GEOTOPE, GEOSITE, GEOMORPHOSITE Tác giả Mihai IELENICZ

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Địa di sản, các định nghĩa về geosite, geoheritage. Khái niệm này xuất hiện những năm 90 nhưng chưa được định nghĩa một cách rõ ràng. Nay tác giả Mihai IELENICZ tổng hợp lại.(The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome 9 2009) The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 ` GEOTOPE, GEOSITE, GEOMORPHOSITE Mihai IELENICZ1 University of Bucharest Abstract: During the last decennia, the terms of geosite and geomorphosite have been introduced in the geographic literature, to delineate and to express the tourist value of certain places (mainly as relief forms and reliefogenic processes) We have followed successively the relations between geotope and geosite and then geosite and geomorphosite and insisted on the features leading to the differentiation of types and subtypes of geosites and on the calculation of the tourist value of the objectives they belong to, according to a differentiated score awarded based on several criteria Key words: tourism, geotope, geosite, geomorphosite, cultural geomorphology Geotope-Geosite A few decennia ago, was introduced in the geographic literature, with many geomorphological exemplifications, the term of geotope, to define the smallest geographic unit constituting an undividable system of this kind (the basis of all the systemic complexes organized in a hierarchy) During the last decennium, in some countries of the Mediterranean basin (Italy, France), desiring to express as eloquently as possible the connections between a large part of the relief forms and sometimes between the geomorphological processes and tourism (especially in the sense of valorizing them for different tourist activities), in the specialized literature was introduced the term of Geomorphosite The meaning was that of morphological element (indicated as process or form of relief) with a certain value for tourism It can also be a reply to some terms (archeological site, historical site) used with a very high frequency in these states with an extremely rich history Then, there was a move on from the simple definition to the determination of four to five features that can lead to the selection of a reliefogenic site They were completed using several criteria based on which they can be quantified and, finally, an average value can be calculated, which would lead to significant hierarchies for a realistic economic valorization Timidly, there has appeared as well the tendency of evading towards other components of the geographic system or of the geological, historical systems as well, in which it is also possible to differentiate elements that through their characteristics are significant for different tourist activities Knowing all of them (those that belong to the relief but also all the others) is only possible via field investigations materialized in mapping, surveys, measurements, then followed by the realization of maps, brochures, diverse writings and finally by the calculation of an average value that would lead to hierarchies with significance for a valorization in tourism Almost in parallel have appeared, beside the terms of geomorphosite and geosite, notions that are often used in an undifferentiated way, although the first constitutes a component of the other That is why it is necessary to come with clarifications, firstly in the relations between the notions with a larger content (geotope and geosite) and then between geosite and geomorphosite The first terms phonetically express similar situations (geo=geo; tope=site=place) small geographic spots, or small spots on the surface of the Earth with a certain specific The The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 difference is given, however, not by location or size, but by the sphere of comprehension of the functional expression of this place in relation to specific demands (in the first situation, we are dealing with a complex level of the geographic meaning, while the significance of the second is meaningful for a tourist valorization) In this sense, the geotope is a minor, indivisible geographic unit (the basis of the geographic systems of different orders) with a certain makeup, structure and functionality, resulted from a genesis, evolution and combination of certain elements of all the environmental components, yet differentiated as significance) It remains the basic unit in any geographic analysis in which the main accent is of a scientific nature (ex river bed, talweg, river rapid, inselberg, glacis, CROV, peak, plateau, cuesta, cliff, beach etc.) From here results the family of geomorphotopes classified according to different criteria (agent, process etc.) or according to regions with specific geomorpholandscapes (a set of geomorphotops) that all belong to the science of the relief (landscapes of the glacial geomorphotopes from the massifs Făgăraş, Parâng, Retezat, Rodnei etc.; karst landscapes of the mounts Aninei, Pădurea Craiului, Mehedinţi Plateau etc.; sufosion and rams landscapes in the plains of Bărăgan, Covurlui etc.; structural cuesta and plateau landscapes in the Moldavian Plateau etc.) Secondly, the sphere of comprehension of the notion o “geotope” leads on the one hand to the possibility of realizing hierarchies on different levels (from basic unit to regions, tiers, zones) dominated by the high frequency of a geotope and then, on the other hand, through synthesis, to the differentiation of specific types of geotopes The term of geosite, however, involves, depending on the direction in which they are used, other assessment criteria, combined in different proportions Their weight depends on the final purpose of the activities (related to science, tourism, economy etc.), and also on the person (people) who realize the assessment act The specialist in one domain (geography, geology, history etc.) will focus on the scientific component that he/they will consider as basic, not just in point of location, but also in point of the attributes he/they provide(s) in the genetic, evolutive, chronological etc explanations, both on a general and on a local level So, it is the scientific knowledge that is primordial, while the aspects resulted from the investigation of other directions will have a secondary role and only to the extent to which they support the essential ones For instance, let us take the case of the paleontological knowledge of a fossiliferous spot or the interpretation of a stratigraphic column for the chronoevolutive assessment of a relief In this case, for the geographer, the geosite is almost identified with the geotope The use of the term in a different direction (for tourism) and so collaterally in relation to the purely scientific side changes the relative weight of these characteristics For example the neck on which a fortified city (Rupea) is situated has a differentiated scientific value for the geographer (altitude, shape, evolution of the plateau, economic valorization etc.), geologist (genesis, makeup, evolution etc.), historian (strategic basis for the building of the fortified city, point of observation) and in a low but varied proportion for each of the other domains (cultural, artistic etc.) Collaterally, for an architect become significant (primordial) the type of construction through its adaptation to declivity, rock, exposure and degree of preservation For a tourist, significant (primordial) are the purely historical data and the landscape, and secondarily all the others; for a military strategist, essential is the motivation of the role of such a place in the network of Transylvanian walled cities belonging to the middle Ages So, a geosite can be looked at from several directions by different specialists or by simple passers-by (tourists), which results in distinct differences in the attribution of characteristics, then in an assessment in point of value and eventually in decisions of The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 scientific patrimonial expertise (historic, artistic, architectonic etc.), on a local, national, international level, and in an economic, tourist etc valorization So, the sphere of the term of geosite is extremely large, leading to distinguishing a group (family) of separated geosites depending on the main direction of approach of the investigation (scientific, cultural-artistic, economic, sportive, tourist, etc.) The connections between them impose secondary directions that can form a hierarchy in point of the participation to the ways of valorization In the sphere of the scientific direction, in the geographic domain there is the term of geotope and in the domain of history, the term of archeological site, while for the other domains there are no such comprehensive notions The geographers have made the first steps in the differentiation of the geosites for tourism Yet, tourism is a domain which involves specialists with very different orientations This situation has led to the introduction and use of a diverse terminology in time (potential, patrimony etc.) and which, in many cases, is interpretable and can even lead to confusions The sense the geographer gives to the term of geosite used in tourism must have a complex character, comprising several aspects, the type of tourist objective, with the value imposed by the sum of certain characteristics resulted from a symbiosis in time between the natural and the anthropic patrimony (historical, architectonic, artistic elements etc.) to which is added the level of endowment and of exploitation So, on a local level it reflects at any time its tourist patrimony and also the extent to which it is known and valorized The idea of the extension of the sites with value for tourism (correct: touristsites) and of their inclusion in a comprehensive term – geosites implies, however, as well, the discussion of three interpretations of a taxonomic nature of the term of geosite, related to different extensions The first interpretation refers to strictly geographic sites, the second includes the interpretations from the sphere of geosciences (geographic, geological, ecological) and then there is a third all-comprehensive interpretation (fig 1) referring to terrestrial sites of different geneses (to the previous interpretations are added the historical, economic, cultural etc ones) but which present a tourist value Fig – Sphere of the Geosite in situations The final purpose of some territorial analyses would be to asses the tourist potential present in a region with the purpose of its future economic valorization It naturally leads to accepting the third direction of interpretation, a situation requiring nevertheless team evaluations with specialists from a large horizon of knowledge and preoccupation (obligatorily the tourist domain along with the specialized ones) The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Through the extension of the sphere of comprehension of this notion (any site with tourist value situated on all the surface of the earth) is overpassed the strict limitation to the alpine units where they have a distinct concentration being frequently present in the landscape In this sense, the alpine areas of the Alps or of the other massifs of the Mediterranean basin which have constituted pioneering applicative models for the ideas related to the touristsites directly imposed by the relief (definition, categories, characteristics, assessment criteria, score, valorisation ideas) have proven auspicious, yet insufficient (table 2) By extension, even to the alpine areas from other geographic regions, some of the ideas (especially the direction of the characteristics) have proven unrealistic, unconvincing for the analysis That is why it is necessary to determine geosite families for each domain (geographic, geologic, ecologic, historical etc.), the verification on places (units) as varied as possible in structure and frequency and then the determination of general and also particular (clearly defined) assessment criteria, with a corresponding score for each family Geomorphosite The alpine area, through the multitude of elements (dominantly those imposed by the relief) and of landscapes with tourist value largely known and appreciated by tourists, including also an infrastructure and endowments for diverse tourist activities, was the area where the geographers have looked for the application and then the launch of the first term of the family of geosites The geomorphosite It refers only to certain forms of relief and reliefogenic processes that have features conferring them a destination for tourism In order to impose the term and the methods of analysis, a multiple lobby has been carried out during the last few years, supported by papers presented in scientific conferences – national or international -, by the creation of workgroups and of a commission of the International Geomorphological Association with a view to deepening the directions of activity and to printing several books It was prefigured even the idea of the belonging of this direction of investigation to a new section in geomorphology (Cultural geomorphology) in connection to Cultural geography, giving it, in a forced manner, the scientific support of knowledge and a side of transposition towards the spiritual patrimony But, next to the reliefogenic elements specific to the geomorphosites, we have submitted to analysis as well other elements belonging to other components of the geographic system (e.g glaciers, lakes that have to with the hydrosphere etc.) or resulting from the correlation of the forms of relief with a different geographic element (waterfall – step leading to the falling of a river’s water) This imposes the necessity of multiplying the types of geographic geosites, which in the natural system alone would lead to terms such as hydrosites, glacialsits, karstsites, limnosites, ecosites, coastsites, anthroposites etc.) By this we arrive to families of geographic geosites (Table 3) each with several divisions (e.g the situation of the geomorphosites) The characteristics of the geomorphosites They derive from those of the geosites, as the purpose is to relate the relief to the interests of those who carry out the investigation and to objectively determine the elements imposing the geomorphosite to the tourists’ attention, supporting different types of tourist activities that can be practiced with a certain degree of arrangement Important are a few demands: - the determination based on the criterion value and importance for tourism of certain adequate characteristics that can be used as landmarks for the selection of the geomorphosites and coming from the set of relief forms and reliefogenic processes regardless of the region (be it alpine, hilly, plain, plateau etc.) Here what matters is the physiognomy, the connection to certain forms of tourist practice (camping, training, ecological education, recreation-rest etc.), 10 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 the uniqueness in a large area, the degree of accessibility corroborated with the level of development of the infrastructure and of the material endowment, the association with other types of geographic geosites or with sites of a different nature (table 4, 5) The appreciation of the geomorphosites on the basis of certain features We distinguish two primordial categories (imposing the significance of the geomorphosite for tourism) and secondary (highlighting some of its features) sometimes, for certain forms of tourist activity, one of the secondary features becomes essential (for cultural tourism) The appreciation will be made by means of a score, differentiated according to the categories (taxonomy) The subjectivism in the evaluation of the geomorphosites depends on the degree of training of those that carry out the assessment, on the correct appreciation of the relation between the elements “provided” by the geomorphosite and what interests (the demand of) those receiving them for diverse tourist activities Although the mainstream directions are prevalent, those directions that are significant for a small number of tourists cannot be neglected either (table 4) The results of the estimations of the geomorphosites are introduced in tables, and on the basis of these results, we can get to appreciations concerning the frequency of the subtypes in a certain region and then we can assess the role they could have in the development of an average region, including for the deployment of different tourist activities, from those involving large masses of visitors (especially camping) to smaller teams taking part in specific actions (alpinism, rafting, photographing, painting etc.) But, in order to appreciate the potential of a given region, the data concerning the morphosites (which are frequently the most numerous), need to be correlated to those resulting from the correlation to those resulted from the estimation of other types of geosites present there Only in this way can we get to differentiated appreciations, regional averages and the realization of viable tourist management projects (table 6) That is why the series of analyses on the geomorphosite level will be continued by others referring to other geosites: geographic, historical, cultural, anthropic etc 11 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table – Relations between Geotope and Geosite 12 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table Characteristics and criteria which evidence the touristic value of a same type of a geomorphosite (after literature) Characteristic Scientific Aesthetic Criteria Small 0,25 small small >7 destroyed 500 m very high very tall opposite colors multiple connections >50 a lot of… a lot of… every year national road without hazard >1 mil without protection internatio nal Average The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table Geomorphosites types and their relations with other geosites 14 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table Characteristics, criterias and score for geomorfosites’ estimation Characteristic Estimation criteria - attractiveness - visibility - dimension Spatial position - surface - length or height - constraint in landscape’s assembly through shape and color Primordial - physiognomy as result of composition, genesis and evolution Degree of estimation through score (from to 2) Weak (0,5) Medium (1) Strong (2) 1000 m (2) 1000 0,5 18 Absence or a camp Shelter, camp - - From camp to hotel, arrangements, so - - - - The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table – Criteria for the selection of the geomorphosites Characteristics Physiognomy Frequency Relation to other types of geosites - lack Accessibility Means of communication - not modernized - modernized Endowments Types of tourist activities Importance for regional development 19 Criteria - common - bizarre - original - large in the local horizon - singular in the local horizon - singular in large areas - support - association - in locality - outside locality - in locality - outside locality - in locality - outside locality - lack - weak - good - camping - rest, recreation - training - investigation - not at all - low at present - important in the future Score 2 0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table – Method of analysis of the tourist patrimony in the light of its future valorization 20 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Table – Geosite classification according to environments and units 21 The Annals of Valahia University of Târgovişte, Geographical Series, Tome / 2009 Selective bibliography: Comănescu Laura, (2008), Inventarierea geomorfositurilor, Comunicări de geografie, nr XII, Universitatea din Bucureşti, p.17-29 Comănescu Laura, 2009, Evaluarea turistică a geomorfositurilor (Tourist assessment of geomorphosites), Comunicări de Geografie, nr XIII, Universitatea din Bucureşti, p 25-30 Comănescu Laura, Dobre R.,(2009), Inventorying, evaluating and tourism valuating the geomorphosites from the central sector of the Ceahlău National Park, Comunicări de Geografie, nr 3, Universitatea din Bucureşti, p 86-96 Panizza M (2001), Geomorphosites, Concepts, methods, and examples of geomorphological survey, Chinese Science Bulletin, 46, nr 4-6 Panizza M., Piacente S., (2003), Geomorfologia culturale, Bologna, Pitagora Editrice Panizza M., Piacente S., (2008), Gemorphosites and geoturism, Rev Geogr Academica, 2, nr Reynard E., Panizza M.,(2005), Géomorphosites: définition, évaluation et cartographie, Une introduction, Géomorphologie – Relief, processus, environnement, Reynard E., (2005), Geomorphosites et paysages, Geomorphologie: – Relief processus, environnement, Reynard E., Fontana G, Kozlik L., Scapozza C, (2007), A method for assessing “scientific” and “additional values” of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetia, 62, nr.3 22 ... tourist etc valorization So, the sphere of the term of geosite is extremely large, leading to distinguishing a group (family) of separated geosites depending on the main direction of approach of... their inclusion in a comprehensive term – geosites implies, however, as well, the discussion of three interpretations of a taxonomic nature of the term of geosite, related to different extensions... families of geographic geosites (Table 3) each with several divisions (e.g the situation of the geomorphosites) The characteristics of the geomorphosites They derive from those of the geosites, as the
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