Smithsonian physical tables (9th revised edition)

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Smithsonian Physical Tables Ninth Revised Edition Prepared by WILLIAM ELMER FORSYTHE Norwich, New York 2003 PREFACE T O THE N I N T H REVISED EDITION This edition of the Smithsonian Physical Tables consists of 901 tables giving data of general interest to scientists and engineers, and of particular interest to those concerned with physics in its broader sense The increase in size over the Eighth Edition is due largely to new data on the subject of atomic physics The tables have been prepared and arranged so as to be convenient and easy to use The index has been extended Each set of data given herein has been selected from the best sources available Whenever possible an expert in each field has been consulted This has entailed a great deal of correspondence with many scientists, and it is a pleasure to add that, almost without exception, all cooperated generously When work first started on this edition, Dr E U Condon, then director of the National Bureau of Standards, kindly consented to furnish any assistance that the scientists of that institution were able to give The extent of this help can be noted from an inspection of the book Dr Wallace R Brode, associate director, National Bureau of Standards, gave valuable advice and constructive criticism as to the arrangement of the tables D H Menzel and Edith Jenssen Tebo, Harvard University, Department of Astronomy, collected and arranged practically all the tables on astronomy A number of experts prepared and arranged groups of related data, and others either prepared one or two tables or furnished all or part of the data for certain tables Care has been taken in each case to give the names of those responsible for both the data and the selection of it A portion of the data was taken from other published sources, always with the.consent and approval of the author and publisher of the tables consulted Due credit has been given in all instances Very old references have been omitted Anyone in need of these should refer to the Eighth Edition It was our intention to mention in this preface the names of all who took part in the work, but the list proved too long for the space available We wish, however, to express our appreciation and thanks to all the men and women from various laboratories and institutions who have been so helpful in contributing to this Ninth Edition Finally, we shall be grateful for criticism, the notification of errors, and new data for use in reprints or a new edition W E FORSYTHE Astrophysical Observatory Smithsonian Institution January 1951 EDITOR’S N O T E The ninth edition of the Physical Tables was first published in June 19.54 I n the first reprint (1956), the second reprint (1959), and the third (1964) a few misprints and errata were corrected iii CONVERSION TABLE TABLE 1.-TEMPERATURE The numbers in boldface type refer to the temperature either in degrees Centigrade or Fahrenheit which it is desired to convert into the other sale If converting from degrees Fahrenheit to Centigrade, the equivalent will be be found in the column on the left, while if converting from degrees Centigrade to Fahrenheit the answer will be found in the columr! on the right - 559.4 to 28 / -273 -268 -262 -257 -251 -246 -240 -234 -229 -223 -218 -212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 - 95.6 - 90.0 29 to 140 -459.4 -450 -440 -430 -420 -410 -400 -390 -380 -370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 150 to a90 900 t o 1650 1660 to 2410 A r C ., -459.4 -454 -436 -418 -400 -382 -364 -346 -328 -310 -292 -274 -256 -238 -220 -202 -1.67 -1.11 -0.56 0.56 1.11 1.67 2.22 2.78 3.33 3.89 4.44 5.00 5.56 6.11 6.67 7.22 7.78 8.33 8.89 9.44 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 2420 to 3000 L F I L 84.2 86.0 87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2 95.0 96.8 98.6 100.4 102.2 104.0 105.8 107.6 109.4 111.2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2 122.0 123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0 132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0 141.8 143.6 145.4 F 'C 66 71 77 82 88 93 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 I32 138 143 149 154 160 16G 171 I77 182 I88 193 199 !04 210 216 221 !27 232 ?38 !43 !49 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 414 428 446 464 482 500 518 536 554 572 5% 608 626 644 662 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896 c 482 488 493 499 504 510 516 521 527 532 538 543 549 554 560 566 571 577 582 588 593 599 604 610 616 621 627 632 638 643 649 654 660 666 671 F900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1652 1670 1688 17Ot 1724 1742 176C 1778 1796 1814 1832 185C 1868 1886 1904 1922 1940 1958 1976 1994 2012 2030 2048 2066 2084 21 02 2120 2138 2156 2174 2192 2210 2228 2246 2264 904 910 916 921 927 932 938 943 949 954 960 966 971 977 982 988 993 999 1004 1010 1016 1021 1027 1032 1038 1043 1049 1054 1060 1066 1071 1077 I082 1088 1093 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 302( 3031 30% 307d 309; 311( 3121 314 316' 318; 320( 321t 3236 3254 327; 32% 3301 3326 3344 3362 338C 3398 3416 3434 3452 3476 3488 3506 3524 3542 3560 3578 3596 3614 3632 ' 'c 1327 1332 1338 1343 1349 1354 1360 1366 1371 1377 1382 1388 1393 1399 1404 1410 1416 1421 1427 1432 1438 1443 1449 1454 1460 1466 1471 1477 1482 1488 1493 1499 I504 IS10 1516 2420 2430 2440 2450 2460 2470 2480 2490 2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 2670 2680 2690 2700 2710 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 F 4388 4406 4424 4442 4464 4478 44% 4514 4532 4550 4568 4586 4604 4622 4640 4658 4676 4694 4712 4730 4748 4766 4784 4802 4820 4838 4856 4874 4892 4910 4928 4946 4964 4982 SO00 - 84.4 78.9 73.3 62.2 67.8 56.7 - 51.1 45.6 40.0 34.4 28.9 23.3 17.8 - 17.2 - 16.7 16.1 - 15.6 - 14.4 15.0 13.9 13.3 12.8 12.2 11.7 - 11.1 - 10.6 10.0 9.44 8.89 8.33 7.78 722 - 6.67 6.11 - 5.56 - 5.00 - 4.44 3.89 3.33 2.78 2.22 -120 -110 -100 90 - 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 - - - I0 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 -94 21.1 76 21.3 58 22.2 -40 22.8 22 23.3 - 23.9 14 24.4 32 33.8 25.0 35.6 25.6 37.4 26.1 39.2 26.7 41.0 27.2 42.8 27.8 44.6 28.3 46.4 28.9 48.2 29.4 50.0 30.0 51.8 30.6 53.6 31.1 55.4 31.7 572 32.2 59.0 32.8 60.8 33.3 62.6 33.9 64.4 34.4 66.2 35.0 68.0 35.6 69.8 36.1 716 36.7 739 37.2 75.2 37.8 77.0 43 78.8 49 80.6 54 82.4 60 -184 -166 -148 -130 -112 - 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 110 120 130 140 147.2 149.0 150.8 152.6 154.4 156.2 158.0 159.8 161.6 163.4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172.4 174.2 176.0 177.8 179.6 181.4 183.2 185.0 186.8 188.6 190.4 192.2 194.0 195.8 197.6 199.4 2012 254 260 266 271 277 282 288 293 299 304 310 316 321 327 332 338 343 349 354 360 366 37 377 382 388 393 399 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 471 477 10 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 Ptcr-red by Alfred Sauveur; uud by the kind permiuion of bfr Sanveur 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 23 24 25 26 27 28 203.0 204.8 206.6 208.4 210.2 212.0 230 248 266 284 404 410 416 421 427 432 438 443 449 454 460 466 914 677 932 682 950 688 968 693 986 699 1004 704 1022 710 1040 716 1058 721 1076 727 1094 732 1112 738 1130 743 1148 749 1166 754 1184 760 1202 766 1220 771 1238 777 1256 782 1274 788 1292 793 1310 799 1328 804 1346 810 1364 816 1382 821 1400 827 1418 832 1436 838 1454 843 1472 849 1490 854 1508 860 1526 866 1544 871 1562 877 1580 882 1598 888 1616 893 1634 899 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 2282 2300 2218 2336 2354 2372 2390 2408 2426 2444 2462 2480 2498 2516 2534 2552 2570 2588 2606 2624 2642 2660 2678 2696 2714 2732 2750 2768 2786 2804 2822 2840 2858 2876 2894 2912 2930 2948 2966 2984 3002 1099 1104 1110 1116 1121 1127 1132 1138 1143 1149 1154 1160 1166 1171 1177 1182 1188 1193 1199 1204 1210 1216 1221 1227 1232 1238 1243 1249 1254 1260 1266 1271 1277 1282 1288 1293 1299 1304 1310 1316 1321 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 3650 3668 3686 3704 3722 3740 3758 3776 3794 3812 3830 3848 3866 3884 3902 3920 3938 3956 3974 3992 4010 4028 4046 4064 4082 4100 4118 4136 4154 4172 4190 4208 4226 4244 4262 4280 4298 4316 4334 4352 4370 1521 1527 1532 1538 1543 1549 1554 1560 1566 1571 1577 1582 1588 1593 1599 1604 1610 1616 1621 1627 1632 1638 1643 1649 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 2840 2850 2860 2870 2880 2890 2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000 5018 5036 5054 5072 5090 5108 5126 5144 5162 5180 5198 5216 5234 5252 5270 5288 5306 5324 5342 5360 5378 5396 5414 5432 Interpolation factor# c 0.56 1.11 1.67 2.22 2.78 3.33 3.89 4.44 5.00 5.56 10 F 1.8 3.6 5.4 7.2 9.0 10.8 12.6 14.4 16.2 18.0 Contents (For detailed breakdown of tables, see index.) Front Matter Temperature Conversion Table (Table 1) Preface to the Ninth Revised Edition Introduction Units of Measurement Conversion Factors and Dimensional Formulae Some Fundamental Definitions (Table 2) Part Geometrical and Mechanical Units Part Heat Units Part Electrical and Magnetic Units Fundamental Standards (Table 3) Part Selection of Fundamental Quantities Part Some Proposed Systems of Units Part Electrical and Magnetic Units Part The Ordinary and the Ampere-turn Magnetic Units The New (1948) System of Electric Units (Table 6) Relative Magnitude of the Old International Electrical Units and the New 1948 Absolute Electrical Units (Table 5) Relative Values of the Three Systems of Electrical Units (Table 6) Conversion Factors for Units of Energy (Table 7) Former Electrical Equivalents (Table 8) Some Mathematical Tables (Tables 9-15) Treatment of Experimental Data (Tables 16-25) General Physical Constants (Tables 26-28) Common Units of Measurement (Tables 29-36) Constants for Temperature Measurement (Tables 37-51) The Blackbody and its Radiant Energy (Tables 52-57) Photometry (Tables 58-77) Emissivities of a Number of Materials (Tables 78-84) Characteristics of Some Light-source Materials, and Some Light Sources (Tables 85-102) Cooling by Radiation and Convection (Tables 103-110) Temperature Characteristics of Materials (Tables 111-125) Changes in Freezing and Boiling Points (Tables 126-129) Heat Flow and Thermal Conductivity (Tables 130-141) Thermal Expansion (Tables 142-146) Specific Heat (Tables 147-158) Latent Heat (Tables 159-164) Thermal Properties of Saturated Vapors (Tables 165-170) Heats of Combustion (Tables 171-183) Physical and Mechanical Properties of Materials (Tables 184-209) Characteristics of Some Building Materials (Tables 210-217) i ii iii 1 4 10 13 13 15 16 18 19 20 20 21 22 23-36 37-45 46-55 56-69 70-78 79-86 87-97 98-101 102-111 112-116 117-130 131-135 136-144 145-154 155-164 165-167 168-178 179-186 187-228 229-231 Physical Properties of Leather (Tables 218-223) Values of Physical Constants of Different Rubbers (Tables 224-229) Characteristics of Plastics (Tables 233-236) Properties of Fibers (Tables 233-236) Properties of Woods (Tables 237-240) Temperature, Pressure, Volume, and Weight Relations of Gases and Vapors (Tables 241-253) Thermal Properties of Gases (Tables 254-260) The Joule-Thomson Effect in Fluids (Tables 261-267) Compressibility (Tables 268-280) Densities (Tables 281-295) Velocity of Sound (Tables 296-300) Acoustics (Tables 301-310A) Viscosity of Fluids and Solids (Tables 311-338) Aeronautics (Tables 339-346A) Diffusion, Solubility, Surface Tension, and Vapor Pressure (Tables 347-369) Various Electrical Characteristics of Materials (Tables 370-406) Electrolytics Conduction (Tables 407-415) Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics of Wire (Tables 416-428) Some Characteristics of Dielectrics (Tables 429-452) Radio Propagation Data (Tables 453-465) Magnetic Properties of Materials (Tables 466-494) Geomagnetism (Tables 495-512) Magneto-optic Effects (Tables 513-521) Optical Glass and Optical Crystals (Tables 522-555) Transmission of Radiation (Tables 556-573) Reflection and Absorption of Radiation (Tables 574-592) Rotation of Plane of Polarized Light (Tables 593-597) Media for Determinations of Refractive Indices with the Microscope (Tables 598-601) Photography (Tables 602-609) Standard Wavelengths and Series Relations in Atomic Spectra (Tables 610-624) Molecular Constants of Diatomic Molecules (Tables 625-625a) The Atmosphere (Tables 626-630) Densities and Humidities of Moist Air (Tables 631-640) The Barometer (Tables 641-648) Atmospheric Electricity (Tables 649-653) Atomic and Molecular Data (Tables 654-659) Abundance of Elements (Tables 660-668) Colloids (Tables 669-682) Electron Emission (Tables 683-689) Kinetic Theory of Gases (Tables 690-696) 232-233 234-238 239-240 241-245 246-258 259-267 268-277 278-281 282-290 291-305 306-308 309-317 318-336 337-353 354-374 375-396 397-403 404-420 421-433 434-450 451-467 468-502 503-508 509-534 535-548 549-556 557-560 561 562-567 568-585 586-591 592-595 596-605 606-613 614-617 618-624 625-629 630-634 635-637 638-624 Atomic and Molecular Dimensions (Tables 697-712) Nuclear Physics (Tables 713-730) Radioactivity (Tables 731-758) X-rays (Tables 759-784) Fission (Tables 785-793) Cosmic Rays (Tables 794-801) Gravitation (Tables 802-807) Solar Radiation (Tables 808-824) Astronomy and Astrophysics (Tables 825-884) Oceanography (Tables 885-899) The Earth's Rotation: Its Variation (Table 900) General Conversion Factors (Table 901) Index 643-650 651-671 672-691 692-705 706-709 710-713 714-718 719-727 728-771 772-779 780 781-785 787 lNTRODUCTION U N I T S OF MEASUREMENT The quantitative measure of anything is expressed by two factors-one, a certain definite amount of the kind of physical quantity measured, called the unit; the other, the number of times this unit is taken A distance is stated as meters The purpose in such a statement is to convey an idea of this distance in terms of some familiar or standard unit distance Similarly quantity of matter is referred to as so many grams ; of time, as so many seconds, or minutes, or hours The numerical factor definitive of the magnitude of any quantity must depend on the size of the unit in terms of which the quantity is measured For example, let the magnitude factor be for a certain distance when the mile is used as the unit of measurement A mile equals 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet The numerical factor evidently becomes 8,800 and 26,400, respectively, when the yard or the foot is used as the unit Hence, to obtain the magnitude factor for a quantity in terms of a new unit, multiply the old magnitude factor by the ratio of the magnitudes of the old and new units ; that is, by' the number of the new units required to make one of the old The different kinds of quantities measured by physicists fall fairly definitely into two classes In one class the magnitudes may be called extensive, in the other, intensive T o decide to which class a quantity belongs, it is often helpful to note the effect of the addition of two equal quantities of the kind in question If twice the quantity results, then the quantity has extensive (additive) magnitude For instance, two pieces of platinum, each weighing grams, added together weigh 10 grams; on the other hand, the addition of one piece of platinum at 100" C to another at 100" C does not result in a system at 200" C Volume, entropy, energy may be taken as typical of extensive magnitudes; density, temperature and magnetic permeability, of intensive magnitudes The measurement of quantities having extensive magnitude is a comparatively direct process Those having intensive magnitude must be correlated with phenomena which may be measured extensively In the case of temperature, a typical quantity with intensive magnitude, various methods of measurement have been devised, such as the correlation of magnitudes of temperature with the varying lengths of a thread of mercury Fundamental units.-It is desirable that the fewest possible fundamental unit quantities should be chosen Simplicity should regulate the choicesimplicity first, psychologically, in that they should be easy to grasp mentally, and second, physically, in permitting as straightforward and simple definition as possible of the complex relationships involving them Further, it seems desirable that the units should be extensive in nature I t has been found possible to express all measurable physical quantities in terms of five such units : first, geometrical considerations-length, surface, etc.-lead to the need of a length ; second, kinematical considerations-velocity, acceleration, etc.-introduce time ; third, mechanics-treating of masses instead of immaterial points-inSMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES troduces matter with the need of a fundamental unit of mass ; fourth, electrical, and fifth, thermal considerations require two more such quantities T h e discovery of new classes of phenomena may require further additions As to the first three fundamental quantities, simplicity and good use sanction the choice of a length, L, a time interval, T , and a mass, M F o r the measurement of electrical quantities, good use has sanctioned two fundamental quantities-the dielectric constant, K , the basis of the “electrostatic” system, and the magnetic permeability, p, the basis of the “electromagnetic” system Besides these two systems involving electrical considerations, there is in common use a third one called the “absolute” system, which will be referred to later F o r the fifth, or thermal fundamental unit, temperature is generally ch0sen.l Derived units.-Having selected the fundamental o r basic units-namely, a measure of length, of time, of mass, of permeability o r of the dielectric constant, and of temperature-it remains to express all other units for physical quantities in terms of these Units depending on powers greater than unity of the basic units are called “derived units.” Thus, the unit volume is the volume of a cube having each edge a unit of length Suppose that the capacity of some volume is expressed in terms of the foot as fundamental unit and the volume number is wanted when the yard is taken as the unit T h e yard is three times as long as the foot and therefore the volume of a cube whose edge is a yard is x x times as great as that whose edge is a foot T h u s the given volume will contain only 1/27 as many units of volume when the yard is the unit of length as it will contain when the foot is the unit To transform from the foot as old unit to the yard as new unit, the old volume number must be multiplied by 1/27, o r by the ratio of the magnitude of the old to that of the new unit of volume This is the same rule as already given, but it is usually more convenient to express the transformations in terms of the fundamental units directly I n the present case, since, with the method of measurement here adopted, a volume number is the cube of a length number, the ratio of two units of volume is the cube of the ratio of the intrinsic values of the two units of length Hence, if I is the ratio of the magnitude of the old to that of the new unit of length, the ratio of the corresponding units of volume is k Similarly the ratio of two units of area would be 12, and so on for other quantities CONVERSION FACTORS A N D D I M E N S I O N A L F O R M U L A E F o r the ratio of length, mass, time, temperature, dielectric constant, and permeability units the small bracketed letters, [ J , [ m ] , [ t ], [ 01, [ K ] , and [ p ] will be adopted These symbols will always represent simple numbers, but the magnitude of the number will depend on the relative magnitudes of the units the ratios of which they represent W h e n the values of the numbers represented by these small bracketed letters as well as the powers of them involved in any particular unit are known, the factor for the transformation is at once obtained Thus, in the above example, the value of was 1/3, and the power involved in the expression for volume was ; hence the factor for transforming from cubic feet to cubic yards was P o r 1/33 o r 1/27 These factors will be called conversion factors Because of its greater psychological and physical simplicity, and the desirability that the unit chosen should have extensive magnitude, it has been proposed to choose as the fourth fundamental quantity a quantity of electrical charge, e T h e standard units of electrical charge would then be the electronic charge For thermal needs, entropy has been proposed While not generally so psychologically easy to grasp as temperature, entropy is of fundamental importance in thermodynamics and has extensive magnitude (Tolman, R C., The measurable quantities of physics, Phys Rev., vol 9, p 237, 1917.) SMlTHSONlAN PHYSICAL TABLES T o find the symbolic expression for the conversion factor for any physical quantity, it is sufficient to determine the degree to which the quantities, length, mass, time, etc., are involved Thus a velocity is expressed by the ratio of the number representing a length to that representing an interval of time, or [ L / T ] ,and acceleration by a velocity number divided by an interval-of-time number, or [ L I T ]and , so on, and the corresponding ratios of units must therefore enter in precisely the same degree The factors would thus be for the just-stated cases, [Z/t] and [ / t ] Equations of the form above given for velocity and acceleration which show the dimensions of the quantity in terms of the fundamental units are called dimensional equations Thus [ E l = [ML2T-'] will be found to be the dimensional equation for energy, and [ M L T ]the dimensional formula for it These expressions will be distinguished from the conversion factors by the use of bracketed capital letters In general, if we have an equation for a physical quantity, Q = CLaMbTc, where C is a constant and L , M , T represent length, mass, and time in terms of one set of units, and it is desired to transform to another set of units in terms of which the length, mass, and time are L1,M , T ,we have to find the value of L,/L, M , / M , 1',/T, which, in accordance with the convention adopted above, will be 1, m, t, or the ratios of the magnitudes of the old to those of the new units Thus L,=Ll, M,=Mnz, T,=Tt, and if Ql be the new quantity number, Q l = CL,ahllbTIC, = CLalaMbmbTCtC= Qlambtc, or the conversion factor is [lambtc], a quantity precisely of the same form as the dimension formula [LaMbTC] Dimensional equations are useful for checking the validity of physical equations Since physical equations must be homogeneous, each term appearing in theni must be dimensionally equivalent For example, the distance moved by a uniformly accelerated body is s=n,t +atz The corresponding dimensional equation is [ L ]= [ ( L / T )1'3 [ ( L / T )T ] each , term reducing to [ L ] Dimensional considerations may often give insight into the laws regulating physical phenomena.2 For instance, Lord Rayleigh, in discussing the intensity of light scattered from small particles, in so far as it depends upon the wavelength, reasons as follows : + + The object is to compare the intensities of the incident and scattered ray; for these will clearly be proportional T h e number (i) expressing the ratio of the two amplitudes is a function of the following quantities:-V, the volume of the disturbing particle; r, the distance of the point under consideration from i t ; A, the wavelength; c , the velocity of propagation of light ; D and D', the original and altered densities : of which the first three depend only on space, the fourth on space and time, while the fifth and sixth introduce the consideration of mass Other elements of the problem there ar e none, except mere numbers and angles, which not depend upon the fundamental measurements of space, time, and mass Since the ratio i, whose expression we seek, is of no dimensions in mass, it follows a t once that D and D' occur only under the form D : D', which is a simple number and may therefore be omitted It remains to find how i varies with V ,r, A, c Now, of these quantities, c is the only one depending on time ; and therefore, as i is of no dimensions in time, c cannot occur in its expression W e are left, then, with V ,r, and A ; and from what we know of the dynamics of the question, we may be sure that i varies directly as V and inversely as Y , and must therefore be proportional t o V t A?, V being of three diBuckingham, E., Phys Rev., vol 4,p 345,1914 ; also Philos Mag., vol 42,p 696, 1921 Philos Mag., ser 4, voI 41, p 107, 1871 See also Robertson, Dimensional analysis, Gen Electr Rev., vol 33, p 207, 1930 SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES Index terms Links Temperature, Continued 1948 comparison with 1927 scale Kelvin old radiant Rankin Reaumur thermodynamic secondary points (1948) standard standard fixed points (see also Fixed points) thermocouple data true less brightness various places (monthly means) Wien equation, corresponding temperatures on 1948 scale Tenth-meter Terrestrial magnetism (see Geomagnetism) Thallium brome-iodide Thermal capacitance Thermal conduction vs temperature Thermal conductivity alloys cork cotton fireclay fourier various materials gases insulating materials leather liquids: as a function of pressure organic materials, various metals organic liquids plastics rocks, various rubber salt solutions substances, various water salt solutions woods wool Thermal emf (see Emf) Thermal expansion, coefficient of alloys crystals 70 71 74 9 9 70 71 75 99 99 726 72 71 72 515 114 138 139 139 141 144 144 142 139 233 143 142 136 139 141 138 142 239 136 140 140 136 136 141 142 136 140 140 145 149 152 879 Index terms Links Thermal expansion, coefficient of, Continued cubical elements gases leather liquids metals miscellaneous materials plastics rubber Thermal properties: gases liquid ammonia saturated steam saturated water superheated steam Thermal resistivity in fouriers Thermochemistry, various materials heat of formation Thermocouples, reference tables for chromel-alumel, °F iron-constantin, °C-°F platinum to platinum 10 percent, °C-°F Thermodynamic laws Thermodynamic temperature Thermodynamics Thermoelectric effect properties at low temperatures vs copper vs lead alloys metals pressure effect temperature vs platinum alloys aluminium cadmium 148 153 145 154 233 153 145 152 239 235 259 178 168 169 175 168 176 144 185 186 74 75 76 78 76 77 75 9 14 13 379 381 379 379 379 379 382 387 381 376 383 376-390 metals nickel zinc Thermomagnetic effects Thermometry: correction for emergent thread mercury thermometers reduction, gas thermometer to thermodynamic scale corrections for various gas thermometers Thomson effect, microvolt per degree Thomson heats pressure effects temperature 389 390 508 72 72 73 73 382 382 383 382 383 880 77 78 Index terms Links 614 779 779 779 779 779 779 728 14 130 130 657 126 Thunderstorm electricity (see also Lightning) Tides: height at various places mean sea level geodetic geographic neap spring Time, equation of unit Torque Transformation: eutectic mixtures lime-alumina-silica compounds of units Transformer rectifier Transitions, crystals Transmission of radiation: air components moist alum atmospheric transparency for ultraviolet cesium bromide color screens crystals dyestuff solutions gases glass Jena lead chloride optical red pyrometer glass effective wavelength light filters: Bausch and Lomb Corning glass narrow band pass spectral regions Wratten light through space long wavelength magnesium oxide optical crystals red pyrometer glass rock salt sapphire silver chloride solids substances, various sylvite thallium bromide thallium bromide-iodide thallium chloride 538 538 546 545 538 547 535 515 538 547 512 514 547 512 537 537 537 536 536 536 536 771 545 547 517 537 517 547 547 547 546 517 517 517 547 881 57 517 547 545 545 547 Index terms Links Transmission of radiation, Continued various materials water Transparency: atmospheric, for ultraviolet substances, various, infrared various, for long wavelengths ultraviolet, for atmospheric components water water vapor (steam) Transverse galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic effects Treatment of experimental data (see under Data) Triboelectricity, series vs silica Trigonometric functions cosine cotangent sine tangent Tritium Triton Troy measurements Tnngsten (Wolfram), characteristics color temperature emissivity lamp melting point pressure radiation Twilight 554 556 536 538 546 555 538 536 545 507 375 375 32 32 32 32 32 654 654 63 64 102 102 103 99 106 72 119 102 731 66 654 657 187 188 Ultimate particles strength, materials Ultraviolet, transparency for atmospheric components Uniform point source Unit pole United States system of weights and measures metric to to metric Units: absolute ampere turn capacity carrying copper wires electrical mechanical physical specific inductive cgs changing 538 92 451 60 60 60 18 61 61 62 416 16 60 60-67 11 15 57 882 63 Index terms Links Units: absolute, Continued choice of common abbreviations spelling conversion (see Conversion factors) cubic defined (see under name of unit) derived dimensions electrical and magnetic geometric and heat different systems absolute, electric and magnetic (1948) relation to international (1927) ampere turns cgs electrical dimensional equations equivalents of discarded systems relative value of systems Gaussian heat dimensional equation flow international electrical magnetic units ampere turn Gauss Gilbert Maxwell Oersted ordinary pole practical some proposed MKS dimensional formulas use of dimensions electric absolute (1948) maintained vs international electromagnetic practical electrostatic energy established extensive former electrical equivalents 883 56 56 56 63 58 58 59 58 15 19 20 18 15 20 10 11 59 22 20 15 58 58 136 19 451 18 18 18 18 18 18 12 16 15 15 58 59 57 58 59 10 15 19 19 20 12 16 12 17 618 653 22 Index terms Links Units: absolute, Continued fundamental area capacity choice of dielectric constant dimensions heat length magnetic permeability mass number of temperature scale of 1948 time volume Gaussian system geometrical heat intensive legal definitions linear list of magnetic mass measurements numeric unit mechanical metric MKS number of numerically different photometric proposed systems radiant energy radiant wavelength relations among wire size units resistivity square transformation of Universe: abundance of elements cosmic rays mass density radiant energy Uranium: elements beyond americium berkelium californium 56 60 60 57 58 58 60 10 451 60 14 70 14 60 15 60 60 56 18 451 60 1 61 62 15 15 94 15 136 509 404 11 60 57 60 59 70 625 713 713 713 619 619 619 619 884 623 670 670 670 670 Index terms Links Uranium, Continued curium methods of producing neptunium plutonium radioactive properties Uranus 619 670 619 619 676 734 Valence electrons Value of e Van de Graff generator Van der Waal’s equation constants for different gases Vapor pressure: alcohol, ethyl methyl argon critical diffusion elements (some) ethyl alcohol gases (low temperature) hydrocarbons, light liquids organic mercury metals rate of evaporation methyl alcohol organic liquids rate of evaporation solutions of salts in water temperature effects Vaporization, latent heat of ammonia elements formula for liquids pressure variation water Vapors: density diffusion molecules mass velocity Velocity maximum of light in different materials (see under name of material) of sound: in gases 885 654 47 654 261 262 370 370 117 276 354 362 370 360 293 371 368 372 362 362 370 368 362 373 368 167 167 165 167 166 167 167 269 354 640 640 640 654 47 306 670 670 670 677 51 54 355 371 363 363 369 51 54 Index terms Links Velocity, Continued liquids sea water solids vapor Verdet’s constant: acids gases liquids salts in water solids Viscosity air alcohol-water mixtures boron trioxide castor oil temperature centipoise coefficient constants Couette correction definition equations dimensions dimethyl-siloxane polymers diopside-albite-anorthite fluids formulas gases and vapors pressure and temperature gasoline, with temperature glasses, with compositions with temperature glucose thermal effect glycerin-water mixtures glycerol in aqueous solution with temperature heavy water hydrocarbons pure ice glacier kerosene, with temperature kinematic unit liquefied gases and vapors liquids miscellaneous pressure effects pure lubricants oils, crank case 307 307 306 306 505 506 505 505 504 318 331 320 326 322 322 319 318 331 318 318 318 318 325 327 319 319 331 331 322 330 330 321 321 322 321 321 320 329 329 319 322 318 321 329 328 328 333 333 334 334 886 505 506 320 321 322 323 324 332 332 321 333 334 Index terms Links Viscosity, Continued metals, molten methods of measuring equations Meyer’s formula, constants molten metals oxides number of gases oils pressure organic liquids, temperature effect orthoclase-albite oxides, molten pitch pressure effects liquids silicon dioxide sodium silicates (temperature) solids equations Southerlands formula specific stoke temperature variation units of poise vapors Venice turpentine water: at high temperatures at low temperatures heavy water pressure water-alcohol mixture wax, shoemaker’s Volt Voltaic cells composition emf standard Volt-electron Volume gas, correction factor relative at various pressures glass vessel pressure relation: argon compounds gases metals nitrogen 327 318 318 331 327 326 331 328 328 323 325 326 319 328 328 325 324 319 319 331 318 321 322 318 318 319 319 320 319 320 334 320 319 20 377 377 377 378 654 60 260 261 68 117 286 261 119 118 887 319 334 333 323 324 325 326 321 319 286 Index terms Links Water: 360 360 606 71 169 283 153 295 296 298 296 48 297 302 302 304 425 439 354 143 396 119 161 632 671 320 602 602 530 399 167 462 638 118 302 304 638 119 119 606 671 295 296 283 168 absorption, gases vapors barometric pressure, column of water boiling point with pressure compressibility cubical expansion density free from air maximum water and alcohol ethyl methyl dielectric constant dielectric loss tangent diffusion of aqueous solution into diffusivity electrical resistivity freezing point, effect of pressure heat capacity heat of sorption heavy water, comparative properties viscosity humidity and wet-dry bulb temperature index of refraction ionization latent heat of vaporization, formula magnetic susceptibility mean free path melting temperatures, effect of pressure mixture, with alcohol, density molecules, diameter phases freezing point pressure of columns properties, heavy ordinary pure, free from air relative volume, different pressures saturated, thermal properties sea: absorption of light with wavelength chlorinity composition concentration of dissolved material density elements in evaporation 774 776 774 776 774 774 777 774 888 Index terms Links Water, Continued geochemistry osmotic pressure pH physical properties absorption of light chlorinity concentration pressure, osmotic vapor salinity transmission of radiation pressure resistivity salinity solids dissolved amount of yearly addition specific heat temperature vapor pressure vaporization velocity of sound in solubility: of gases in of salts in inorganic organic solution of salts in specific heat spreading surface tension thermal conductivity thermal properties total heat of vaporization transmission of radiation transparency vapor: coefficient of diffusion density diffusion of heat capacity index of refraction mean free path molecular diameter molecular velocities pressure in atmosphere at sea level saturated: pressure temperature weight transparency variation of dielectric constant 776 775 777 775 775 774 774 775 775 774 775 774 396 774 776 776 776 161 774 775 774 307 358 357 358 358 300 161 633 362 136 142 168 169 775 538 356 276 355 163 533 638 638 640 599 605 600 600 601 545 423 889 Index terms Links Water, Continued velocity of sound in viscosity weight of wet-dry bulb vapor pressure of salts in velocity of sound in Verdet's constant for viscosity effect of pressure effect of temperature volume, and density and temperature at temperature of maximum density free from air influence of pressure of glass vessel from its weight in water Watt Wavelength: cadmium red line conversion factor De Broglie elements, prominent lines in simple spectra extreme ultraviolet Fraunhofer lines Mercury198= primary standards sample spectra of some elements secondary standards (international) iron krypton, neon solar lines standard cadmium mercury tertiary standards, iron units ultraviolet Wave number absolute volt electron volt moment of inertia and band spectra one volt Waves at sea: earthquake fetch height vs fetch vs wind duration vs wind velocity length deep water shallow water 306 332 601 602 373 307 505 319 334 319 298 298 297 296 297 68 20 569 509 665 577 571 577 568 568 577 570 571 570 572 568 569 568 571 509 571 578 50 54 49 50 777 778 778 778 772 772 778 777 777 890 581 778 778 778 778 Index terms Links Waves at sea: earthquake, Continued sea surf swell height vs distance from source vs wind velocity: deep water shallow water Weighing: effect of the air reduction to vacuo Weight, calculated, various bodies Wet-dry bulb temperature and humidity Wien displacement constant Wien displacement law Wire (see also Copper): aluminum, properties of mass resistivity copper, properties of annealed characteristics of electric carrying capacity (safe) mass resistivity resistance, computing resistance to standard temperature temperature coefficient of resistance electrical and mechanical characteristics gages, comparison of high-frequency resistance calculations of conductors maximum diameter for high-frequency resistance ratio of 1.01 ratio of alternating to direct current resistance rope steel tables, comparison (gages) for computing resistances tubular conductors, resistance Wolf’s sunspot number Wolfram (see Tungsten) 778 778 778 772 778 777 777 69 69 27 602 80 80 415 404 406 408 408 408 416 404 417 407 404 408 405 417 417 419 417 419 420 419 216 216 405 416 418 727 654 693 693 693 693 692 696 696 X-rays absorption coefficients formulas constants critical K series L series 891 692 694 698 699 Index terms Links X-rays, Continued M series mass absorption calculated elements materials formula wavelengths, critical elements voltage characteristics, intensity wavelength dosage units lead thickness to reduce rate emission, characteristic, materials K series energy, radiated filters for obtaining monochromatic fluorescence, excited by materials wavelength generated ionization gas and vapors mass absorption formula nature production quantity protection against concrete distance vs voltage lead materials vs minimum thickness vs intensity requirement vs voltage for 400 kv pulsating for 1000 kv pulsating for 10 ma pulsating thickness vs voltage quantity, tungsten target safe rating of tubes spectrum limit terms, various elements tubes, safe operating types characteristics continuous spectrum wavelength limit 892 696 704 704 695 696 693 692 697 692 692 692 694 695 695 696 696 692 696 693 693 693 692 693 693 694 694 692 692 692 693 694 695 695 694 693 693 695 696 695 695 692 698 692 692 698 698 692 692 699 692 697 693 693 694 695 695 Index terms Links X-rays, Continued X-unit 692 692 701 693 696 697 699 700 698 700 697 692 509 Year: anomalistic light sidereal tropical Yearly means: magnetic characteristics solar constant sunspots temperature Yield point (materials) Young’s modulus 731 730 731 731 481 719 727 726 188 188 Zeeman effect Zero, absolute Zinc, physical properties 50 225 wavelength characteristic critical absorption for elements fluorescent K series, elements L series, elements M series (72Ta to 92 U) tungsten L series various elements various transitions voltage and 893 47 73 ... Dimensions (Tables 697-712) Nuclear Physics (Tables 713-730) Radioactivity (Tables 731-758) X-rays (Tables 759-784) Fission (Tables 785-793) Cosmic Rays (Tables 794-801) Gravitation (Tables 802-807)... (Tables 130-141) Thermal Expansion (Tables 142-146) Specific Heat (Tables 147-158) Latent Heat (Tables 159-164) Thermal Properties of Saturated Vapors (Tables 165-170) Heats of Combustion (Tables. .. 229-231 Physical Properties of Leather (Tables 218-223) Values of Physical Constants of Different Rubbers (Tables 224-229) Characteristics of Plastics (Tables 233-236) Properties of Fibers (Tables
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Xem thêm: Smithsonian physical tables (9th revised edition) , Smithsonian physical tables (9th revised edition) , Table 900. The Earth's Rotation: Its Variation, Part 1. Geometrical and Mechanical Units, Part 3. Electrical and Magnetic Units, Part 2. Some Proposed Systems of Units, Table 7. Conversion Factors for Units of Energy, Table 13. Formulas for Moments of Inertia, Radii of Gyration, and Weights of Various Shaped Solids, Table 16. Methods of Averaging Data, Table 22. Further Values of P, Table 26. General Physjcal Constants According to Birge, Table 27. Table of Least-Squares Adjusted Output Values of Physical Constants, Table 30. Dimensional Equations of Fundamental and Derived Units, Table 31. Fundamental Units of Length, Area, Volume, and Mass, Table 33. Equivalents of Metric and British Imperial Weights and Measures, Table 55. Calculated Spectral Intensities J lambda for a Range of Wavelengths for a Blackbody of Unit Area for a Range of Temperatures from 50K to 25,000K, Table 121. Densities and Melting and Boiling Points of Organic Compounds, Table 124. Reversible Transitions in Crystals, Table 127. Rise of Boiling Point Produced by Salts Dissolved in Water, Table 143. Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion of Some Alloys, Table 145. Cubical Expansion of Liquids, Table 166. Properties of Saturated Steam, Table 183. Heats of Dilution of H2SO4, Table 185. Some Physical Properties of the Elements, Table 186. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, Table 188. Mechanical Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys, Table 192. Mechanical Properties of Iron and Steel, Table 198. Mechanical Properties of Miscellaneous Alloys, Table 199. Physical Properties of Some Special-Purpose Alloys, Table 237. Mechanical Properties of Hardwoods Grown in United States, Table 238. Mechanical Properties of Soft Woods Grown in United States, Table 309A. Distribution of Loss of Hearing Acuity, Table 330. Viscosity of Pure Hydrocarbons, Table 336. Effect of Pressure Upon Viscosity, Table 340B. Forces on Nonrotating Circular Cylinders, Table 341A. Skin Friction on Flat Plates, Table 362. Vapor Pressure and Rate of Evaporation, Table 386. Resistivity of Metals and Some Alloys, Table 419. Reduction of Observations to Standard Temperature (Copper), Table 450. Dielectric Constant of Crystals, Table 452. Values for Power Factor in Percent for Several Electrical Insulating Materials at Radio Frequencies, Table 454. Dielectric Constant and Loss Tangent of Dielectric Materials, Table 501. Secular Change of Dip, United States, Table 510. Mean Annual Values of Magnetic Elements at Observatories, Table 511. Geomagnetic Coordinates of Position on the Earth Referred to the Geomagnetic Axis Pole of 1922 for Points in Various Geographical Locations, Table 548. Index of Refraction of Selected Biaxial Minerals, Table 564. Transmission of Dyestuff Solutions of "Adjusted" Concentrations, Table 618. Standard Solar Wavelengths Measured in Air at 15C and 1 Atmosphere Pressure, Table 625A. Molecular Constants for the Ground States of Diatomic Molecules, Table 631. Relative Density of Moist Air for Different Pressures and Humidities, Table 652. Charge on Rain and Snow, Table 654. Conversion Factors for Units of Molecular Energy, Table 716. Definitions of Some Terms Used in Nuclear Physics, Table 719. Atomic Weights and Other Characteristics of Isotopes, Table 725. Slow Neutron Produced Radioactivities of Long Half-Life, Table 731. Units for the Rate of Radioactive Disintegration, Table 734. The Four Radioactive Families, Table 783. Critical Absorption Wavelengths in Angstroms, Table 784. Calculated Mass Absorption Coefficients, Table 826. Approximate Equation of Time, Table 828. Elements of Solar Motion, Table 866. Bright or Well-Observed Novae, Table 878. Stars with Radial Velocities Greater than 200 km/sec, Table 899. Tides, Sea Level, Level Net, K. Boltzmann Constant - Kundt's Constant

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