Power electronics handbook devices, circuits, and applications

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The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), which was introduced in early 1980s, is becoming a successful device because of its superior characteristics. IGBT is a threeterminal power semiconductor switch used to control the electrical energy.Many new applications would not be economically feasible without IGBTs. Prior to the advent of IGBT, power bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and power metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFET) were widely used in low to medium power and highfrequency applications, where the speed of gate turnoff thyristors was not adequate. Power BJTs have good onstate characteristics but have long switching times especially at turnoff. They are currentcontrolled devices with small current gain because of highlevel injection effects and wide base width required to prevent reachthrough breakdown for high blocking voltage capability. Therefore, they require complex base drive circuits to provide the base current during onstate, which increases the power loss in the control electrode. POWER ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK DEVICES, CIRCUITS, AND APPLICATIONS Third Edition Edited by Muhammad H Rashid, Ph.D., Fellow IET (UK), Fellow IEEE (USA) Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering University of West Florida 11000 University Parkway Pensacola, FL 32514-5754, U.S.A Phone: 850-474-2976 e-mail: mrashid@uwf.edu AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Second edition 2007 Third edition 2011 Copyright c 2011, Elsevier Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, E-mail: permissions@elsevier.com You may also complete your request online via the Elsevier homepage (http://elsevier.com), by selecting “Support & Contact” then “Copyright and Permission” and then “Obtaining Permissions.” Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Power electronics handbook : devices, circuits, and applications handbook / edited by Muhammad H Rashid – 3rd ed p cm ISBN 978-0-12-382036-5 Power electronics – Encyclopedias I Rashid, M H TK7881.15.P6733 2010 621.31'7–dc22 2010038332 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-12-382036-5 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.com Printed in the USA 10 11 12 10 Preface for Third Edition Introduction The purpose of Power Electronics Handbook is to provide a reference that is both concise and useful for engineering students and practicing professionals It is designed to cover a wide range of topics that make up the field of power electronics in a well-organized and highly informative manner The Handbook is a careful blend of both traditional topics and new advancements Special emphasis is placed on practical applications; thus, this Handbook is not a theoretical one, but an enlightening presentation of the usefulness of the rapidly growing field of power electronics The presentation is tutorial in nature in order to enhance the value of the book to the reader and foster a clear understanding of the material The contributors to this Handbook span the globe, with fifty-four authors from twelve different countries, some of whom are the leading authorities in their areas of expertise All were chosen because of their intimate knowledge of their subjects, and their contributions make this a comprehensive stateof-the-art guide to the expanding field of power electronics and its applications covering the following: • • • the characteristics of modern power semiconductor devices, which are used as switches to perform the power conversions from ac-dc, dc-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac; both the fundamental principles and in-depth study of the operation, analysis, and design of various power converters; and examples of recent applications of power electronics Power Electronics Backgrounds The first electronics revolution began in 1948 with the invention of the silicon transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories by Bardeen, Bratain, and Schockley Most of today’s advanced electronic technologies are traceable to that invention, and modern microelectronics has evolved over the years from these silicon semiconductors The second electronics revolution began with the development of a commercial thyristor by the General Electric Company in 1958 That was the beginning of a new era of power electronics Since then, many different types of power semiconductor devices and conversion techniques have been introduced The demand for energy, particularly in electrical forms, is ever-increasing in order to improve the standard of living Power electronics helps with the efficient use of electricity, thereby reducing power consumption Semiconductor devices are used as switches for power conversion or processing, as are solid state electronics for efficient control of the amount of power and energy flow Higher efficiency and lower losses are sought for devices used in a range of applications, from microwave ovens to high-voltage dc transmission New devices and power electronic systems are now evolving for even more effective control of power and energy Power electronics has already found an important place in modern technology and has revolutionized control of power and energy As the voltage and current ratings and switching characteristics of power semiconductor devices keep improving, the range of applications continue to expand in areas, such as lamp controls, power supplies to motion control, factory automation, transportation, energy storage, multimegawatt industrial drives, and electric power transmission and distribution The greater efficiency and tighter control features of power electronics are becoming attractive for applications in motion control by replacing the earlier electromechanical and electronic systems Applications in power transmission and renewable energy include high-voltage dc (VHDC) converter stations, flexible ac transmission system (FACTS), static var compensators, and energy storage In power distribution, these include dc-to-ac conversion, dynamic filters, frequency conversion, and custom power system Almost all new electrical or electromechanical equipments, from household air conditioners and computer power supplies to industrial motor controls, contain power electronic circuits and/or systems In order to keep up, working engineers involved in control and conversion of power and energy into applications ranging from several hundred voltages at a fraction of an ampere for display devices to about 10,000 V at high-voltage dc transmission should have a working knowledge of power electronics xvii xviii Preface for Third Edition Organization • • The Handbook starts with an introductory chapter and moves on to cover topics on power semiconductor devices, power converters, applications, and peripheral issues The book is organized into nine areas, the first of which includes chapters on operation and characterizations of the following power semiconductor devices: power diode, thyristor, gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), power bipolar transistor (BJT), power MOSFET, insulated gate bipolar transistor, MOS-controlled thyristor (MCT), and static induction devices The next topic area includes chapters covering various types of power converters, the principles of operation, and the methods for the analysis and design of power converters This also includes gate drive circuits and control methods for power converters The next two chapters cover applications in power supplies, electronic ballasts, HVDC transmission, VAR compensation, pulse power, and capacitor charging The following two chapters focus on the operation, theory, and control methods of motor drives and automotive systems We then move on to two chapters on power quality issues and active filters, and two chapters on computer simulation, packaging and smart power systems The final chapter is on energy sources, storage, and transmission Fuzzy Logic in Electric Drives EMI Effects of Power Converters Locating Your Topic A table of contents is presented at the front of the book, and each chapter begins with its own table of contents The reader should look over these tables of contents to become familiar with the structure, organization, and content of the book Audience The Handbook is designed to provide both students and practicing engineers with answers to questions involving the wide spectrum of power electronics The book can be used as a textbook for graduate students in electrical or systems engineering, or as a reference book for senior undergraduate students and for engineers who are interested and involved in operation, project management, design, and analysis of power electronic equipment and motor drives Acknowledgments Changes in the Third Edition The five new contributions are added in keeping with the new development and applications • • • • • Solid State Pulsed Power Electronics Novel AI-Based Soft Computing Applications In Motor Drives Energy Sources Energy Storage Electric Power Transmission The following eleven chapters are revised, and the contributions are reorganized under nine chapters • • • • • • • • • Introduction to Power Electronics Static Induction Devices Multilevel Converters AC-AC Converters Power Electronics in Capacitor Charging Applications Solar Power Conversion Fuel-Cell Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Flexible AC Transmission Control Methods for Power Converters This Handbook was made possible through the expertise and dedication of outstanding authors from throughout the world I gratefully acknowledge the personnel at Elsevier Publishing who produced the book, including Jill Leonard In addition, special thanks are due to Ken McCombs, the executive editor for this book Finally, I express my deep appreciation to my wife, Fatema Rashid, who graciously puts up with my publication activities Muhammad H Rashid, Editor-in-Chief Any comments and suggestions regarding this book are welcome They should be sent to Dr Muhammad H Rashid Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of West Florida 11000 University Parkway Pensacola FL 32514-5754, USA e-mail: mrashidfl@gmail.com Web: http://uwf.edu/mrashid Table of Contents Chapter Introduction Philip T Krein Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois, USA Section I: Power Electronics Devices Chapter The Power Diode 17 Ali I Maswood School of EEE Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Avenue, Singapore Chapter Power Bipolar Transistors 29 Marcelo Godoy Simoes Engineering Division Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado, USA Chapter The Power MOSFET 43 Issa Batarseh School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Central Florida 4000 Central Florida Blvd Orlando, Florida, USA Chapter Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor 73 S Abedinpour and K Shenai Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago 851, South Morgan Street (M/C 154) Chicago, Illinois, USA vii viii Chapter Table of Contents Thyristors 91 Angus Bryant Department of Engineering University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL, UK Enrico Santi Department of Electrical Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina, USA Jerry Hudgins Department of Electrical Engineering University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska, USA Patrick Palmer Department of Engineering University of Cambridge Trumpington Street Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK Chapter Gate Turn-off Thyristors 117 Muhammad H Rashid Electrical and Computer Engineering University of West Florida 11000 University Parkway Pensacola, Florida 32514-5754, USA Chapter MOS Controlled Thyristors (MCTs) 125 S Yuvarajan Department of Electrical Engineering North Dakota State University P.O Box 5285 Fargo, North Dakota, USA Chapter Static Induction Devices 135 Bogdan M Wilamowski Alabama Microelectronics Science and Technology Center Auburn University Alabama, USA Section II: Power Conversion Chapter 10 Diode Rectifiers Yim-Shu Lee and Martin H L Chow Department of Electronic and Information Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom Hong Kong 149 Table of Contents Chapter 11 Single-phase Controlled Rectifiers ix 183 Jos´e Rodr´ıguez, Pablo Lezana, Samir Kouro, and Alejandro Weinstein Department of Electronics Universidad T´ecnica Federico Santa Mar´ıa, Valpara´ıso, Chile Chapter 12 Three-phase Controlled Rectifiers 205 Juan W Dixon Department of Electrical Engineering Pontificia Universidad Cat´olica de Chile Vicu˜na Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile Chapter 13 DC–DC Converters 249 Dariusz Czarkowski Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Polytechnic University Brooklyn, New York, USA Chapter 14 DC/DC Conversion Technique and Twelve Series Luo-converters 265 Fang Lin Luo School of EEE, Block S1 Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Avenue, Singapore Hong Ye School of Biological Sciences, Block SBS Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Avenue, Singapore Chapter 15 Inverters 357 Jos´e R Espinoza Departamento de Ingenier´ıa El´ectrica, of 220 Universidad de Concepci´on Casilla 160-C, Correo Concepci´on, Chile Chapter 16 Resonant and Soft-switching Converters 409 S Y (Ron) Hui and Henry S H Chung Department of Electronic Engineering City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Hong Kong Chapter 17 Multilevel Power Converters Surin Khomfoi King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Thailand Leon M Tolbert The University of Tennessee Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Knoxville, Tennessee, USA 455 x Chapter 18 Table of Contents AC–AC Converters 487 A K Chattopadhyay Department of Electrical Engineering Bengal Engineering & Science University Shibpur, Howrah, India Chapter 19 Power Factor Correction Circuits 523 Issa Batarseh and Huai Wei School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Central Florida 4000 Central Florida Blvd Orlando, Florida, USA Chapter 20 Gate Drive Circuitry for Power Converters 549 Irshad Khan University of Cape Town Department of Electrical Engineering Cape Town, South Africa Section III: General Applications Chapter 21 Power Electronics in Capacitor Charging Applications 567 William C Dillard Archangel Systems, Incorporated 1635 Pumphrey Avenue Auburn Alabama, USA Chapter 22 Electronic Ballasts 573 J Marcos Alonso Electrical Engineering Department University of Oviedo Campus de Viesques s/n Edificio de Electronica 33204 Gijon, Asturias, Spain Chapter 23 Power Supplies 601 Y M Lai Department of Electronic and Information Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong Chapter 24 Uninterruptible Power Supplies Adel Nasiri Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 3200 North Cramer Street Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA 627 Table of Contents Chapter 25 Automotive Applications of Power Electronics xi 643 David J Perreault Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 10-039 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Khurram Afridi Techlogix, 800 West Cummings Park 1925, Woburn, Massachusetts, USA Iftikhar A Khan Delphi Automotive Systems 2705 South Goyer Road MS D35 Kokomo Indiana, USA Chapter 26 Solid State Pulsed Power Electronics 669 Luis Redondo Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa DEEA, and Nuclear Physics Center fom Lisbon University Av Prof Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal J Fernando Silva TU Lisbon, Instituto Superior T´ecnico, DEEC, A.C Energia, Center for Innovation on Electrical and Energy Engineering AV Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal Section IV: Power Generation and Distribution Chapter 27 Photovoltaic System Conversion 711 Dr Lana El Chaar, Ph D Electrical Engineering Department The Petroleum Institute P.O Box 2533, Abu Dhabi, UAE Chapter 28 Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Sources C V Nayar, S M Islam H Dehbonei, and K Tan Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Curtin University of Technology GPO Box U1987, Perth Western Australia 6845, Australia H Sharma Research Institute for Sustainable Energy Murdoch University Perth, Western Australia, Australia 723 xii Chapter 29 Table of Contents High-Frequency Inverters: From Photovoltaic, Wind, and Fuel-Cell-Based Renewable- and Alternative-Energy DER/DG Systems to Energy-Storage Applications 767 S K Mazumder Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Director, Laboratory for Energy and Switching-Electronics Systems (LESES) University of Illinois Chicago, USA Chapter 30 Wind Turbine Applications 791 Juan M Carrasco, Eduardo Galv´an, and Ram´on Portillo Department of Electronic Engineering Engineering School, Seville University, Spain Chapter 31 HVDC Transmission 823 Vijay K Sood Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec, Canada Chapter 32 Flexible AC Transmission Systems E H Watanabe Electrical Engineering Department COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Brazil, South America M Aredes Electrical Engineering Department Polytechnic School and COPPE/ Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Brazil, South America P G Barbosa Electrical Engineering Department Federal University of Juiz de Fora Brazil, South America F K de Ara´ujo Lima Electrical Engineering Department Federal University of Ceara Brazil, South America R F da Silva Dias Pos-doctoral Fellow at Toronto University supported by Capes Foundation Ministry of Education Brazil, South America G Santos Eneltec- Energia El´etrica e Tecnologia Brazil, South America 851 Index Terms Links Power electronics for photovoltaic power systems basics of photovoltaics 724 types of PV power systems 726 Power electronics laboratory 503 Power factor (PF) 130 153 164 165 183 216 225 226 228 231 234 263 363 374 394 402 433 435 436 492 498 499 502 506 507 511 524 578 579 778 787 796 803 184 196 200 263 433 435 436 524 526 527 528 532 533 535 536 537 541 correction stage 598 definition of 524 disadvantages of 527 grid connection conditioning system 803 harmonic limiting standards 595 high power factor 594 improved electrical system power factors 883 input power factor 596 power factor and harmonics 491 unity power factor 762 universal UPS 630 Power factor correction (PFC) technique classification of 597 543 Power junction field effect transistor 670 677 Power quality 630 634 717 741 749 750 791 809 831 1009 1180 1182 1183 diagnosis 1186 power quality analyzers 1186 power quality problems 1192 1195 Power rectifiers using multilevel topologies 244 Power semiconductors 550 661 669 670 679 680 682 687 798 1038 1055 1058 1061 1206 1250 1275 1280 13 29 categories 550 diepower semiconductors 563 features 10 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links Power semiconductors (Cont.) power losses in power semiconductors 197 sliding-mode control 1058 switching law 1038 Power system 1357 1358 1359 1370 1372 1373 POWEREX’s M57959L bridge driver 517 562 Power supply 165 193 202 205 444 524 530 541 553 555 567 568 570 601 603 627 740 755 39 53 127 887 switch-mode Premium power 1354 Product business cost 1282 Production cost 1281 Programmable logic control (PLC) ® PSpice 831 886 900 903 1249 1250 1251 1252 1254 1259 1263 1266 1272 702 703 Public utility board (PUB) 349 Pulse density modulation (PDM) 132 advantages of 1285 1205 132 Pulse Power 676 683 684 698 683 684 687 694 12 357 359 361 363 364 368 369 383 397 1159 1194 1211 1213 705 Pulse waveform Pulse width modulation (PWM) Pulse width modulator transfer functions Pulsed Power 1044 669 670 673 674 676 678 681 682 683 684 686 687 689 690 702 Pumping energy (PE) 350 351 Punch-through diode 670 675 Punch-through emitter (PTE) 135 140 Push–pull based topology 720 PV charge controllers 727 types of 727 PV power electronic interfaces PWM AC chopper 1303 1305 492 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links PWM flyback converter 255 PWM generator 989 PWM phase-to-phase voltages 227 PWM switching converter drive/choppers 920 921 PWM techniques 373 376 400 403 443 444 463 466 468 510 636 740 846 904 1153 892 910 912 515 1234 1296 1297 PWM-VSI converter 1159 1253 R Radio-frequency (RF) filters Rankine cycle Rbe 551 RC snubbers 847 Rectification, filtering, and regulation in a dc power supply 601 Regeneration 126 130 200 244 358 390 41 114 202 219 243 311 323 328 331 457 657 895 908 922 928 Regulator circuits 604 609 646 transistor 46 voltage divider 44 zener 44 785 1004 1331 887 Regeneration in inverters 390 Regenerative braking Remote area power supplies (RAP) 735 Remote power 652 Renewable energy 723 767 769 1333 1337 1351 455 457 484 723 726 Renewable energy interface 482 Renewable energy sources (RES) 263 738 737 Repetition rate 567 908 Resistive load 682 685 688 691 697 698 581 591 649 650 859 870 891 962 970 1046 1187 1193 1225 1234 700 Resonance This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links Resonance charging technique 569 Resonant inverters 339 types 441 586 589 598 267 339 340 343 21 26 27 149 187 205 893 81 127 128 166 169 171 586 Resonant power converter (RPC) Restricted switches 266 10 FCRB 11 types of 11 Reverse recovery process 21 Reverse recovery time 18 19 166 171 Reverse two-quadrant operating (R 2Q) Luo-converter 307 308 Ridethrough module 518 Ripple-mitigating power conditioner 768 Ripple mitigation 773 774 102 152 894 924 1070 Root mean square (RMS) Rotary UPS 631 Rotor connected power conditioner 804 Rotor flux oriented control (RFOC) induction motor drive 934 1139 1145 1146 1147 27 33 73 131 439 1235 Rotor resistance estimator (RRE) S SAE standards J1113/41 and J1113/42 Safe operating area (SOA) 647 FBSOA 33 RBSOA 33 37 1313 1314 Samarium cobalt 943 949 Sawtooth carrier wave 514 Scalar control methods 931 Schmitt trigger comparator 128 Schottky diode 136 140 141 181 258 957 888 906 Salter-cam Schottky emitters 140 Scotopic curve 573 SCR (thyristor) 549 applications 123 1316 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links SCR (thyristor) (Cont.) basic structure and operation 92 limitations of 125 major types of 92 static characteristics 94 structure 144 thyristor parameters 101 types of 103 Sealed batteries 727 Secondary ripple filter 1213 Selective harmonic elimination (SHE) 358 361 364 473 474 636 Semi-autogenous (SAG) grinding mills 516 Semiconductor opening switch 671 Semiconductor power integrated circuits Semiconductor series stacks Semiconductor-switching network 1279 371 380 456 1280 679 44 characteristics 46 efficiency of 44 Semiconductors 10 951 956 957 1038 1054 1055 1058 1060 1061 1062 1064 1065 1067 1195 1275 1280 1211 1215 1220 characteristics of power devices 10 groups 10 Semiconductors switches 29 characteristics of 29 operating regions 30 47 703 31 Semiconverter 213 Semikron Corporation 560 561 SEPDIS 911 912 Sepic converter 540 Series active power filters 1194 advantages of 1216 characteristics 1212 compensation characteristics 1212 power circuit structure 1211 power circuit topology 1212 principles of operation 1211 1195 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links Series hybrid energy systems 736 Series-parallel/delta conversion UPS 630 Series-stack 693 702 Servo drives 516 888 960 962 83 556 951 974 1254 Shoot through Silicon avalanche sharpener 672 Silicon carbide technology 550 Silicon control rectifier (SCR) 144 487 493 495 497 500 501 506 514 549 130 132 193 202 888 Silicon Power Corporation (SPCO) 126 Silicon semiconductor material 725 Simplorer® 1269 ® Simulation of sensorless vector control using PSpice 1263 Simulation tools for design and analysis 1249 Simulations of power electronic circuits 1256 Simulations using Simplorer ® 1269 Single-ended isolated flyback regulator 611 Single-ended isolated forward regulators 615 Single phase 777 785 Single-phase ac–ac voltage controller 488 491 phase-controlled 488 with on/off control 491 Single-phase diode rectifiers 149 design parameters 154 full-wave rectifiers 149 bridge rectifiers 150 half-wave rectifiers 150 performance parameters current relationships 152 form factor 152 harmonics 153 rectification ratio 152 ripple factor 153 transformer utilization factor 153 voltage relationships 151 Single-phase rectifiers 183 190 192 bridge rectifier 193 266 335 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation 550 Index Terms Links Single-phase rectifiers (Cont.) classification 184 Single-phase voltage source inverters 359 Single-pulse mode of operation 982 Sinusoidal pulse width modulation 233 Sinusoidal wave PWM 456 1054 Six step switching 952 953 1038 1058 Sliding-mode control of switching converters principles of 983 958 1058 Slow switching frequency changer (SSFC) 506 Snubbers 677 Society of automotive engineers (SAE) 645 Soft starters for induction generators 756 Soft-switched multilevel converter 461 Soft-switching converters Solar Solar cells 665 1243 1244 88 249 266 327 410 1290 1300 1301 482 662 724 725 729 730 1294 1298 1303 732 734 672 676 678 703 815 740 Solar energy 1293 Solar energy constant 724 Solar energy conversion 1298 Solar water pumping 667 types of pumps 732 Solidtron 132 SOS diode 670 671 Space charge limiting load (SCLL) 142 144 Space vector modulation (SVM) 373 382 456 464 509 1054 1055 1153 1154 1156 888 899 Special motors Speed control algorithm 1169 Spice 1272 SPWM inverter drive 926 936 Square-wave operation 368 380 Squirrel cage induction motor 882 888 890 896 897 1001 1144 1170 1307 1309 Stacked die 1275 Stages 768 Staircase waveform quality 455 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation 931 Index Terms Links Stand-alone PV systems 669 features of 723 727 730 580 582 730 Standby UPS 627 Standby/emergency generation 627 Star-connected R-load 494 495 Starting voltage 576 578 594 STATCOM control techniques 863 Static induction diode (SID) 139 Static induction MOS transistor (SIMOS) 141 advantages of 864 142 141 short switching time 139 thermal stability 139 Static induction transistor (SIT) 135 bipolar mode operation of SI devices (BSIT) 137 characteristics of 136 linear scales 137 logarithmic scales 137 140 junction field effect transistor (JFET) 135 theory 135 136 Static induction transistor logic (SITL) 135 140 Static Kramer system 763 898 Static Scherbius system 763 Static switching systems 114 Static synchronous compensator 861 Static synchronous series compensator 869 Static var compensators (SVC) 523 Static var compensators STATCOM 818 Steady-state frequency regulation 1180 Steady-state voltage regulation 1180 677 144 Step-down (buck) converter basic converter 250 scheme 250 transformer versions of forward converter 252 full-bridge converter 253 half-bridge converter 253 push–pull converter 253 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation 588 593 Index Terms Links Step-down (buck) converter (Cont.) waveforms 252 Stepper motors 900 Step-up (boost) converter 254 Sun tracking system 1300 Super-lift (SL) Luo-converters 292 in CCM 353 N/O cascade boost-converters (CBC) 301 N/O super-lift Luo-converters 296 P/O cascade boost-converters (CBC) 298 P/O super-lift Luo-converters 292 Surface-magnet synchronous motor 944 SVC vs STATCOM 868 Switch 1301 ideal switches power handling rating real switches Switch matrices 500 832 532 Switch-mode converter 715 Switch mode power supplies (SMPS) 524 525 Switched-capacitor converters 322 326 Switched-capacitor (SC) DC/DC converters 266 Switched-capacitor multi-quadrant Luo-converters 310 two modes of 1038 311 311 Switched hybrid energy systems 737 Switched-inductor (SI) DC/DC converters 266 Switched mode power supply (SMPS) 127 1187 Switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive 900 973 974 advantages and disadvantages of 974 applications of 974 drive design options of 975 operating theory of 977 position sensing 983 principle of operation 973 1207 1210 13 142 Switching functions 11 parameter of 12 Switching power converters 977 1161 1037 1038 1046 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation 1045 Index Terms Links Switching power converters (Cont.) linearized state-space averaged model 1041 state-space averaged model 1037 1040 state-space modeling 1038 1059 switched state-space model 1039 Switching regulators 249 Synchronizing circuit 503 Synchronous generators 1308 Synchronous link reactor 1210 Synchronous motor (excited) 916 Synchronous motor (PM) 916 Synchronous motor drives 515 1041 1043 1044 602 603 610 611 898 935 936 938 961 CSI-driven 938 operating modes 940 steady-state equivalent-circuit representation 936 Synchronous-rectifier (SR) DC/DC converters 266 Synchronous reluctance motor drives 984 basic mathematical modeling 987 basic principles 984 machine structure 986 Syncrel 985 Syncrel drive system 989 System in package (SIP) 1275 System on chip (SOC) 1275 System on package (SOP) 1275 335 T Tail-current amplitude 131 Tapped inductor (Watkins–Johnson) converters 275 Techniques of level shifting 552 Technology-driven partitioning TelCom Semiconductor Inc 1275 562 Thermoelectric energy 1296 Thermoelectric power plant 1290 Thick film on ceramic (TFC) 1279 Three phase 1282 785 1293 1296 786 787 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation 943 Index Terms Links Three-phase ac–ac voltage controllers fully controlled three-wire modes 492 493 494 phase-controlled 492 Three-phase diode rectifiers 154 bridge rectifiers high power applications 157 design parameters 154 operations 159 star rectifiers 155 basic circuit 154 double-star rectifier 157 inter-star or zig-zag rectifier circuit 156 Three-phase voltage source inverters 367 DC Link current in three-phase VSI 373 load-phase voltages in three-phase VSI 375 selective harmonic elimination 371 sinusoidal PWM with zero sequence signal injection 368 space-vector (SV)-based modulating techniques 372 square-wave operation of three-phase VSI 368 155 1054 369 Thyristor 670 Thyristor-controlled inductor (TCI) 115 Thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) 859 861 Thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) 527 857 Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) 859 870 Thyristor converter drive 919 Thyristor-switched series capacitor (TSSC) 858 Thyrode controller 488 Tidal fence 1317 Topologies converter 1277 developed 268 fundamental 267 Total harmonic distortion (THD) Transformer 676 680 1318 270 164 188 192 194 225 266 350 457 466 473 502 506 524 627 634 798 811 817 863 1200 681 699 705 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links Transients 861 1179 1180 1182 1193 1229 1240 1256 10 13 34 35 38 142 143 231 dynamic switching characteristics 34 78 97 power-npn and -pnp bipolar transistors 29 SPICE simulation of 38 Transistors Transmission lines 1185 1186 29 30 32 39 73 140 1208 1210 1213 478 777 39 1359 Trapezoidal back-emf waveform 944 945 control of 944 Triangular carrier 231 863 1206 1250 1253 1254 267 303 1211 1275 463 474 631 634 True UPS 629 Turboswitchers Inc 563 U Ultra-lift (UL) Luo-converters 266 continuous conduction mode 303 discontinuous conduction mode 305 negative output Luo-converters five circuits of 283 positive output Luo-converters five circuits of 275 275 simplified positive output Luo-converters four circuits of 280 Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) topology 630 Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) 627 classification 627 performance comparison of 634 Unipolar capacitors 481 Unipolar drive circuits 970 Unity displacement factor frequency changer (UDFFC) 506 Universal 777 Universal power conditioner 462 Universal power converter 509 Universal UPS 630 Unnecessary distortion terms 505 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links Unrestricted frequency changer (UFC) 506 V VAR compensators 29 103 107 114 357 523 740 764 827 1179 495 515 754 758 759 222 459 562 762 881 885 895 900 910 917 923 936 946 974 989 1155 1161 1207 1250 690 692 535 623 Variable ratio transmission (VRT) 760 Variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) 244 Variable speed control of AC machines Variable speed drive (VSD) 1156 advantages of 882 applications 909 classification by applications 888 classification by the type of converter 888 classification by type of power device 888 common requirements 885 communication in 903 control strategies 902 disadvantages of 883 drive classifications and characteristics 887 drive specifications 887 improved process control 883 modern VSD systems 911 Vector control methods 899 1055 basic principles of 932 Vector control technique 754 931 1155 Venturini method 509 511 512 Venturini vs SVM method 511 VMOS 142 Voltage–current characteristic curves 358 143 32 Voltage distortion limits 1191 Voltage flicker 1184 1192 1195 Voltage hold-off 686 688 689 Voltage lift Luo-converters 275 Voltage-lift (VL) technique 266 275 292 Voltage mode control 250 260 531 1054 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation 1044 Index Terms Links Voltage sags 478 1180 1181 1211 Voltage source converters (VSC) 518 827 845 Voltage source inverter (VSI) 357 364 368 371 373 380 383 386 390 394 740 232 233 1290 1294 741 Voltage-source voltage-controlled PWM rectifier 229 VSI-multilevel topologies 398 W Water resistance 682 Wave energy harvesting 683 1295 West German Standards (VDE) 223 Wind 767 769 774 785 1295 1306 1307 1295 Wind energy 1294 Wind energy conversion systems 1305 Wind turbine generators 723 1295 1305 1317 Wind turbine technology 723 759 791 818 basics of wind power 751 classification 752 control of 813 control of wind turbines 757 electrical system of a wind farm 815 816 fixed speed generator (FSWT) 752 757 758 grid connection standards 803 horizontal-axis wind turbine 791 offshore and onshore wind turbines 818 types of wind generators 753 types of wind power systems 755 types of wind turbines 751 variable speed pitch wind turbine 796 variable speed wind turbine generator 752 757 758 X x-Element RPC 339 Z Zener diode regulator 19 603 Zener diodes 19 36 556 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation Index Terms Links Zero-ripple boost converter (ZRBC) 773 774 775 Zeta converter 273 529 540 541 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation ... then “Copyright and Permission” and then “Obtaining Permissions.” Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Power electronics handbook : devices, circuits, and applications handbook / edited... of the operation, analysis, and design of various power converters; and examples of recent applications of power electronics Power Electronics Backgrounds The first electronics revolution began... Edition Organization • • The Handbook starts with an introductory chapter and moves on to cover topics on power semiconductor devices, power converters, applications, and peripheral issues The book
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