Công nghệ chế tạo vật liệu

337 45 0
  • Loading ...
1/337 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 29/12/2018, 23:17

Là cuốn sách có tác giả là nhà khoa học rất nổi tiếng trên thế giới.wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww This Page Intentionally Left Blank Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes J Beddoes & M J Bibby Carleton University, Canada ELSEVIER BU'ITERWORTH HEINEMANN AMSTERDAM BOSTON ~ HEIDELBERG ~ LONDON ~ PARIS SAN D I E G O SAN FRANCISCO~ SINGAPORE NEW YORK o-OXFORD SYDNEY TOKYO Elsevier ButtenNorth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheelers Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First published 1999 Reprinted 2003 Copyright 2003, J Beddoes and M J Bibby All rights reserved The fight of J Beddoes and M J Bibby to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents ACt 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England WlT 4LP Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage (http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting 'Customer Support' and then 'Obtaining Permissions' British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 340 73162 For information on all Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at www.bh.com Transferred to digital printing 2006 Printed and bound by Antony Rowe Ltd, Eastbourne Contents Preface viii Metal processing and manufacturing 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The manufacturing engineering discipline 1.3 Materials used in manufacturing 1.4 Raw materials to finished product 1.5 Primary manufacturing processes - steelmaking 1.6 Primary manufacturing processes - aluminium production 1.7 Secondary manufacturing 1.8 Problems 4 12 15 16 Solidification and casting processes 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Major casting techniques 2.3 Solidification mechanism 2.4 Solidification volume shrinkage 2.5 Heat transfer during solidification 2.6 Defects produced during casting 2.7 Shape casting materials 2.8 Design of shape castings for manufacturing 2.9 Problems 18 18 18 30 36 40 49 57 61 63 Case study 1" Manufacture of can body stock - Casting 67 Case study 2" Cosworth-Ford casting process 72 Stress and strain during deformation 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Engineering stress-strain 3.3 True stress and true strain 3.4 Relationship between engineering and true stress-strain 3.5 Deformation work 3.6 Physical significance of the strain hardening exponent 76 76 76 80 86 88 91 1 vi Contents 3.7 Hot deformation 3.8 Superplasticity 3.9 Problems 91 95 96 Bulk deformation processes 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Friction during bulk deformation 4.3 Forging 4.4 Extrusion 4.5 Drawing 4.6 Rolling 4.7 Analytical methods for bulk deformation processes 4.8 Problems 99 99 100 103 115 121 122 132 135 Case study 3: Manufacture of can body stock - Rolling 138 Sheet forming processes 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Formability 5.3 Shearing 5.4 Bending 5.5 Stretch forming 5.6 Deep drawing 5.7 Effect of anisotropic sheet properties on formability 5.8 Pressworking of metals 5.9 Problems 142 142 142 144 146 150 152 158 162 162 Case study 4: Manufacture of can body stock - Sheet forming 166 Powder metallurgy 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Powder production 6.3 Powder characteristics 6.4 Powder compaction 6.5 Metal injection moulding 6.6 Problems 173 173 175 180 181 187 188 Machining processes 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Mechanical machining methods 7.3 Nontraditional machining processes 7.4 Comparison of methods 7.5 Problems 190 190 191 223 228 229 Joining processes 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Welding 8.3 Brazing 232 232 232 263 Contents 8.4 Soldering 8.5 Problems 267 267 Case study 5: Processing to produce automobile radiators 270 Case study 6: Manufacture of stainless steel automotive exhaust systems 275 Surface modification for wear resistance 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Types of wear 9.3 Diffusional processes 9.4 Flame and induction hardening 9.5 Plating processes 9.6 Thin film coatings 9.7 Problems 279 279 280 286 297 300 303 306 Appendix A: Useful constants 309 Appendix B: Useful conversion factors 310 Appendix C: Hardness conversion 312 Index 313 vii Preface This book is primarily intended for undergraduate students enrolled in mechanical, manufacturing, materials/metallurgy or industrial engineering programmes Several books dealing with the subject of metal manufacturing processes are already available - so why this book? The justification is the absence of an introductory quantitative, rather than a primarily descriptive, book on this topic, suitable for undergraduate students A predominantly descriptive treatment of metal manufacturing processes tends to diminish the importance and development of the engineering associated with the technology of these processes and fails to provide the student with the analytical tools required to develop sound judgement This book addresses these shortcomings and will hopefully stimulate interest in the challenges inherent to industrial metal manufacturing processes It follows from the foregoing that the presentation of metal manufacturing processes in this book contains considerable quantitative or semiquantitative analysis For students to appreciate this it is necessary to have some prerequisite knowledge Therefore, this book may not be suitable for an entry level course in most undergraduate engineering programmes., In particular, it is assumed that students will have completed an introductory engineering materials course that includes topics such as crystallographic structures and deformation, phase diagrams, major engineering materials systems etc Also, a reasonable level of mathematical ability, some mechanics of materials and a rudimentary knowledge of heat transfer principles are useful, but not absolutely required A deliberate effort has been made to keep this book concise rather than encyclopaedic It is anticipated that the contents of this book can be rigorously presented in a single-term course, with the expectation that students will read, and hopefully understood, the entire book The disadvantage of conciseness is that most readers will be able to rightly identify important metal manufacturing processes not included In this regard individual lecturers may want to supplement the book as they see fit In keeping with the more quantitative nature of this book, many of the end-ofchapter problems require numerical calculations However, it is emphasized that the calculations are by and large approximate, because of the many simplifying assumptions necessary to model various processes Nevertheless, these problems help to reinforce an understanding of the major factors controlling the various processes presented Furthermore, it is rarely necessary, and often not possible, for Preface engineers to generate exact solutions Rather, timely approximate solutions are often more useful Consequently, it is hoped that the end-of-chapter problemsare helpful for students to develop an understanding and appreciation of metal manufacturing processes A solution set to these problems is available A unique aspect of this book is the series of metal processing case studies included at appropriate places These provide an appreciation of the technology and multidisciplinary nature inherent to metal manufacturing processes The products described will be familiar to most but, probably, few will have considered the implications of manufacturing, even if they have considered the design Case studies also emphasize that manufacturing steps, even at the early stages of processing, have a definite influence on the final product properties This illustrates that only through a knowledge of a material's response to manufacturing processes can the final product properties be predicted and understood Historically, understanding the interrelationship between processing and product properties has led to improvements or new product forms This book should also prove useful to practising engineers in the metal processing industries It is the authors' experience that industry often requires rapid answers to engineering questions, but does not have resources or time for thorough analyses The information contained in this book should help practising manufacturing engineers with sound first-order judgement The authors would like to express their appreciation to the many individuals and organizations that have assisted with the preparation of this book In particular, thanks are due to P Ramsahoye for his help with preparation of the manuscript Also, the generosity of many organizations and companies who have given permission for use of copyrighted information is acknowledged, with recognition as appropriate throughout the book J Beddoes and M.J Bibby Carleton University October 1998 ix ... ButtenNorth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheelers Road, Burlington, MA 018 03 First published 1999 Reprinted 2003 Copyright 2003, J Beddoes and M J Bibby All rights reserved... relatively ductile steel is produced In about 20min, a composition of
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Công nghệ chế tạo vật liệu, Công nghệ chế tạo vật liệu, Chapter 1. Metal processing and manufacturing, Chapter 2. Solidification and casting processes, Case study 1: Manufacture of can body stock – 1. Casting, Chapter 3. Stress and strain during deformation, Case study 3: Manufacture of can body stock – 2. Rolling, Case study 4: Manufacture of can body stock – 3. Sheet forming, Chapter 9. Surface modification for wear resistance

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay