A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE CULTURE

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Culture plays a vital role in the existence of a nation and builds up the national identity. Every society has a different culture where people share different languages traditions, habits and so on. Culture give people an identity which makes them unique and different from people of other cultures. However, the terms of culture are varied in each nation and may include many aspects. Coffee culture is also very interesting part of culture.This study therefore aims to research about American and Vietnamese coffee culture as well as to find out the similarities and differences between coffee cultures in two countries.To complete this study, the researcher collects information from many reliable sources. As the result, the researcher finds that there are two similarities between two coffee cultures. The first one is the similarity in the purpose to enjoy coffee. The second one is the similarity in time to drink coffee.Besides, the researcher also works out the three main differences between American and Vietnamese coffee cultures. The first one is the difference in types of coffee. The second one is the difference in the art of making a cup of coffee. And the last one is the difference in style to enjoy coffee.The researcher believes that the findings of the study would help all of the English learners get more information and knowledge about the American and Vietnamese coffee culture. Hopefully, it would be a helpful material for cultural lovers who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese culture. PHU THO PEOPLE COMMITTEE HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE CULTURE (So sánh văn hóa cà phê người Mỹ người Việt Nam) B.A Graduation Paper Field: Culture study PHU THO - 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mrs Nguyen Thi Thu Hang, my supervisor This study could not have probably completed without her enthusiastic supervision and encouragement I owe special thanks to all lectures in the Foreign Language Department at Hung Vuong University for tirelessly devoting time and efforts to enrich, broaden and deepen my knowledge during my four years at school so that today, I can finish my graduation paper My special thanks go to the Foreign Language Department of Hung Vuong University for giving me the opportunity and permission to implement this study I also would like to show my special thanks to my classmates at K8 English class, who have supported, cooperated and provided me with valuable suggestions Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to my family for their love, great help and care ABSTRACT Culture plays a vital role in the existence of a nation and builds up the national identity Every society has a different culture where people share different languages traditions, habits and so on Culture give people an identity which makes them unique and different from people of other cultures However, the terms of culture are varied in each nation and may include many aspects Coffee culture is also very interesting part of culture This study therefore aims to research about American and Vietnamese coffee culture as well as to find out the similarities and differences between coffee cultures in two countries To complete this study, the researcher collects information from many reliable sources As the result, the researcher finds that there are two similarities between two coffee cultures The first one is the similarity in the purpose to enjoy coffee The second one is the similarity in time to drink coffee Besides, the researcher also works out the three main differences between American and Vietnamese coffee cultures The first one is the difference in types of coffee The second one is the difference in the art of making a cup of coffee And the last one is the difference in style to enjoy coffee The researcher believes that the findings of the study would help all of the English learners get more information and knowledge about the American and Vietnamese coffee culture Hopefully, it would be a helpful material for cultural lovers who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese culture TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Page Acknowledgement Abstract Table of contents PART A: INTRODUCTION Rationale Previous research Research purposes Research questions Methodology Significance of the study Scope of the study Hypothesis Design of the Study PART B: MAJOR CONTENT Chapter 1: Literature Review 1.1 An overview on culture 1.1.1 The definition of culture 1.1.2 The characteristics of culture 1.1.3 The significance of culture 12 1.2 Introduction of coffee 13 1.2.1 The history of coffee 13 1.2.2 Health benefits from coffee 16 1.3 Coffee culture 19 1.3.1 The definition of coffee culture 19 1.3.2 Coffee culture around the world 20 Chapter 2: The study on American and Vietnamese coffee culture 25 2.1 American coffee culture 25 2.1.1 The history of American coffee culture 25 2.1.2 Types of coffee in America 26 2.1.3 The art of making a cup of coffee in America 26 2.1.4 The style to enjoy coffee of American 27 2.2 Vietnamese coffee culture 27 2.2.1 The history of Vietnamese coffee culture 27 2.2.2 Types of coffee in Vietnam 27 2.2.3 The art of making a cup of coffee in Vietnam 29 2.2.4 The style to enjoy coffee of Vietnamese 30 Chapter 3: A comparison on American and Vietnamese coffee culture 36 3.1 Similarities 36 3.1.1 Purposes of drinking coffee 36 3.1.2 Time to enjoy coffee 36 3.2 Differences 37 3.2.1 Types of coffee 37 3.2.2 The art of making a cup of coffee 38 3.2.3 The style in enjoying coffee 40 3.3 The reasons of similarities and differences 41 PART C: CONCLUSION 43 Main findings Implications 44 Limitations 44 Suggestions for further researches 45 References 46 PART A: INTRODUCTION Rationale In the context of globalization throughout the world, culture is considered as the most vital factor for each nation It decides the existence of a nation and builds up the national identity Whatever it is a developed country or developing country, we can not deny the importance of culture Each society has its own culture which is unique and different from other cultures However, the term of culture is diversified and may include many aspects Drinking art is also a very exciting part of culture Coffee has been drunk for pleasure and health for thousands years Over the recent years, coffee has become the beverage of choice around the globe, and is now the most popular beverages worldwide, next to water! However, coffee making and drinking is not just a personal or in the same way in the world Its culture brings unique identity of each nation For example, people in some areas of Africa like drinking coffee with the mint while the Arabs are keen on coffee mixed with chicory to create strange smell Differing from other parts in the world, Italians fancy drinking espresso with sugar while it is coffee with hot chocolate for German and Swiss people Unique customs also exist in Mexico – coffee with lemon juice and in the Middle East countries- coffee usually added cardamom seeds and pepper In Vietnam, coffee had just become popular for more than 100 years First coffee plantations on the stretch shaped the letter S also dated from 1888 And Vietnam now becomes the second’s largest coffee producer and exporter of the world Coffee drinking habits deeply rooted in the life of many Vietnamese people, and the coffee houses appeared in all corners and streets It is considered as the distinguished drinking culture after tea culture In America, it is estimated that 80% of the population drinks coffee and almost half drinks it everyday Americans use coffee entirely depending on their own taste They drink comfortably Wherever at home, school, a public place or anytime, people can smell the distinct aroma of coffee But like many people in other countries, American and Vietnamese also have coffee cultures in their own ways However, American coffee culture and Vietnamese one may have some similarities and differences about types of coffee, coffee making and coffee enjoying More importantly, not many people know about these similarities and differences Even American or Vietnamese may not know and understand what the unique features about coffee culture their countries have and what their origins are Therefore, American and Vietnamese coffee culture contrasting and comparison can be a good topic to study about For these reasons, the researcher of this paper decides to conduct the study with the title: “A comparison of American and Vietnamese coffee culture” Hopefully, it would be an useful material for students learning English as well as for culture- lovers who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese culture Previous researches There are many researches related to coffee and coffee culture around the world Francis Thurber (1889) had published about Coffee: From Plantation to Cup, A Brief History of Coffee Production and Consumption Pendergrast M (1999) researched about Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How it Transformed Our World Catherine M Tucker (2011) mentioned to coffee culture - local experiences and global connections which helps us know unique characteristics of different coffee drinking styles Knikker, R (2005, March 3) conducted a research about the coffee culture in the USA In Vietnam, researches on coffee and coffee culture also are conducted Tran Binh Minh (2011) also had a research on coffee- mediate means of the society However, it is the first time the topic: “A comparison on American and Vietnamese coffee culture” has been conducted by a student at Foreign Language Department of Hung Vuong University in Phu Tho province This would be an interesting and new topic to study about Research purposes This study aims at the two following main purposes: - Study the history, types of coffee, ways to make a cup of coffee and the style to enjoy coffee of American and Vietnamese - Find out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese coffee culture Research questions This study focus on finding the answers for the following questions: - What are the features of American coffee culture? - What are the features of Vietnamese coffee culture? - What are the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese coffee culture? Methodology 5.1 Research methods In order to study the research problems, the researcher of this paper uses the following research methods: - Theoretical study method: By using this method, the researcher can study the related documents to get information related to the research from different sources about American and Vietnamese coffee culture - Analysis method: the researcher uses this method to analyze the information related to the paper From the data got from many reliable sources, the researcher makes analysis to have the final results - Comparison and contrast method: This method helps the researcher make a comparison and contrast between American and Vietnamese coffee culture 5.2 Research procedure - Finding out information related to the research from different and reliable sources about American and Vietnamese coffee culture - Studying features of American and Vietnamese coffee culture - Finding out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese coffee culture The significance of the research The study aims to help the readers understand more about the similarities and differences between the American and Vietnamese coffee culture It also provides helpful information about the history, types of coffee, ways to enjoy coffee as well as the unique features in American and Vietnamese coffee culture The scope of the research The research concentrates on the typical similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese coffee culture Hypothesis If the research is successfully completed, it would be an useful material for students learning English It would also provide helpful information for culture- lovers who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese coffee culture Design of the study The study consists of three parts and references PART A: INTRODUCTION This part introduces an overall view of the research, presents the rationale for the study, previous research, the aims, research questions, methods and significance of the study, scope, hypothesis and outline of the study PART B: MAJOR CONTENT This part is divided into three chapters: literature review, the study and conclusion Chapter 1: Literature Review Three main sections are presented, they are: an overview on culture, introduction of coffee and coffee culture Chapter 2: The study on American and Vietnamese coffee culture 10 space for customers no matter when they go there alone or with friends Another interesting feature is that there are coffee shops that suit people’s tastes or hobbies For example, when dropping by Niet Ban coffee shop in District 1, customers will be plunged in Buddhism philosophy and religious designs from the chairs and tables, green trees to the spoons to stir coffee cups At Do (Red) Coffee, people will find red color everywhere due to backlit curtains If customers are keen on old-fashioned motorcycles, “Ride coffee” in Nguyen Thi Minh Khai Street (District 1) is the ideal destination They can find many spare parts of old motors here such as an ashtray made from a cylinder and many others on the wall like rims or carburetors They can also hear interesting stories about old-fashioned motorcycles at Ride Coffee and they can be invited to join the group to start interesting journeys across the country if they want “Bet Coffee” which means coffee on the flat ground receives enthusiastic supports from the pupils and students thanks to its shocking prices: from VND510,000 per cup They often sit on green grass drinking coffee while breathing the fresh air and listening to the birds chattering Saigoneses fancy on drinking ice milk coffee most Because Saigon weather has just two seasons and experiences a tropical climate with hot, humid conditions all year round From chaotic street-side cafes, to peaceful indoor social parlors, coffee shops in Vietnam are omnipresent and vital to the day-to-day social life of the average Vietnamese person Learning to enjoy coffee the Vietnamese way is not only a valuable way to learn about the culture of Vietnam and to build up relationships, but also an irresistible treat for any coffee lover Here are some interesting facts about Vietnamese coffee and the coffee drinking culture of Vietnam: Firstly, it is no doubt that Vietnamese coffee is the strongest and thickest coffee species Most coffee grown in Vietnam is of the Robusta variety The beans are normally roasted over low heat for a long period of time until they turn dark and oily, and the French roast gives it a rich full-bodied vaguely chocolaty flavor 39 Vietnamese coffee distinguishes itself from its western counterparts in three ways It is roasted with butter oil, which coats the beans and protects them from burning during the process In this way they can produce dark beans similar to a French Roast Another difference is that they don't use 100% Aribica beans as is the trend in much of the west They usual a blend of 70% Aribica and 30% Robusta, which makes the coffee a bit stronger and for many makes it a unique drinking experience nostalgic almost, like this is how coffee once tasted long ago The third difference is the unique varietals that can be planted in Vietnam's diverse landscapes Among them are Arabica (and an "indigenous" Sparrow, or Se, Arabica), Robusta, Excelsa (sometimes called Chari), Liberica, Catimor and others Secondly, coffee is usually served while still brewing It is meant to be enjoyed at leisure, never in a rush Part of the experience is seeing the coffee slowly drip into a clear glass An amazing utility of coffee is that it makes people relaxed Consequently, towards a cup of coffee, a knight- errant become good-natured person, people who is angry becomes gentle one, people who is bored become funny and people who is tired become strong Coffee is very much a social and cultural thing for Vietnamese people They drink coffee as a means to catch up with friends and talk about life in general Coffee is part of the culture now, just as much as food is People drink coffee several times a day but much in the morning Drinking coffee is a big part of the people’s morning ritual before going to work Walking the streets of Vietnam early in the morning, one will find the locals settled on little chairs on the sidewalks enjoying coffee while reading the paper or just chatting with friends Coffee houses are ideal for having gossip, meeting old friends, talking to pass time of day and stealing precious moments for romantics Thirdly, trend of coffee culture is gradually changing In Vietnam, besides spending hours on enjoying black and milk coffee using filers, more and more people are enjoying instant coffee now because it is exceptionally 40 convenient to prepare It’s quick to serve and no trouble at all to make It just needs hot water More convenient, coffee thins are becoming smart choices for busy people Even in some workplaces, people are working and drinking coffee due to the appearance of coffee machines In today's hectic lifestyle, the ease of preparation and convenience are the deciding factors The country Vietnam is making great efforts in the transition from agricultural economy to industrial one which requires its citizens to have properly changes in order to match with this shift Therefore people are more saving time for work They increasingly prefer the convenient and fast coffees 41 CHAPTER A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE CULTURE In this chapter, the researcher has studied to find out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese coffee culture 3.1 Similarities After collecting and studying materials from reliable sources, the researcher finds out two main similarities in coffee culture of the two countries 3.1.1 Purposes of drinking coffee Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world Therefore, the similarity point of American and Vietnamese coffee culture is the purpose of drinking coffee Both American and Vietnamese consider coffee a catalyst for keeping them awake while working According to recent researches, around 98% people depend on coffee to help stay awake and remain alert throughout the day Professor Andrew Scholey from research centers and cognitive neuroscience Northumbria University (UK) have studied and concluded that coffee increases the ability to think, to help you really lucid and more concentrated in intellectual activities In addition, both American and Vietnamese drink coffee because of its health benefits Caffeine in coffee not only gives the body a jolt, but also acts as a mild anti-depressant, boosting certain neurotransmitters in the brain responsible for happiness Coffee also is a good source of antioxidants and helps keep the blood healthy, as well as preventing people from having viral attacks, reducing the risk of developments of diabetes and maintaining the correct sugar level of the body Regularly consuming the drink can significantly delay the onset of Parkinson’s disease and cancer 3.1.2 Time to enjoy coffee Both American and Vietnamese drink coffee several times a day depending on their favorites But they drink mostly in the morning After having breakfast, both American and Vietnamese often enjoy coffee for the higher concentration, relaxation and flexibility Cafe helps boost morale and job performance The active ingredient in coffee - caffeine stimulates the brain activity and help people get sober and lucid on their jobs It also 42 increases the speed and creative thinking Therefore, drinking coffee has become popular for office staff and students in each morning as well as in anytime they want 3.2 Differences Due to the differences of geography, the differences between the Western culture and the Eastern culture, American and Vietnamese coffee culture have not many homogenous things such as: the types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the style in enjoying coffee 3.2.1 Types of coffee Vietnam has a deep-rooted coffee culture dating back to French colonial times At present, Vietnam is one of the largest coffee exporters in the world Coffee is very common for every people Each region has its own types of coffee But generally, coffee is divided into two main types according to four different ways to enjoy coffee: coffee using filter (black coffee, milk (brown) coffee, “bac xiu” coffee and egg coffee) and instant coffee Black coffee refers to coffee served as a beverage without cream or milk Black coffee is black depending on the level of enjoyment of the user Roasted coffee is put into coffee pot (filter) This down-to-earth coffee is best when it’s made with a filter and served with granulated, refined sugar It is bitter and very strong Milk coffee in Saigon, or brown coffee in Hanoi – different names but the coffee is basically the same The coffee drips through a filter onto a layer of condensed milk in the cup Before drinking, people stir well until the coffee turns caramel-colored Just like milk coffee, but “bac xiu” coffee contains more coffee and condensed milk plus a little of cocoa Egg coffee- this much-loved newbie, a technically drink is becoming very popular among the youth After boiling hot water is poured over roasted ground coffee in the filter, the beverage begins to drips directly into the cup Then the egg yolk is whisked vigorously with brewed coffee and cheese until it ends up with a frothy, fluffy mixture Sweetened condensed milk is added 43 slowly into the brewed coffee and allowed to sink to the bottom of the cup, resulting in two distinct layers of colors, the black of coffee and white of milk The fluffy mixture of egg yolk is then poured on top as the last step Instant coffee is, essentially, ground coffee that has been freeze-dried When rehydrated with hot water, it makes a beverage that is somewhat similar to coffee brewed from ground, roasted beans In other hand, the typical coffee in America is Americano It is fast coffee for busy and moving people Coffee drinkers rarely drink in coffee shops, people often carry out their drinks when they are walking or driving to the company It’s very convenient in terms of time and space for everyone Additionally, Americans also like enjoying less caffeine - coffees such as cappuccino, latte, mocha and macchiato They are actually the combination of espresso with fresh milk or cream 3.2.2 The art of making a cup of coffee Making coffee is a science, and also an art Traditionally, Vietnamese coffee is often brewed in something known as a phin (from filter, with the ‘l’ pronounced as an ‘n’), a simple device that’s essentially a single cup metal strainer With the advantages such as flexible, easy operation and good quality coffee, enough for the needs of a person enjoy, filter coffee has become a method for the preparation of all very popular and it becomes a cultural of Vietnamese coffee Vietnamese filters not use lining paper Vietnamese filters using osmosis method, the coffee itself both a raw material and a tool to engage in the process of refining Choosing the suitable coffee, with a sufficient amount on the filter, using lid tuck slight pressure with a medium pressure, then boiling water according to demand and waiting osmosis take place Boiling water layer will start penetrating the coffee slowly, coffee helps achieve sufficient maturity to extract Extraction process is very natural, not forced slowly like Espresso 44 Filter The coffee grounds are placed at the bottom of the cup and pressed down firmly with a perforated tamp before the metal canister is filled with boiling water The liquid slowly percolates through tamps, through the grounds, and trickles into the cup below The slow, drip-drip-drip allows the hot water to fully extract the flavor and caffeine from the beans, resulting in a thick, jet-black liquid So drinking coffee which make by filter will always feel fresh and very easy to drink Darkness of the coffee can be adjusted dynamically according to the taste of each person Rather than adding fresh milk, cream or sugar, Vietnamese coffee is enhanced solely with a few spoons of sweetened condensed milk straight from the can The condensed milk is added to the base of the glass before the coffee is dripped on top, remaining separate until given a swift stir to combine the two ingredients The combination can be ordered in both hot and cold form, but the cold version, served with a cup of ice cubes on the side, is the prominent local favorites 45 On the other hand, Americano is American-style coffee made with espresso using coffee machine These machines will help to make coffee faster Water is heated inside of the machine And a pressure pump will suck boiled water through pipes, passing the coffee powder Accordingly, the machine will automatically turn off Then coffee runs slowly to the cup The coffee machine An Americano coffee is an Espresso-based coffee drink with no special additions Actually it is a shot of espresso with hot water poured in it A well prepared Americano has the subtle aroma and flavor like espresso, but a lighter body and bitterness The most important part of the brewing is that the hot water is poured on the espresso and not the espresso poured onto the hot water 3.2.3 The style of enjoying coffee Firstly, Vietnamese like enjoying the strongest and thickest coffee species They don't use 100% Aribica beans as the trend in much of the west They usual a blend of 70% Aribica and 30% Robusta, which makes the coffee a bit stronger While American like coffee that is bland in both color and taste 46 Secondly, drinking coffee in Vietnam is a big part of the people’s morning ritual before going to work Walking along the streets of Vietnam early in the morning, one will find the locals settled on little chairs on the sidewalks enjoying coffee while reading the paper or just chatting with friends Coffee houses are idea for having gossip, meeting old friends, talking to pass time of day, stealing precious moments for romantics People can spend much time on these activities Coffee is very much a social and cultural thing for Vietnamese people They drink coffee as a means to catch up with friends and talk about life in general Coffee reflects part of the Vietnamese culture which is very laid-back, relax, and casual Waiting coffee to extract from the filter is also the time to relax, slowly to enjoy the moments of a full meaningful time At the same time this is also the time to the temporary people back to think about what you're doing and making a plan for your future - Enjoying coffee by that is called "setback philosophy" in Vietnam On the contrary, Americano coffee is poured into Styrofoam cups so that people can conveniently carry wherever they go It is called “take- away” or “fast” coffee for busy and moving people They have no time to enjoy coffee in the coffee shops They usually put their cup of coffee in the car for convenience, are driving and drinking In other words, coffee drinkers not sit to enjoy and it’s very convenient in terms of time and space for everyone 3.3 Reason for these similarities and differences Both American and Vietnamese have the same purpose and time to enjoy coffee because of the major effect of coffee Having more than just a jolt of energy in the morning to keep them awake at work, coffee is a real obsession in America They drink coffee because it means something to them Between the rich flavors and sense of lifestyle, it serves as a way to socialize and boost productivity in this constantly moving society- an industrial country Vietnam also has speeded up the process of industrialization and modernization People have to work with the higher pressure and busy days Therefore, coffee is considered a catalyst for most Vietnamese to help them lucid and awake 47 However, because of the differences between the Western culture and the Eastern culture, two nations also have some differences in terms of types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the style to enjoy coffee The United States is one of the industrial powers in the world with the working style: fast and convenient So they use coffee machines These machines are set programs to run through night so that coffee cups are ready in the morning This way helps American save time to make coffee American usually drinks Americano coffeea bland type, not strong one as Vietnamese They considered coffee as “a tool” just keeping them awake and gain high productivity and working efficiency In contract, coffee was imported to Vietnam by French Initially, this drink was reserved for the nobility, the French officials and the urban intellectual elite Gradually, coffee became the popular drink in people's lives French drinks coffee leisurely Therefore, coffee in Vietnam is enjoyed at leisure, never in a rush, similar to the French drinking In addition, Vietnam is an agricultural country with about 70% of the population engaged in agriculture Farmers now just use 40% of the time for agricultural production, the remaining 60% idle time (according to http://www.trungnguyen.com.vn/2361/tham-tram-ca-phengo) So they have time to wait coffee extracted from the filter It is also the time for Vietnamese to relax, slowly to enjoy the moments of a full meaningful time, have gossips, meet old friends and talk to kill the time of day In conclusion, in this chapter, the researcher points out the similarities and differences of American and Vietnamese coffee culture The similarities consist of the similarity in the purpose to enjoy coffee and the time to drink coffee In addition, the three differences are also presented in this chapter They include the differences in types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the difference in style to enjoy coffee 48 PART C: CONCLUSION Major findings This study focuses on studying about American and Vietnamese coffee culture as well as finds the similarities and differences in the purpose and time to enjoy coffee, types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the style to enjoy coffee To complete this study, the researcher collects information from many reliable sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, and online documents in a long time Then the researcher has studied and selected the essential details related to the study in order to mention in the study In the study, the literature review related to the research such as culture, coffee and coffee culture is mentioned Coffee culture in some different countries is reviewed as well The researcher finds that there are two similarities between American and Vietnamese coffee culture The first one is the similarity in the purpose to enjoy coffee The second one is the similarity in term of time to drink coffee Besides, the study also points out the three main differences between American and Vietnamese coffee cultures The first one is the difference in types of coffee The second one is the difference in the art of making a cup of coffee And the last one is the difference in style to enjoy coffee Both American - the world largest coffee-consuming nation and Vietnam, one of the biggest coffee exporters in the world have unique and interesting coffee cultures However, those features are always not easy to see Passion and the desire to discover new things should be paid to two coffee cultures In addition, people who want to understand deeply American and Vietnamese coffee culture should not only concentrate on the similarities and differences but also find out the reasons why there are these ones and explore coffee philosophy through American and Vietnamese coffee culture The researcher believes that the findings of this research would help all of the English learners get more information and knowledge about American and 49 Vietnamese coffee culture Hopefully, it would be a helpful material for cultural lovers who want to discover the American and Vietnamese culture Implications In spite of some limitations, the study has made its contributions to studying culture of the country In order to have better result in teaching English in general and studying culture in particular, the teachers should have knowledge about cross-culture to meet the demand of the learners Moreover, the teachers should apply different measures to search and improve their students’ ability Being fully aware of the importance of culture in studying a language, students must pay attention to the lessons At the same time, they should study the culture of this country from other resources such as books, internet and magazines Limitations of the research Although the research has been seriously studied, this research cannot avoid some shortcomings The following limitations are still inevitable Firstly, the study has been conducted in limited time The researcher therefore has little time to collect information fully and study it carefully As the result, the study only focuses on analyzing some similarities and differences of American and Vietnamese coffee culture The study cannot cover all of the similarities and differences between them Secondly, it is the fact that the researcher of the paper when implementing this research had no chance to go to America and directly find out American coffee culture Therefore, this study is completed by mainly depending on information from books, newspapers, magazines and online documents Last but not least, the researcher admits that her knowledge and experience are still limited, therefore, minor mistakes are inevitable However, with all the effort on collecting and analyzing data, the similarities and differences of American and Vietnamese coffee culture are 50 pointed out quite clearly The researcher believes that this study could be a valuable and reliable one Suggestions for further research In this study, the researcher has studied about American and Vietnamese coffee culture However, due to the limited one, knowledge and materials as well as little experience, the researcher only focuses on some similarities and differences The study cannot cover all aspects of the similarities and differences Hopefully, in the future, there will be a research conducted to work out more similarities and differences about American and Vietnamese coffee culture Besides, in the hope of having much further studies doing in cultural field, many sides can be researched such as: - A comparison of tea culture in Britain and Viet Nam - A comparison of daily eating habits in America and Vietnam - A comparison of party eating habits in America and Vietnam 51 REFERENCE Authors Catherine M Tucker ( 2011) Coffee Culture - Local Experiences and Global Connections New York Christopher F.B (2012), characteristics of culture, Ph.D University of Northern Philippines Retrieved from http://savior.hubpages.com/hub/ Characteristics-of-Culture D’Costa, K (2011, August 11) The Culture of Coffee Drinkers | Anthropology in Practice, Scientific American Blog Network Retrieved from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/2011/08/11 /the-culture-of-coffee-drinkers/ Higdon J.V and Frei B.(2006) Coffee and health: a review of recent human research Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Portland Knikker, R (2005, March 3) The Coffee Culture in the USA ezinearticles.com/?The-Coffee-Culture-in-the-USA&id=18258 Pendergrast, M (1999) Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How it Transformed Our World New York 7.Thurber F (1889) Coffee: From Plantation to Cup, A Brief History of Coffee Production and Consumption American Grocer Publishing Association Tran Binh Minh (2011) Cà phê - Phương tiện giao tiếp trung gian xã hội Hanoi University of Culture Tylor, E B ( 1996) Primitive culture John Murray, London Websites http://www.puriocafe.com/tin-tuc/nghe-thuat-thuong-thuc/146-ca-phe-xua-va- nay.html http://www.puriocafe.com/tin-tuc/nghe-thuat-thuong-thuc/147-ca-phe-xua-vanay-doi-tuong-uong-va-cach-pha-che-ca-phe.html 52 http://www.trungnguyen.com.vn/2344/cung-ly-ca-phe-du-lich-vong-quanh- the-gioi http://www.trungnguyen.com.vn/2361/tham-tram-ca-phe-ngo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee_culture http://www.puriocafe.com/tin-tuc/nghe-thuat-thuong-thuc/173-cam-ca-phetren-tay-di-that-nhanh-va-do-la-van-hoa-ca-phe-my.html http://www.puriocafe.com/tin-tuc/nghe-thuat-thuong-thuc/167-van-hoa-caphe-vong-quanh-the-gioi.html#.Uxbtpj-SzDw 53 ... American and Vietnamese coffee culture in terms of the history, types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the style to enjoy coffee of American and Vietnamese Chapter 3: A comparison. .. distinct aroma of coffee But like many people in other countries, American and Vietnamese also have coffee cultures in their own ways However, American coffee culture and Vietnamese one may have some... know and understand what the unique features about coffee culture their countries have and what their origins are Therefore, American and Vietnamese coffee culture contrasting and comparison can
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