 1534559 -.0766166 -.1639083 1.531975 -1.22062 -.8897729 -1.240374 -.4984677 -.0352213 0471513 0254594 3551375 -.1284901 0340723 080218 0187636 1071722 2020546 3945074 310614 2948338 2864485 3157866 040401 0198994 0215042 3294082 3881786 -6.30 -0.18 8.18 -0.71 -0.81 3.88 -3.93 -3.02 -4.33 -1.58 -0.87 2.37 1.18 1.08 -0.33 0.000 0.859 0.000 0.475 0.417 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000 0.114 0.383 0.018 0.236 0.281 0.741 -.2814286 -.1714692 11668 -.2866702 -.559928 7587553 -1.829412 -1.467636 -1.801803 -1.117398 -.1144058 0081492 -.0166881 -.2904907 -.8893061 -.1478676 1429796 1902318 133437 2321114 2.305196 -.6118279 -.3119093 -.6789456 1204627 0439631 0861533 0676069 1.000766 6323259 /athrho /lnsigma -.2864965 -.9501987 0903334 0179181 -3.17 -53.03 0.002 0.000 -.4635466 -.9853176 -.1094463 -.9150798 rho sigma lambda -.278907 3866642 -.1078433 0833064 0069283 0328178 -.4329704 3733206 -.172165 -.1090114 4004847 -.0435217 PRE LR test of indep eqns (rho = 0): chi2(1) = 61 9.29 Prob > chi2 = 0.0023 Appendix 11: Test for weak instruments The command in Stata: quietly ivregress gmm logCDA (PRE=SIBLING BADEVT) AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH ZHFA URBAN central mekong northern FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO,vce(robust) estat firststage, forcenonrobust First-stage regression summary statistics Variable R-sq Adjusted R-sq Partial R-sq Robust F(2,1824) PRE 0.1855 0.1793 0.0334 14.2938 Prob > F 0.0000 Minimum eigenvalue statistic = 31.5428 Critical Values Ho: Instruments are weak # of endogenous regressors: # of excluded instruments: 5% 2SLS relative bias 10% 19.93 8.68 2SLS Size of nominal 5% Wald test LIML Size of nominal 5% Wald test 10% 20% (not available) 15% 11.59 5.33 20% 8.75 4.42 30% 25% 7.25 3.92 The command in Stata: quietly ivregress gmm logPPVT (PRE=SIBLING BADEVT) AGE MALE ETHNICM WEALTH ZHFA URBAN central mekong northern FATHERED CAREED HEAPRO,vce(robust) estat firststage, forcenonrobust First-stage regression summary statistics Variable R-sq Adjusted R-sq Partial R-sq Robust F(2,1678) PRE 0.1845 0.1777 0.0421 15.7533 Prob > F 0.0000 Minimum eigenvalue statistic = 36.8899 Critical Values Ho: Instruments are weak # of endogenous regressors: # of excluded instruments: 5% 2SLS relative bias 2SLS Size of nominal 5% Wald test LIML Size of nominal 5% Wald test 10% 19.93 8.68 62 10% 20% (not available) 15% 11.59 5.33 20% 8.75 4.42 30% 25% 7.25 3.92 ... OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES THE HAGUE THE NETHERLANDS VIETNAM – THE NETHERLANDS PROJECT FOR M.A ON DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION. .. socioeconomic status” (Sammons et al., 2002) 2.3.1 The impact of pre-school attendance on child cognition The evidence of the effects of pre-school education participation on children’s cognitive. .. In Vietnam, the Education Law 2005 defines Early Childhood Education covers "the nurturing, caring, and educating children from three months to six years of age" (The National Assembly of Vietnam,
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: The effects of early childhood education attendance on cognitive development evidence from vietnam , The effects of early childhood education attendance on cognitive development evidence from vietnam

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay