CHUYÊN đề 3 DANH ĐỘNG từ và ĐỘNG từ NGUYÊN mẫu

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CHUYÊN ĐỀ 3: DANH ĐỘNG TỪ ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU BUỔI 1: DANH ĐỘNG TỪ A LÝ THUYẾT I Vị trí danh động từDanh động từ ( The gerund): hình thức động từ thêm -ing dùng danh từ Danh động từ dùng làm: - Chủ ngữ câu:  Playing tennis is fun (playing danh động từ, dùng làm chủ ngữ câu) - Tân ngữ động từ:  We enjoy playing tennis (playing dùng làm tân ngữ động từ enjoy) - Tân ngữ giới từ:  He’s excited about playing tennis (playing dùng làm tân ngữ giới từ about) II Cách sử dụng Các động từ thường theo sau động danh từ admit * (thừa nhận) delay (trì hỗn) dread (ghê sợ) fancy* (tưởng tượng) involve (dính líu, liên quan) pardon (tha thứ) propose* (đưa ra, đề nghị) resist (chống lại) suggest* (đề nghị) avoid (tránh) deny * (từ chối) enjoy (thích thú) finish (hồn tất) keep (tiếp tục) miss (bỏ lỡ) prevent (ngăn chặn) risk (mạo hiểm) understand* (hiểu) appreciate (đánh giá cao) detest (căm ghét) escape (trốn khỏi) forgive (tha thứ) mind (phản đối) practice (thực hành) remember* (nhớ lại) save (sb the trouble of) (cứu nguy) anticipate* (đốn trước) defer (hỗn) dislike (khơng thích) excuse (tha lỗi) imagine * (tưởng tượng) mean* (= involve) postpone (trì hỗn) recollect * (hồi tưởng) stop (= cease) consider * (xem xét) Ex:  He admitted taking the money (Anh ta thừa nhận lấy tiền)  Avoid over-eating (Hãy ăn nhiều) Would you consider selling the property? (Anh có nghĩ đến việc bán tài sản khơng?)  He detests writing letters (Anh ta ghét viết thư) She dreads getting old (Cô ta sợ tuổi già)  Do you enjoy teaching? (Anh có thích dạy khơng?) Các thành ngữ theo sau danh động từ: can’t bear, can’t face, can’t stand, can’t help, can’t resist, feel like, It’s no use/good, It’s (not) worth, There’s no pint,… Ex:  She tried to be serious but she couldn’t help laughing ( Cô ta cố tỏ nghiêm nghị không nhịn cười.)  I didn’t feel like talking to him after what had happened.( Sau xảy tơi khơng muốn nói chuyện với nữa.)  It’s no use reading this kind of book ( Đọc loại sách chẳng ích lợi gì.)  My house isn’t far from here It’s not worth taking a taxi ( Nhà cách không xa Không đáng phải taxi.) Các động từ theo sau tân ngữ + danh động từ (verb + object + ing form): catch, discover, dislike, feel, find, hear, imagine, involve, keep, mind, notice, prevent, remember, risk, see, spend, stop, watch,… Ex:  Nobody can stop him doing what he wants ( Khơng ngăn làm điều mà muốn làm.)  Sorry to keep you waiting so long ( Xin lỗi để bạn đợi lâu.)  I don’tn mind you going without me ( Tôi không quan tâm đến việc bạn mà khơng có tơi.)  I don’t remember my mother complaining about it ( Tôi không nhớ mẹ than phiền điều đó.) Danh động từ dùng sau tất giới từ Ex:  She entered the room without knocking.( Cơ vào phòng mà khơng gõ cửa.)  The thief got in by breaking a window ( Kẻ trộm vào nhà cách đập cửa sổ.)  Verb + preposition + -ing form Ex: They are talking about building a new swimming-pool ( Họ bàn luận việc xây hồ bơi mới.) I’m looking forward to seeing you again ( Tôi mong đợi gặp lại bạn.) Laura insisted on paying for the meal ( Laura định đòi trả tiền bữa ăn.) Một số động từ + giới từ ( verb + preposition) thường dùng: Agree with consist of lead to return to object to Approve of depend on count on result in insist on Threaten with complain of give up succeed in mean by Forget about go back to carry on think of Hesitate about worry about persist in take to Concentrate on get to plan on talk of Confess to keep on put off believe in Care for apologise for long for look forward to  Verb + object + preposition + -ing form Ex: I congratulated Ann on passing the exam.( Tôi chúc mừng Ann thi đậu.) Please forgive me for not writing to you ( Xin thứ lỗi cho tơi khơng viết thư cho bạn.)  Adjective + preposition + -ing form accustomed to He is accustomed to having his own office addicted to She is addicted to watching TV afraid of She is afraid of speaking in public anxious about Norma is anxious about making the presentation bored of I am bored of doing the same old job capable of He is capable of winning a gold medal committed to She is committed to improving her English concerned about Nancy was concerned about being late content with Tim is content with winning second place dedicated to The organization is dedicated to ending poverty devoted to The money will be devoted to protecting the environment disappointed with Fiona was disappointed with coming in third place discouraged by He was discouraged by not getting the job excited about The researcher was excited about going to Africa famous for That actor is famous for being extremely weird fond of She is fond of having picnics frightened of She is frightened of being alone at night guilty of The banker was guilty of stealing money happy about He was happy about winning the lottery interested in She is interested in becoming a doctor involved in He was involved in making the movie known for She was known for causing problems opposed to They are opposed to building a new road in the park proud of He was proud of having completed the marathon remembered for She is remembered for protecting mountain gorillas responsible for He is responsible for causing the damage scared of Tina is scared of being alone at night terrified of The surfer is terrified of being attacked by a shark tired from She is tired from working all day tired of Margaret is tired of making dinner every night worried about The hikers were worried about not having enough water Danh động từ dùng sau liên từ after, although, before, since, when, while Ex:  I always have a shower after playing tennis ( Tôi tắm sau chơi quần vợt.)  You should lock the door when leaving your room ( Bạn nên khóa cửa khỏi phòng.) Go + Danh động từ go boating go horseback riding go sailing go sledding go bowling go hunting go scuba diving go snorkeling go bungee jumping go jogging go shopping go snowboarding go camping go kayaking go sightseeing go spearfishing go canoeing go mountain climbing go skateboarding go surfing go climbing go paragliding go skating go trekking go dancing go parasailing go skiing go water skiing go fishing go rollerblading go skinny-dipping go window shopping go hiking go running go skydiving go windsurfing Một số cách diễn đạt khác theo sau danh động từ have (some) problems He had some problems reading without his glasses have a difficult time She had a difficult time hiking up the mountain have a good time They had a good time snorkeling have a hard time She had a hard time explaining the situation have a problem Debbie had a problem understanding his accent have an easy time She had an easy time selling the delicious cookies have difficulty Wanda had difficulty translating the letter by herself have fun The had fun skiing have no difficulty They had no difficulty finding a discount flight to London have no problem Francis had no problem getting from the airport to the hote spend one's time He always spends his time working out at the gym waste one's time She always wastes her time playing video games B LUYỆN TẬP Ex 1: Write the correct preposition and the correct form of the verb in parentheses Henry is excited (leave) _for India I have no excuse (be) late The rain prevented us (complete) the work Fred is always complaining _(have) _a headache Instead (study) , Margaret went to a ballgame with some of her friends The weather is terrible tonight I don’t blame you (want, not) _to go to the meeting Who is responsible (wash) and (dry) the dishes after the dinner? The thieft was accused (steal) a woman’s purse I’m going to visit my family during the school vacation I’m looking forward _(eat) _my mother’s cooking and (sleep) _in my own bed 10 I thanked my friend (lend) me lunch money Ex 2: Use words from the table to complete each sentence Can’t Couldn’t Face Help Resist Stand Doing Feeling Having Lying noticing Rita said that she was OK, but I couldn’t help noticing how upset she look I hate holidays by the sea I on the beach all day I feel really full I’m afraid I a pudding with my lunch I was so tired yesterday I just any house work Tom’s car was stolen, but as he left it unlocked, I it’s his own fault Ex 3: Write the correct form of a verb from the list Do lie locate look play watch A: How was the picnic? B: Great! We had a lot of fun volleyball on the beach A: What’s the matter with Kathy? B: She’s very depressed She spends all day in bed, and she cries easily A: Oh, wow! You actually got in touch with Mr Gordon, our twelfthgrade English teacher B: Yes, I had a hard time him, but I discoverd that he was living in a retirement home in Florida A: George got tired? Really? Why? B: The boss caught him through her private papers in her files A: Do you ever see Wilma these days? B: No She spend all her time research for her PhD A: Lillian doesn’t let her children waste time TV B: It’s not all bad There are many good educational programs Đáp án: Ex 1: about leaving for being from completing about having of studying for not wanting for washing drying of stealing to eating sleeping 10 for lending Ex 2: can’t stand lying couldn’t/ can’t resist having couldn’t face doing can’t help feeling Ex 3: Playing Lying Locating Looking Doing watching CHUYÊN ĐỀ 3: DANH ĐỘNG TỪ ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU BUỔI 2: ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU CÓ TO C LÝ THUYẾT  Động từ nguyên mẫu có to ( to-infinitive): Động từ nguyên mẫu có to dùng làm: - Chủ ngữ câu ( subject of a sentence)  To lean out of the windown is dangerous ( Nhoài người sổ thật nguy hiểm.)  To wait for people who were late made him angry ( Đợi chờ người đến trễ làm cho ông ta cáu.) - Bổ ngữ cho chủ ngữ ( subject complement) Hình thức ngun mẫu có to ( to-infinitive) dùng sau be hình thức bổ ngữ cho chủ ngữ ( subject complement) -  What I like is to swim in the sea and then to lie on the warm sand ( Những tơi thích bơi lội biển sau nằm bãi cát ấm.)  His plan was to keep the affair secret ( Chủ định anh giữ kín chuyện.) Tân ngữ động từ ( object of a verb) Hình thức ngun mẫu có to dùng tân ngữ trực tiếp sau động từ: Afford care determine help manage pretend seem Agree cease demand hesitate mean prepare strive Arrange choose desire hope need promisetend Ask claim expect intend neglect propose Threaten Attempt come fail learn offer refuse try Continue Beg Begin - - bear decide deserve fear forget hate like long love omit plan regret start prefer want wish swear  She agree to pay £50 ( Cô đồng ý trả 50 bảng.)  It was late, so we decide to take a taxi home ( Vì trễ nên định taxi nhà.)  He manage to put the fire out ( Anh ta tìm cách dập tắt lửa.)  The little girl seem to be crying ( Hình bé khóc.) Hình thức ngun mẫu có to dùng sau cụm động từ như: to make up one’s mind, to take care, to take the trouble, to make sure…  I’ve made up my mind to be a doctor ( Tôi định trở thành bác sĩ.)  Take care not to drink to much.( Hãy cẩn thận đừng có uống nhiều rượu.) Tân ngữ tính từ ( object of an adjective) Hình thức nguyên mẫu có to thường dùng sau số tính từ diễn tả phản ứng cảm xúc người nhiều tính từ thơng dụng khác (un)able content easy helpless prepared slow Afraid crazy free horrified quick sorry Amused curious fortunate impatient ready sufficient Annoyed dangerous furious interested relieved thankful Anxious delighted frighten keen reluctant (un)wise Ashamed determined good luckly right (un)willing Astonished difficult glad moved resolved useless Boring distressed grateful pleased safe usual Careful due hard (im)possible surprised wonderful wrong  I’m pleased to see you.( Tôi vui gặp bạn)  John was surprised to get Ann’s letter ( John ngạc nhiên nhận thư Ann.)  Be careful not to wake the children ( Hãy cẩn thận đừng làm bọn trẻ thức giấc.)  Your writing is impossible to read ( Chữ viết anh thật đọc được.)  It’s boring to the same thing every day ( Thật chán ngày làm công việc.) BÀI TÀ P CHUYEN ĐE DÀNH ĐO NG TỪ ĐO NG TỪ NGUYEN MÀU PHÀN It was his own fault, but I couldn’t help sorry for him A Feeling B to feel C having felt D to have felt The medical authorities warned everyone _the water without first it A Had drunk – being boiled B Not to drink – boiling C To drink – having boiled D Drinking – having to boil Most people talk too much and don’t realize how important _is A To be listening C to be listened B Have listened D listening If you’ve finished the dictionary, I’d like it A To have used – having borrowed B To use – borrowing C Using- to borrow D Having used – borrow Would you mind _? A That I am reading aloud B Explaining it once again, please C What causes you a lot of trouble D To bring the books back by tomorrow The child was naturally very upset when he saw his new ball out to sea A Carrying C to have carried B being carried D to be carried Orphan elephants need _the same companionship as they _from their mothers in the wild A To be given – would have received B To have given – had received C To have been given – would receive D Being given – are receiving The first people _non-stop round the world Captain James Gallagher and his crew A To have flown – have been B To fly – were C Being flown – are D To be flying – had been On the whole, I enjoy our local club, but I think there are far too much rules and regulations _completely at ease A Attending – to feel B Attend – having felt C To attend – to be feeling D Being attended – feeling 10 I deeply regret _to her so severely yesterday She was badly hurt A To be speaking B To speak C Having spoken D Being spoken 11 I really believe that you should let your son _his own decisions; he is certainly old enough _so A To be making C making – being done B To make – for doing D make – to 12 Smokers generally know that smoking is extremely harmful, but it’s just that they can’t help _it A Doing B to C D having done 13 The tooth had been causing e so much pain that at last I went _my dentist and have it out A Seeing- to be pulled C saw – be pulled B Being seen – to pull D to see – pulled 14 As the students who had taken the university entrance exam were waiting for the results they seemed more and more nervous A Having announced- to have got B To be announced – to be getting C To announce- having got D Announced – to have been getting 15 While the historical building, they had to get some of the missing tiles specially A to restore- making B restore- being 16 My father can’t decide whether _ the job or not, because if he does, it’ll require him _ away from home very often A to take – to be B to be taking – being C taking – to have been D taking – having been 17 Apparently, the scheme hadn’t been planned carefully enough for all the details _ into consideration, so the boss asked them _ it A to have taken – redone B to be taken – to redo C taking – be redone D being taken - redoing 18 Grandpa seems _ his glasses, and don’t think he will be able to find them without our help A to have lost B to be losing C having lost D lost 19 It’s important for drivers _ great care when _ in slippery road conditions A taking – having driven B take – to drive C having taken – drive D to take – driving 20 I think outside in the open air is much more enjoyable than _exercise in some stuffy gym A To walk – done C walking – doing B Walk – to be doing D having walked – 21 Authorities should warn people against hazardous foods containing additives Still better, perhaps, they shouldn’t allow such products in the first place A To be using – produced B Having used – to produce C Using – to be produced D Being used – being produced 22 Naturally, she seems quite content _first prize in lasr week’s art competition A To have been awared C being awared B To have awared D having – to carry 23 In order to avoid _unexpected problems on the road, car owners are advised _out regular maintenance on their vehicles A To be having – carrying B To have – th ebe carried C Haing had – carry D Having – to carry 24 When my uncle’s horse broke its leg, he was very upset because he knew that he had no option but _the vet _it humanely A Asking – having killed B Ask – kill C To ask – to kill D Having asked – killed 25 Soon after take-off, the hijackers went into the captain’s cabin and told him _them to another destination A Flying B to fly C fly D flew 26 The power failure resulted in many of the underground trains _for up to one hour A To delay C to have delayed B To be delayed D being delayed 27 Did you actually see the boy over the fence into Mr.Jones’garden, or did you just hear the other boys _about it? A Jumping – talking B To jump – being talked C Having jumped – to talk D To be jumping – talk 28 If the economic crash hadn’t happened just when my brother’s bussiness was about _off, he financial difficulties today A Taking – wasn’t having B Haing taken – didn’t have C To take – wouldn’t be having D To be taking – must not be having 29 Ann Nolan Clark’s simple but poetic prose and ability _people _cultural similariries and differences gained hher a mainstream following A Making – to appreciate B Make – to be appreciating C To have made – appreciate D To make – appreciate 30 Her early aspirations _a writer were strengthened when a local newspaper published a poem she wrote about New Mexico statehood A Having become – to obtain B Becoming – to be obtaining C To become – obtaining D To have become – obtain 31 From the distance, we could hear the sound of some dogs A To bark B to be barking C barking D bark 32 I’m delighted _the chance you at last A To have had – to meet B Having – meeting C To be having – being met D Having had – to be meeting 33 I believe that it will be a waste of time _to my brother, because as usual, he will just seem but actually he won’t be A Having talked – listening B To talk – to have listened C Talked – having listened D Talking – to be listening 34 I’d really recommend you _the new Jim Carrey film as it’s absolutely hilarious! I couldn’t stop all the way through A Seeing – to laugh B To see – laughing C Having seen – laugh D See – to be laughing 35 She appears deeply by what I said to her yesterday, because she’s been avoiding me all day today A To have been offended B To be offended C Haing been offended D Haing offended 36 When the opposition managed _some evidence of corruption, thhe authorities declared te election _invalid A Uncovered – be C uncovering – being B To be uncovering – to have been D to uncover – to be 37 I’m sorry that I didn’t remember $100 from you, but I promise _you back as soon as I get my salary next week A Borrowing – to pay B To borrow – having paid C Having borrowed – pay D To be borrowing – paying 38 I’d like your sister _my daughter’s wedding dress as she’s such a talented seamstreet A Haing – made C have – having made B To be having D to have – make 39 Jeff: Why doesn’t he fancy with us to the pub? Jill: I don’t know He just said he would rather _at home A Having come – to be staying B Coming – stay C To have come – have stayed D To come – stayed 40 Sorry! I didn’t mean you in the middle of your meeting, but I urgently need a look at the files in that cabinet A Having disturbed – having had B To be disturbed – have C Disturbing – to be having D To disturb – to have ĐÀP ÀN BÀI TÀ P CHUYEN ĐE DÀNH ĐO NG TỪ ĐO NG TỪ NGUYEN MÀU PHÀN 41 It was his own fault, but I couldn’t help sorry for him B Feeling B to feel C having felt D to have felt 42 The medical authorities warned everyone _the water without first it E Had drunk – being boiled F Not to drink – boiling G To drink – having boiled H Drinking – having to boil 43 Most people talk too much and don’t realize how important _is C To be listening C to be listened D Have listened D listening 44 If you’ve finished the dictionary, I’d like it E To have used – having borrowed F To use – borrowing G Using- to borrow H Having used – borrow 45 Would you mind _? E That I am reading aloud F Explaining it once again, please G What causes you a lot of trouble H To bring the books back by tomorrow 46 The child was naturally very upset when he saw his new ball out to sea C Carrying C to have carried D being carried D to be carried 47 Orphan elephants need _the same companionship as they _from their mothers in the wild E To be given – would have received F To have given – had received G To have been given – would receive H Being given – are receiving 48 The first people _non-stop round the world Captain James Gallagher and his crew E To have flown – have been F To fly – were G Being flown – are H To be flying – had been 49 On the whole, I enjoy our local club, but I think there are far too much rules and regulations _completely at ease E Attending – to feel F Attend – having felt G To attend – to be feeling H Being attended – feeling 50 I deeply regret _to her so severely yesterday She was badly hurt E To be speaking F To speak G Having spoken H Being spoken 51 I really believe that you should let your son _his own decisions; he is certainly old enough _so C To be making C making – being done D To make – for doing D make – to 52 Smokers generally know that smoking is extremely harmful, but it’s just that they can’t help _it B Doing B to C D having done 53 The tooth had been causing e so much pain that at last I went _my dentist and have it out C Seeing- to be pulled C saw – be pulled D Being seen – to pull D to see – pulled 54 As the students who had taken the university entrance exam were waiting for the results they seemed more and more nervous E Having announced- to have got F To be announced – to be getting G To announce- having got H Announced – to have been getting 55 While the historical building, they had to get some of the missing tiles specially A to restore- making B restore- being C restoring – made D being restored - make 56 My father can’t decide whether _ the job or not, because if he does, it’ll require him _ away from home very often E to take – to be F to be taking – being G taking – to have been H taking – having been 57 Apparently, the scheme hadn’t been planned carefully enough for all the details _ into consideration, so the boss asked them _ it E to have taken – redone F to be taken – to redo G taking – be redone H being taken - redoing 58 Grandpa seems _ his glasses, and don’t think he will be able to find them without our help E to have lost F to be losing G having lost H lost 59 It’s important for drivers _ great care when _ in slippery road conditions E taking – having driven F take – to drive G having taken – drive H to take – driving 60 I think outside in the open air is much more enjoyable than _exercise in some stuffy gym C To walk – done C walking – doing D Walk – to be doing D having walked – 61 Authorities should warn people against hazardous foods containing additives Still better, perhaps, they shouldn’t allow such products in the first place E To be using – produced F Having used – to produce G Using – to be produced H Being used – being produced 62 Naturally, she seems quite content _first prize in lasr week’s art competition C To have been awared C being awared D To have awared D having – to carry 63 In order to avoid _unexpected problems on the road, car owners are advised _out regular maintenance on their vehicles E To be having – carrying F To have – th ebe carried G Haing had – carry H Having – to carry 64 When my uncle’s horse broke its leg, he was very upset because he knew that he had no option but _the vet _it humanely E Asking – having killed F Ask – kill G To ask – to kill H Having asked – killed 65 Soon after take-off, the hijackers went into the captain’s cabin and told him _them to another destination B Flying B to fly C fly D flew 66 The power failure resulted in many of the underground trains _for up to one hour C To delay C to have delayed D To be delayed D being delayed 67 Did you actually see the boy over the fence into Mr.Jones’garden, or did you just hear the other boys _about it? E Jumping – talking F To jump – being talked G Having jumped – to talk H To be jumping – talk 68 If the economic crash hadn’t happened just when my brother’s bussiness was about _off, he financial difficulties today E Taking – wasn’t having F Haing taken – didn’t have G To take – wouldn’t be having H To be taking – must not be having 69 Ann Nolan Clark’s simple but poetic prose and ability _people _cultural similariries and differences gained hher a mainstream following E Making – to appreciate F Make – to be appreciating G To have made – appreciate H To make – appreciate 70 Her early aspirations _a writer were strengthened when a local newspaper published a poem she wrote about New Mexico statehood E Having become – to obtain F Becoming – to be obtaining G To become – obtaining H To have become – obtain 71 From the distance, we could hear the sound of some dogs B To bark B to be barking C barking D bark 72 I’m delighted _the chance you at last E To have had – to meet F Having – meeting G To be having – being met H Having had – to be meeting 73 I believe that it will be a waste of time _to my brother, because as usual, he will just seem but actually he won’t be E Having talked – listening F To talk – to have listened G Talked – having listened H Talking – to be listening 74 I’d really recommend you _the new Jim Carrey film as it’s absolutely hilarious! I couldn’t stop all the way through E Seeing – to laugh F To see – laughing G Having seen – laugh H See – to be laughing 75 She appears deeply by what I said to her yesterday, because she’s been avoiding me all day today E To have been offended F To be offended G Haing been offended H Haing offended 76 When the opposition managed _some evidence of corruption, thhe authorities declared te election _invalid C Uncovered – be C uncovering – being D To be uncovering – to have been D to uncover – to be 77 I’m sorry that I didn’t remember $100 from you, but I promise _you back as soon as I get my salary next week E Borrowing – to pay F To borrow – having paid G Having borrowed – pay H To be borrowing – paying 78 I’d like your sister _my daughter’s wedding dress as she’s such a talented seamstreet C Haing – made C have – having made D To be having D to have – make 79 Jeff: Why doesn’t he fancy with us to the pub? Jill: I don’t know He just said he would rather _at home E Having come – to be staying F Coming – stay G To have come – have stayed H To come – stayed 80 Sorry! I didn’t mean you in the middle of your meeting, but I urgently need a look at the files in that cabinet E Having disturbed – having had F To be disturbed – have G Disturbing – to be having H To disturb – to have ... A A CHUYÊN ĐỀ 3: DANH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU BUỔI 3: Động từ nguyên mẫu hay danh động từ A LÝ THUYẾT  Động từ nguyên mẫu không to ( bare-infinitive/ infinitive without to) Động từ nguyên. .. Ex 3: Playing Lying Locating Looking Doing watching CHUYÊN ĐỀ 3: DANH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU BUỔI 2: ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU CÓ TO C LÝ THUYẾT  Động từ nguyên mẫu có to ( to-infinitive): Động. ..  Động từ nguyên mẫu hay danh động từ Các động từ + TO + V-NGUYÊN THỂ + V- ING mà nghĩa KHÔNG khác begin (bắt đầu) continue (tiếp tục) start (bắt đầu) prefer (thích hơn) Các Động từ + TO + V-NGUYÊN
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