CÁC DẠNG SO SÁNH của TÍNH từ và TRẠNG từ

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SĐsssqsqqsqs CÁC DẠNG SO SÁNH CỦA TÍNH TỪ TRẠNG TỪ PHẦN I SO SÁNH BẰNG (EQUALITY) 1.1 Cấu trúc “as1… as2…” dùng với adj/ adv S + V + as1 + adj/ adv + as2 + noun/ pronoun + (aux)  Trong câu phủ định, as1 thay “so” (informal)  Sau as2 phải đại từ nhân xưng chủ ngữ, không đại từ nhân xưng tân ngữ E.g.: She is not as patient as her mother Có thể dùng: She is not so patient as her mother (informal) He runs as quickly as his brother The inflation rate this year is not as high as it was last year/ last year’s (NOT “last year”) 1.2 So sánh danh từ S + V + the same (noun) + as + noun/ pronoun Adjectives Nouns Heavy, light Weight Wide, narrow Width Deep, shallow Depth Long, short Length Big, small Size E.g.: My house is as high as his = My house is the same height as his The iPhone is perfectly the same size as the iPhone 5s = The iPhone is as big/ small as the iPhone 5s II SO SÁNH HƠN KÉM (COMPARITIVE) 2.1 Công thức chung: ADJECTIVES (a) Short adjectives (có âm tiết) S1 + be + adj + ER + than + S2 (aux) E.g.: cold  colder, high  higher ADVERBS (a) Adv = adj (có âm tiết) S1 + V (chia) + adv + ER + than + S2 + (aux) E.g.: long, fast, late, hard, … (xem lại lesson 1, chapter 6) E.g.: VietJet Air planes often arrive later than Vietnam Airlines * Ngoại lệ: (1) Từ kết thúc nguyên âm phụ âm  nhân đôi phụ âm cuối cộng thêm ER: hot  hotter (2) Từ kết thúc –y  i + ER: early  earlier (3) Nhóm từ đặc biệt: có cách chuyển so sánh hơn: Clever  cleverer/ more clever Quiet  quieter/ more quiet Narrow  narrower/ more narrow Friendly  friendlier/ more friendly (b) Long adjs (2 âm tiết trở lên) (b) Long adverbs (2 âm tiết trở lên) S1 + be + MORE/ LESS + adj + than + S2 + (aux) S1 + V (chia) + MORE/ LESS + adv + than + S2 + (aux) E.g.: The economy this quarter is more fluctuating than the previous one E.g.: Jacky played more impressively than other contestants 2.2 Khi so sánh người/ vật với tất người/ vật khác  thêm ELSE vào sau anything/ anyone/ anybody E.g.: You must love yourself than anyone else 2.3 Khi nhấn mạnh so sánh  thêm MUCH/ FAR vào trước so sánh E.g.: Jamie’s new jeans are far more expensive than mine He speaks English much more fluently than he does Spanish 2.4 So sánh hơn/ kém/ với DANH TỪ + countable nouns: dùng sau many/ few + uncountable nouns: dùng sau much/ little S + V + as + many/ much/ few/ little + noun + as + noun/ pronoun + (aux) S + V + more/ less/ fewer + noun + than + noun/ pronoun + (aux) E.g.: Elizabeth works as many hours a day as I Their jobs allow them less freedom than ours does 2.5 Loại bỏ chủ ngữ đằng sau AS THAN trùng với chủ ngữ thứ nhất, đặc biệt động từ sau AS/ THAN thể bị động: Lúc AS THAN có thêm chức năng: biến thành đại từ quan hệ thay E.g.1: The storm was not destructive AS had been forecasted (NOT: … as it had been forecasted) E.g.2: The music show is going to be held AS has been planned since last year (NOT: … as it has been planned…) * TÂN NGỮ bị loại bỏ sau động từ mệnh đề sau AS THAN E.g.: Don’t take this damaged lift as I did this morning (NOT: as I dit it this morning) CÁC DẠNG SO SÁNH CỦA TÍNH TỪ TRẠNG TỪ BÀI TẬP- PHẦN Choose the best answer among A, B, C or D to complete each sentence Ms Jones isn't as nice Ms Smith A as B for C like D to The rooms in Graduate Towers are Patterson Hall A larger than B larger than that of C larger than those in D larger than in Although she is very popular, she is not her sister A pretty as B as pretty C prettier than D most pretty than Tuition at an American university runs …… six thousand dollars a semester A so high as B as high to C as high as D as high than Everyone looks much today than they did yesterday A happy B more happily C happily D happier Mr Brown receives a salary than anyone else in the company A big B more bigger C bigger D the bigger The Boeing 747 is twice .the Boeing 707 A bigger than B as bigger as C as big as D more bigger than "Do you know that beautiful lady over there?" "Yes, that's Wanida She's in her group A more beautiful than any girl B more beautiful than any other girl C so beautiful as other girl D beautiful more than another girl My young brother grew very quickly and soon he was my mother A more big than B so big than C as big as D too big than 10 The tourist company was down the street than I had thought A farther B far C farer D farest 11 John’s grades are ……………… than his sister’s A higher B more high C high D the highest 12 Deana is the …………………… of the three sisters A most short B shorter C shortest D more short 13 She speaks English as ……………… as her friend does A good B well C better D the best 14 Of the three shirts, this one is the ………………… A prettier B most prettiest C prettiest D most pretty 15 The baby’s illness is ………………… than we thought at first A bad B worst C worse D badly 16 Today is the ………………… day of the month A hot B hotter C hottest D hottest than 17 He works more ………………… than I A slow B slowly C slowest D most slowly 18 My book is as ………………… as yours A good B well C better D the best 19 I love you ………………… than I can say A much B many C more D the most 20 It’s ……………… to go by bus than by car A cheaper B cheapest C more cheap D more cheaper 21 That house is ……………… one on the street A oldest B the oldest C old D older 22 This hotel must be ……………… than the small one next door A expensive B more expensive C the most expensive D the more expensive 23 An orange is ……………… than a plum A more large B more larger C larger D the largest 24 What is the ……………… thing you have ever done? A more difficult B most difficult C difficulty D difficult than 25 This river is than that river A narrow B narrowest C narrower D most narrow 26 The test is not ………….… difficult ……………… it was last month A as / as B so / as C more / as D A and B 27 Peter usually drives ………………… Mary A more fast B more fast than C faster than D B and C 28 My brother sang of all the pupils of the group A more beautifully B the most beautifully C less beautiful D most beautifully 29 At 3,810 meters above sea level in Bolivia stands Lake Titicaca, …… in the world A the highest large lakeB largest high lake C high largest lake D the high largest lake 30 The hotel was any one we had stayed at before A more expensive than B more expensive as C most expensive than D better expensive than 31 A: It's a long way from Britain, isn't it? B: Yes, but it isn't as as Hong Kong A far B farther C farthes D further 32 Gaining the first prize in this competition is the……………….moment in my life A most unforgettable B unforgettabler C more unforgettable D unforgettably 33 Japan is usually Saudi Arabia in summer A hot than B as hot so C cooler than D so hot as 34 apples are grown in Washington State A Best B The better C The best D The most good 35 She is now she used to A more busy than B busier than C more busier than D busier that 36 This play is than the one we saw last week A as good B good C more good D better 37 Of Charles Dickens’ novels, Great Expectations is perhaps to many readers A the most satisfying one B most satisfying one C more than satisfying one D the more satisfying than 38 He says: “These neighbors are the others.” A friendlier than B more friendly than C friendlier as D Both A and B 39 The Mississippi is The Thames A the longer than B longer than C the longest than D more long than 40 tools are screwdrivers, hammers and saws A The usefulness B The most useful C The more useful D The best useful 41 Some computers can work 500,000 times any person can A faster than B fast than C fatter than D more fast than 42 This pen is the other two pens A more expensive as B the most expensive of C more expensive than D as expensive than 43 The exam was quite easy; we expected A more easy that B more easy than C easier than D easier as 44 The story was really boring It was .I’ve ever read A most boring story B the more boring story C the story more boring D the most boring story 45 The picture he gave you is more valuable the one he gave me A over B above C to D than 46 Australia’s one of the places in the world for holiday A good B best C better D better 47 Nam runs than any boy in his class A faster B more faster C the fastest D fastest 48 The Sears Tower is ……………… building in Chicago A taller B the more tall C the tallest D taller and taller 49 Peter is ……………… John A younger and more intelligent than B more young and intelligent than C more intelligent and young than D the more intelligent and younger than 50 The Mekong Delta is ……………… deltas in Vietnam A the largest of the two B the more larger of the two C one of the two largest D one of the two large ĐÁP ÁN I/ Review: Cấu trúc so sánh S1 + V + so/as + Adj/Adv + as + S2 (1) Lưu ý: so dùng thay cho as trường hợp so sánh KHÔNG Cấu trúc so sánh hơn: (2)  Với Adj/Adv ngắn: S1 + V + Adj/Adv_er + than + S2  Với Adj/Adv dài: S1 + V + more + Adj/Adv + than + S2 Trong số trường hợp, S2 O mềnh đề Eg: There are more people than I expected. Cấu trúc so sánh nhất: (3)  Với Adj/Adv ngắn: S + V + the + Adj/Adv_est + O  Với Adj/Adv dài: S + V + the most + Adj/Adv + O II/ Choose the best answer among A, B, C or D to complete each sentence Ms Jones isn't as nice Ms Smith A as B for C like D to  Cấu trúc so sánh S1 + be + as + Adj + as + S2 (1) The rooms in Graduate Towers are Patterson Hall A larger than B larger than that of C larger than those in D larger than in  Cấu trúc so sánh hơn: (2)  Với Adj ngắn: S1 + be + Adj_er + than + S2  Với Adj dài: S1 + be + more + Adj + than + S2 Ở those đóng vai trò S2 tương đương với the rooms Although she is very popular, she is not her sister A pretty as B as pretty C prettier than D most pretty than  Theo cấu trúc (2) Tuition at an American university runs …… six thousand dollars a semester A so high as B as high to C as high as D as high than  Theo cấu trúc (1) Everyone looks much today than they did yesterday A happy B more happily C happily D happier  Cấu trúc (2), lưu ý cấu trúc với look: S + look + Adj Mr Brown receives a salary than anyone else in the company A big B more bigger C bigger D the bigger  Theo cấu trúc (2) The Boeing 747 is twice .the Boeing 707 A bigger than B as bigger as C as big as D more bigger than  Cấu trúc so sánh gấp (một, hai,…) lần: S1 + V + số lần ( once, twice, three times,…) as + adj + as S2 "Do you know that beautiful lady over there?" "Yes, that's Wanida She's in her group A more beautiful than any girl B more beautiful than any other girl C so beautiful as other girl D beautiful more than another girl  Theo cấu trúc (2) My young brother grew very quickly and soon he was my mother A more big than B so big than C as big as D too big than  Theo cấu trúc (1) 10 The tourist company was down the street than I had thought A farther B far C farer D farest  So sánh dạng đặc biệt số tính từ: little – less, many- more,… 11 John’s grades are ……………… than his sister’s A higher B more high C high D the highest  Theo cấu trúc (2) 12 Deana is the …………………… of the three sisters A most short B shorter C shortest D more short  Theo cấu trúc (3) 13 She speaks English as ……………… as her friend does A good B well C better D the best  Theo cấu trúc (1) 14 Of the three shirts, this one is the ………………… A prettier B most prettiest C prettiest D most pretty  Theo cấu trúc (3) 15 The baby’s illness is ………………… than we thought at first A bad B worst C worse D badly So sánhdạng đặc biệt số tính từ: little – less - least, many – more - most, bad – worse  worst,… 16 Today is the ………………… day of the month A hot B hotter C hottest D hottest than  Theo cấu trúc (3) 17 He works more ………………… than I A slow B slowly C slowest D most slowly  Theo cấu trúc (2) 18 My book is as ………………… as yours A good B well C better D the best  Theo cấu trúc (1) 19 I love you ………………… than I can say A much B many C more D the most  Theo cấu trúc (2) 20 It’s ……………… to go by bus than by car A cheaper B cheapest C more cheap D more cheaper  Theo cấu trúc (2) 21 That house is ……………… one on the street A oldest B the oldest C old D older  Theo cấu trúc (3) 22 This hotel must be ……………… than the small one next door A expensive B more expensive C the most expensive D the more expensive  Theo cấu trúc (2) 23 An orange is ……………… than a plum A more large B more larger C larger D the largest  Theo cấu trúc (2); Plum /pl^m/ (n): mận 24 What is the ……………… thing you have ever done? A more difficult B most difficult C difficulty D difficult than  Theo cấu trúc (3) 25 This river is than that river A narrow B narrowest C narrower D most narrow  Theo cấu trúc (2) 26 The test is not ………….… difficult ……………… it was last month A as / as B so / as C more / as D A and B  Theo cấu trúc (1) 27 Peter usually drives ………………… Mary A more fast B more fast than C faster than D B and C  Theo cấu trúc (2), lưu ý: fast (Adj/Adv) 28 My brother sang of all the pupils of the group A more beautifully B the most beautifully C less beautiful D most beautifully  Theo cấu trúc (3) 29 At 3,810 meters above sea level in Bolivia stands Lake Titicaca, …… in the world A the highest large lakeB largest high lake C high largest lake D the high largest lake  Theo cấu trúc (3), phép so sánh áp dụng với tính từ sau động từ câu 30 The hotel was any one we had stayed at before A more expensive than B more expensive as C most expensive than D better expensive than  Theo cấu trúc (2) 31 A: It's a long way from Britain, isn't it? B: Yes, but it isn't as as Hong Kong A far B farther C farthes D further  Theo cấu trúc (1) 32 Gaining the first prize in this competition is the……………….moment in my life A most unforgettable B unforgettabler C more unforgettable D unforgettably  Theo cấu trúc (3) 33 Japan is usually Saudi Arabia in summer A hot than B as hot so C cooler than D so hot as  Theo cấu trúc (2) 34 apples are grown in Washington State A Best B The better C The best D The most good  So sánhdạng đặc biệt số tính từ: little – less - least, many – more - most, bad – worse – worst, good – better – best,… 35 She is now she used to A more busy than B busier than C more busier than D busier that  Theo cấu trúc (2) 36 This play is than the one we saw last week A as good B good C more good D better  So sánhdạng đặc biệt số tính từ: little – less - least, many – more - most, bad – worse – worst, good – better – best,… 37 Of Charles Dickens’ novels, Great Expectations is perhaps to many readers A the most satisfying one B most satisfying one C more than satisfying one D the more satisfying than  Theo cấu trúc (3); satisfying /’sætisfaiŋ/ (adj): làm vừa ý, làm thỏa mãn 38 He says: “These neighbors are the others.” A friendlier than B more friendly than C friendlier as D Both A and B  Đây trường hợp đặc biệt, friendly dung tính từ ngắn tính từ dài 39 The Mississippi is The Thames A the longer than B longer than C the longest than D more long than  Theo cấu trúc (2) 40 tools are screwdrivers, hammers and saws A The usefulness B The most useful C The more useful D The best useful  Theo cấu trúc (3) 41 Some computers can work 500,000 times any person can A faster than B fast than C fatter than D more fast than  Cấu trúc so sánh gấp (một, hai,…) lần:  Với Adj/Adv ngắn: S1 + V + số lần ( once, twice, three times,…) + Adj/Adv_er + S2  Với Adj/Adv dài: S1 + V + số lần ( once, twice, three times,… ) + more + Adj/Adv + S2 Lưu ý: S2 mệnh đề 42 This pen is the other two pens A more expensive as B the most expensive of C more expensive than D as expensive than  Theo cấu trúc (2) 43 The exam was quite easy; we expected A more easy that B more easy than C easier than D easier as  Theo cấu trúc (2) 44 The story was really boring It was .I’ve ever read A most boring story B the more boring story C the story more boring D the most boring story  Theo cấu trúc (3) 45 The picture he gave you is more valuable the one he gave me A over B above C to D than  Theo cấu trúc (2) 46 Australia’s one of the places in the world for holiday A good B best C better D better  So sánhdạng đặc biệt số tính từ: little – less - least, many – more - most, bad – worse – worst, good – better – best,… 47 Nam runs than any boy in his class A faster B more faster C the fastest D fastest Theo cấu trúc (2), lưu ý: fast (Adj/Adv) 48 The Sears Tower is ……………… building in Chicago A taller B the more tall C the tallest D taller and taller  Theo cấu trúc (3) 49 Peter is ……………… John A younger and more intelligent than B more young and intelligent than C more intelligent and young than D the more intelligent and younger than  Khi câu có xuất tính từ ngắn tính từ dài, đưa tính từ ngắn lên trước thực phép so sánh 50 The Mekong Delta is ……………… deltas in Vietnam A the largest of the two B the more larger of the two C one of the two largest D one of the two large  Dịch: “Đồng sông Cửu Long hai đồng lớn Việt Nam.” Delta /’deltə/ (n): Đồng PHẦN III Superlative (so sánh nhất) So sánh sử dụng so sánh người vật trở lên Short adj(s)/adv(s) (Tính từ/Trạng từ ngắn) The + adj/adv + EST  Dùng giới từ “in” với danh từ số E.g: Helen is the the youngest member in the group  Dùng giới từ “of ’ với danh từ số nhiều E.g: Lily is the tallest of the sisters  Trong cấu trúc “one of the +superlative + noun (plural) + V(singular) E.g: One of the greatest politicians in the world is Ho Chi Minh Long adj(s)/adv(s) (Tính từ/Trạng từ dài) The + MOST/LEAST+ adj/adv E.g: What is the most enịoyabe holiday that you’vc cvcr had? Notes:  Quy tắc 1-1-1: hot -> hottest, big -> bigger  Kết thúc e thêm st: largest  Kết thúc -y thỉ đổi thành i + est: easy easiest Bảng tông hợp adj/adv bất quy tắc: No Adj GoodAvell better best Bad worse worst Litlle (amounl) less least Little (size) smaller smallest Much/Many more most Late (time) later latest (muộn nhất; nhất) Near (place) nearer nearest Far (place) farther/further farthest Far (time, degree) íurther íurthest 10 Old (people, things) older elder oldest eldest So sảnh đa bơí Số lần + as many/ much as E.g: This make-up set costs twice as much as the other one V Superlative IV Comparative So sánh kép/đồng tiến  Dịch tiếng Việt: The + comparative + SI + VI, the + comparative + S2 + VI E.g: The colder it gets, the more excited the children are  Nếu adj/adv để so sánh, dùng “the more” E.g: The more you study, the better marks you will get  Nếu hai vế có “it is” bỏ chúng E.g: The shorter (it is), the better (it is) VI So sánh người hoăc vât: chi dùng so sánh hon The + comparative E.g: Billy is the smarter olthe two boys Of the two options, this one is the niore appropriatc BÀI TẬP SO SÁNH P2 I Choose the best answer amongA, B,CorD to complete each sentencẹ The Silence of the Lambs is the most film I’ve ever seen A excited B terriíied C scared D tcrriíying Is her health getting and ? A bad / bad B good / good C worse / worse D more / more we eat, the fatter we become A The much B The more C Many D A l o t o f The test becomes and A hard/hard B difficult / diffícult c.harder / harder D Difficulty / difficulty His health is getting and D wcll / wcll A good / good B better / better C Bad/ bad The more paper we save, preserved A more is wood pulp B the more wood pulp is c wood pulp is D the much wood pulp is The more polluted air we breathe, we get D weaker more A the more weaker B the morc weak C thc weaker The more we study, the we are D good A more good B better C better than The more I tried mv best to help her, she became A less lazy B the lazier C the more lazy D lazier 10 “What’s your thought of her presence here?” “The longer she stay, dislike her.” A the most B the very more C much more D the more 11 The weathcr bccome A colder with colder B colder and colder C colder and more cold D more and more cold 12 The more he slept, irritable he became A the most B the very more C much more D the more 13 he worked, the more money he earned A The more hard B The hard C The harder D The hardest 14 I get to know Jim, the more I like him A For more B More C The more D The most 15 The competition makes the price of goods A most cheap and cheap B cheaper and cheaper C more cheap and more cheap D cheaper and more cheaper 16 That factory is producing pollution A more and more B better and better C less and least D more and less The I read about history, the .it makes me realize how relevant history is for us today A more / better B better / better C more / more D better / more 18 The less we study, the we are 17 A worse B bad C well D good 19 the match was, the more spectators it attracted A The most interesting B The best interesting C The more interesting D The interesting 20 The more running water you use, A your bill will be higher B will be higher your bill C the higher your bill will be D the highest your bill will be Bài tâp bổ sung Choose the best answer amongA, B, C or D to complete each sentence The shirt cost the other one A so much as C twice as rnuch as B so many as D twice as many as A quick look would reveal thai France has twice computcrs A as many televisions as C as many as televisions B more televisions than D many as televisions as I am as lall as you A exactly B perfectly C correctly Please cut my hair the style in this magazine A the same lengtli as C the same lomg like B the same length like D the same long as Staying in a hotel costs renting a room in a dormitory for a week A Third as much as C three times as much as B three times more than D third more than Tom: “ Which is more important? Luck or effort?” Marry: “ Luck is effort” A on the same importance C the same important as B of the same importance as D as the same important as They are by the best students in the class A no means B all the time C far This exercise is more difficult than that one A a lot of B a bit C a few 9.I am a head than you A tall B higher C height 10 Her house is .more expensive than mine A mostly B Nearly C slightly D precisely D.any ways D lots of D taller D a few ... PHẦN III Superlative (so sánh nhất) So sánh sử dụng so sánh người vật trở lên Short adj(s)/adv(s) (Tính từ/ Trạng từ ngắn) The + adj/adv + EST  Dùng giới từ “in” với danh từ số E.g: Helen is the... bị loại bỏ sau động từ mệnh đề sau AS THAN E.g.: Don’t take this damaged lift as I did this morning (NOT: as I dit it this morning) CÁC DẠNG SO SÁNH CỦA TÍNH TỪ VÀ TRẠNG TỪ BÀI TẬP- PHẦN Choose... than D the more intelligent and younger than  Khi câu có xuất tính từ ngắn tính từ dài, đưa tính từ ngắn lên trước thực phép so sánh 50 The Mekong Delta is ……………… deltas in Vietnam A the largest
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