Determinants of households expenditure on english language education the case of ho chi minh city

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UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES HO CHI MINH CITY THE HAGUE VIETNAM THE NETHERLANDS VIETNAM – THE NETHERLANDS PROGRAMME FOR M.A IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE ON ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EDUCATION: THE CASE OF HOCHIMINH CITY MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS By LUU THI KIEU OANH Academic Supervisor Dr PHAM KHANH NAM HO CHI MINH CITY, 2013 CERTIFICATION “I certify that the substance of this thesis has not already been submitted for any degree and has not been currently submitted for any other degree I certify that to the best of my knowledge and help received in preparing this thesis and all used sources have acknowledged in this dissertation” LUU THI KIEU OANH Date: … Dec 2013 i ACKNOWLEGMENTS Firstly, I would like to thank so much to Vietnam – The Netherlands programme for Master of Art in Development Economics where I have been studying useful knowledge I would like to express my deep gratitude to my academic supervisor, Dr Pham Khanh Nam for his great supports, advices and encouragements during my thesis completion I thank so much for all lecturers because of their valuable supports as well as all my family, my friends because of their helps and encouragements during my study One again, I am grateful to all of you Thank you very much! LUU THI KIEU OANH ii ABSTRACT This study attempts to investigate household’s expenditure on English education for primary school children using the surveyed data from 267 randomly collected households in Ho Chi Minh City As a result, the current payment for English education of household in Ho Chi Minh City plays an important role in total expenditure for education It takes up 61.4% of basic education in average Compared with household’s total income and total expenditure, it makes up 4.7% and 6.7% of total income and total expenditure, respectively The study also found that total income, total expenditure, current payment for extra education, education level of wife and household own a house has a positive relationship with English education expenditure Keywords: English education, expenditure, income iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATION i ACKNOWLEGMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF FIGURES vi LIST OF TABLES vii ABBREVIATIONS viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Statements 1.2 Research Objectives 1.3 Research Questions 1.4 Research methodology 1.5 The structure of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Theoretical literature Theory of Education expenditure: Education production function Theory of household production function Theory of income elasticity of educational expenditure: 2.2 Empirical literature 2.3 Conceptual framework 13 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 15 3.1 Sampling strategy and data collection 15 3.2 Variables’ measurement and explanation 15 3.3 Model specification 23 CHAPTER 4: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS 28 4.1 General information of the Household’s characteristic in HCM City 28 4.2 General information of English education in Vietnam 29 4.3 Importance of English expenditure in household’s decision 31 4.4 Empirical analysis results 32 iv 4.4.1 Descriptive statistics 32 4.4.2 Regression results 40 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS 46 5.1 Conclusions and recommendations 46 5.1.1 Conclusion 46 5.1.2 Recommendations 46 5.2 Limitations 47 REFERENCES 49 APPENDIX 52 v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Analytical framework for the impact explanatory variable on English education expenditure 14 Figure 4.1 The education level of the parents in Ho Chi Minh City – Author’s survey 2013 29 Figure 4.2 The education level of the parents in Ho Chi Minh City – VHLSS 2010 29 Figure 4.3 The distribution of current English education expenditure in basic education, total income and total expenditure 32 Figure 4.4 Histogram graphic of the current payment for English education in Ho Chi Minh City 33 Figure 4.5 Histogram graphic of the dummy variable of current payment for English education in Ho Chi Minh City 34 Figure 4.6 Household’s total income distribution in Ho Chi Minh City 35 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Variable description and expected sign for Model 26 Table 4.1 The development of number of foreign language center through the years 31 Table 4.2 Summary statistic of variables 37 Table 4.3 The relationship of total income and current payment for English education 39 Table 4.4 The relationship of household’s total expenditure and current payment for English education 39 Table 4.5 The results of the models 40 vii ABBREVIATIONS Ageh Age of husband Agew Age of wife Cpe Current payment for English education Cpec Current payment for extra class Eduh Education level of husband Eduw Education level of wife Engh English level of husband Engw English level of wife Genderhh Gender of household’s head MOET Ministry of Education and Training Nrofchildren Number of children Ownh Household own a house Soeh Sector of employment of husband Soew Sector of employment of wife Totalexp Household’s total expenditure Wifeworking Wife is working VHLSS Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Statements Foreign language currently is a prominent issue in worldwide education and society With the rapid development of information and communication technologies, through computer systems and networks, people between nations are closer and closer together understand each other through intermediate language that commonly is the English Most of the knowledge such as books, academic papers, documentation in economy, science and technology, culture and society are mainly written in English and widely circulated on the global network Bolton (2006) likened the English expansion as the most rapid spread language all over the world In addition, the communication between different languages people through this common language which can understand and move toward the agreed long-term good cooperation In reality, English is rated as the most used and common speaking language in the world with more than 1,226 million users in 2003 and spread on 75 countries on the world according to Crystal (2003) Graddol (2008) figures that there are more and more people learning English as a second language and it will nearly get big amount of two billions next ten years There was also a replacement of English as a school subject instead of Russian from the participation of some Eastern European countries (Modiano, 2006) Since educating English was identified as an important factor indispensable, it should be considered by government investment, according to Nergis, (2011)In some developing countries such as Turkey, they recognize that “the only way to bring Turkish up to the level of the communicational requirements of the modern world is through the interaction of knowledge of English with the derivational convenience provided by the Turkish language reform.” In Vietnam, Thinh (2006) observed that in the past ten years before the joining WTO, the spread of English has facing with an unpredicted speed in Vietnam The statistics shows that among the foreign language learner, the English learner takes up more than 90% of that volume While other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, Table 06 – Multicolinearity test of OLS – Model 02 vif Variable VIF 1/VIF dtotalexpt3 dtotalexpt4 dtotalexpt5 dtotalexpt2 eduw ageh agew eduh englishw_0 englishh_0 soew_0 soeh_0 cpec ownh wifeworking local Nrofchildren genderhh 19.45 19.33 12.43 7.02 3.52 3.49 3.42 2.85 2.34 2.26 1.67 1.59 1.29 1.25 1.24 1.21 1.19 1.08 0.051414 0.051727 0.080422 0.142376 0.283793 0.286735 0.292610 0.351058 0.426472 0.443037 0.597484 0.630849 0.775292 0.800912 0.808125 0.826600 0.840553 0.928898 Mean VIF 4.81 Table 07 – Logit regression result – Model 04 (a) Logistic regression Number of obs Wald chi2(18) Prob > chi2 Pseudo R2 Log pseudolikelihood = -81.443602 dcpe Coef dtotalexpt2 dtotalexpt3 dtotalexpt4 dtotalexpt5 cpec eduh eduw englishh_0 englishw_0 soeh_0 soew_0 wifeworking genderhh ageh agew local ownh Nrofchildren _cons 2.143534 2.263512 2.419262 3.888525 1.64758 -.0994752 1883084 -.9710477 -.2666764 -.2999803 -.5504442 -.3144039 -.4665157 -.0646416 1924707 39491 736127 -.1674733 -6.003235 Robust Std Err 1.294358 1.261546 1.435419 1.759674 4723387 1741595 2600612 6419314 6403972 6442077 6030762 6618085 5253627 065009 0741705 4160752 4496512 3214882 2.556035 z 1.66 1.79 1.69 2.21 3.49 -0.57 0.72 -1.51 -0.42 -0.47 -0.91 -0.48 -0.89 -0.99 2.59 0.95 1.64 -0.52 -2.35 57 P>|z| 0.098 0.073 0.092 0.027 0.000 0.568 0.469 0.130 0.677 0.641 0.361 0.635 0.375 0.320 0.009 0.343 0.102 0.602 0.019 = = = = 263 39.67 0.0023 0.2845 [95% Conf Interval] -.3933617 -.2090731 -.3941084 4396263 7218131 -.4408215 -.3214021 -2.22921 -1.521832 -1.562604 -1.732452 -1.611525 -1.496208 -.1920569 0470992 -.4205823 -.1451731 -.7975786 -11.01297 4.680429 4.736098 5.232632 7.337423 2.573347 2418711 698019 2871147 988479 9626436 6315634 9827169 5631762 0627737 3378422 1.210402 1.617427 462632 -.9934975 Table 08 – Marginal effects after Logit regression – Model 04 (b) Marginal effects after logit y = Pr(dcpe) (predict) = 93879449 variable dtota~t2* dtota~t3* dtota~t4* dtota~t5* cpec eduh eduw engl~h_0* engl~w_0* soeh_0* soew_0* wifewo~g* genderhh* ageh agew local* ownh* Nrofch~n dy/dx Std Err .0637695 1239615 1148973 1043288 094669 -.0057158 0108201 -.0628338 -.0158438 -.0182967 -.0359703 -.0166229 -.0240351 -.0037143 0110593 0248229 0469965 -.0096229 03063 08326 07852 04656 02155 01031 01541 04692 04037 04127 04483 03164 02436 00365 0044 02937 03286 01836 z 2.08 1.49 1.46 2.24 4.39 -0.55 0.70 -1.34 -0.39 -0.44 -0.80 -0.53 -0.99 -1.02 2.51 0.85 1.43 -0.52 P>|z| [ 95% C.I 0.037 0.137 0.143 0.025 0.000 0.579 0.482 0.181 0.695 0.658 0.422 0.599 0.324 0.309 0.012 0.398 0.153 0.600 003736 -.039218 -.039007 013071 052431 -.025929 -.019376 -.154794 -.094976 -.099185 -.123833 -.078632 -.071773 -.010873 002439 -.032734 -.017401 -.045598 ] 123804 287141 268802 195586 136907 014498 041016 029127 063289 062592 051893 045386 023703 003444 019679 08238 111394 026352 X 087452 406844 334601 155894 1.41065 4.20532 3.85551 387833 365019 281369 247148 809886 779468 38.4981 35.7529 749049 642586 1.61977 (*) dy/dx is for discrete change of dummy variable from to Table 09 – Statistic summary of variable cpe/cpbe, cpe/income, cpe/totalexp sum cpecpbe cpeincome cpetotalexp Variable Obs Mean cpecpbe cpeincome cpetotalexp 267 267 267 6139513 0470075 06704 Std Dev .7110703 0435199 0515155 58 Min Max 0 4705882 Table 10 – The description of cpe and tab cpe Current payment for English Freq Percent Cum below 300,000 300,000 - 500,000 500,000 - 1,000,000 1,000,000 - 2,000,000 over 2,000,000 41 111 52 35 25 15.30 41.42 19.40 13.06 9.33 1.49 15.30 56.72 76.12 89.18 98.51 100.00 Total 268 100.00 tab cpec Current payment for extra class Freq Percent Cum below 300,000 300,000 - 500,000 500,000 - 1,000,000 over 1,000,000 42 120 71 23 12 15.67 44.78 26.49 8.58 4.48 15.67 60.45 86.94 95.52 100.00 Total 268 100.00 cpec Table 11 – The relationship between total income and total expenditure to cpe Source SS df MS Model Residual 95.8439027 315.354599 257 10.6493225 1.2270607 Total 411.198502 266 1.54585903 cpe Coef dincome2 dincome3 dincome4 dincome5 dtotalexp2 dtotalexp3 dtotalexp4 dtotalexp5 dtotalexp6 _cons -.0075167 1816083 2338345 1.104559 6666667 1.022503 1.484905 1.950373 1.727824 25 Std Err .2249593 3129473 363168 4581295 5982413 5846873 6184192 6677354 7812856 5538639 t -0.03 0.58 0.64 2.41 1.11 1.75 2.40 2.92 2.21 0.45 59 Number of obs F( 9, 257) Prob > F R-squared Adj R-squared Root MSE P>|t| 0.973 0.562 0.520 0.017 0.266 0.082 0.017 0.004 0.028 0.652 = = = = = = 267 8.68 0.0000 0.2331 0.2062 1.1077 [95% Conf Interval] -.450515 -.4346592 -.4813296 2023931 -.5114126 -.1288853 267091 6354436 1892874 -.8406895 4354815 7978759 9489985 2.006725 1.844746 2.173891 2.70272 3.265303 3.266361 1.340689 Table 13 - Correlation matrix of the explanatory variables dincome2 dincome3 dincome4 dincome5 dtotal~2 dtotal~3 dtotal~4 dtotal~5 dtotal~6 cpec eduh eduw dincome2 dincome3 -0.42 dincome4 -0.26 -0.16 dincome5 -0.22 -0.14 -0.09 dtotalexp2 -0.25 -0.16 -0.10 -0.08 dtotalexp3 0.43 -0.39 -0.21 -0.22 -0.26 dtotalexp4 0.00 0.41 0.08 -0.13 -0.22 -0.59 dtotalexp5 -0.30 0.21 0.25 0.31 -0.12 -0.31 -0.26 dtotalexp6 -0.15 -0.10 0.09 0.53 -0.06 -0.16 -0.13 -0.07 cpec -0.10 0.18 0.11 0.04 -0.15 -0.18 0.14 0.22 0.09 eduh -0.04 0.26 0.23 0.19 -0.27 -0.18 0.17 0.27 0.10 0.22 eduw -0.06 0.25 0.19 0.22 -0.26 -0.19 0.18 0.24 0.16 0.20 0.77 englishh_0 -0.09 0.26 0.21 0.06 -0.16 -0.20 0.23 0.09 0.11 0.25 0.49 0.58 englishw_0 -0.09 0.15 0.20 0.17 -0.15 -0.19 0.17 0.13 0.16 0.26 0.54 0.60 soeh -0.11 0.03 -0.05 -0.07 0.16 -0.08 0.01 -0.08 -0.03 -0.12 -0.22 -0.22 soew -0.08 -0.13 -0.06 -0.01 0.18 -0.08 0.02 -0.10 -0.04 -0.07 -0.31 -0.37 wifeworking 0.10 0.13 0.05 -0.06 -0.23 0.09 0.06 -0.03 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.23 genderhh 0.02 0.03 -0.09 0.04 -0.03 -0.06 0.07 0.11 -0.10 0.01 0.00 -0.07 ageh 0.02 0.04 0.05 -0.04 -0.06 -0.05 0.06 0.03 -0.02 0.17 0.06 0.01 agew 0.02 0.05 0.02 -0.04 -0.07 -0.03 0.08 -0.04 0.02 0.15 0.07 0.02 local -0.14 0.02 0.03 0.12 -0.01 0.02 -0.15 0.14 0.06 0.19 0.15 0.12 ownh -0.06 0.23 0.13 0.11 -0.13 -0.21 0.14 0.20 0.14 0.06 0.22 0.22 Nrofchildren -0.18 -0.07 0.02 -0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.07 -0.10 -0.21 -0.14 60 englishh_0 englishw_0 soeh soew wifeworking genderhh ageh agew local ownh Nrofchildren dincome2 dincome3 dincome4 dincome5 dtotalexp2 dtotalexp3 dtotalexp4 dtotalexp5 dtotalexp6 cpec eduh eduw englishh_0 englishw_0 0.69 soeh -0.23 -0.25 soew -0.28 -0.27 0.53 0.19 0.19 -0.05 -0.37 -0.03 -0.05 -0.07 0.03 -0.12 ageh 0.10 0.15 -0.08 0.08 -0.11 -0.04 agew 0.12 0.18 -0.10 0.04 -0.05 -0.08 0.84 local 0.06 0.11 0.03 0.05 -0.06 0.03 0.04 0.01 ownh 0.17 0.09 -0.11 -0.13 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.02 -0.18 -0.13 -0.12 0.12 0.18 -0.10 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.09 -0.08 wifeworking genderhh Nrofchildren 61 Table 14 - The results of the models Model Model Model Model Model OLS1 OLS2 Logit Ordered Logit Tobit dincome2 -0.1141 -0.0149 -0.8824 -0.3152 -0.1141 dincome3 -0.1302 0.1100 -1.1158 -0.2819 -0.1302 dincome4 0.0631 0.2830 0.7016 0.2856 0.0631 dincome5 1.1466 (omitted) 2.5108 dtotalexp2 -0.0173 1.9596 0.7523 -0.0173 dtotalexp3 0.0754 2.6390 1.1614 0.0754 dtotalexp4 0.2648 2.9232 1.5204 0.2648 dtotalexp5 0.3637 3.5090 1.5906 0.3637 dtotalexp6 -0.0792 (omitted) 0.2832 -0.0792 cpec 0.4903 eduh -0.0455 eduw 0.2839 englishh_0 0.1231 englishw_0 -0.4324 *** *** 1.2753 0.5083 *** *** -0.0457 *** 0.2909 *** 0.0964 ** -0.4309 ** 1.5987 * *** 1.0854 -0.1096 -0.1371 0.2883 0.6514 -0.9516 0.1391 -0.5446 -0.9070 *** *** 1.1466 0.4903 *** 0.2839 ** -0.4324 0.0410 -0.2945 0.1520 0.0452 soew_0 -0.1284 -0.1321 -0.6157 -0.4450 -0.1284 wifeworking -0.2180 -0.2419 -0.2230 -0.4132 -0.2180 genderhh -0.0295 0.0203 -0.4308 0.0124 -0.0295 ageh -0.0034 -0.0019 -0.0545 -0.0308 -0.0034 agew 0.0428 local 0.0098 ownh 0.2786 Nrofchildren -0.0311 _cons -1.3253 ** 0.1826 -0.0118 ** 0.2777 0.4860 ** 0.8505 -0.0296 * -1.3258 *** -6.0257 *** 0.1003 * -0.2615 *** 0.1140 0.5253 -0.0725 ** 0.0428 4.6698 /cut2 7.4700 /cut3 8.9018 /cut4 10.4300 /cut5 13.2894 ** ** 0.0098 * 0.2786 ** 0.0908 -1.3253 /cut1 *** 0.1231 0.0452 0.0410 *** -0.0455 soeh_0 ** *** * (*): Statistic significance at 10% level, (**): Statistic significance at 5% level, (***): Statistic significance at % level 62 Source: Author’s calculation Table 15 – Correlation between household’s total income and total expenditure and current payment for English education cor income totalexp cpe (obs=267) income totalexp income totalexp cpe 1.0000 0.8064 0.4299 1.0000 0.4521 cpe 1.0000 Table 16 – OLS regression result of all explanatory variables Source SS df MS Model Residual 198.615099 209.49897 23 239 8.63543908 876564727 Total 408.114068 262 1.55768728 cpe Coef dincome2 dincome3 dincome4 dincome5 dtotalexp2 dtotalexp3 dtotalexp4 dtotalexp5 dtotalexp6 cpec eduh eduw englishh_0 englishw_0 soeh_0 soew_0 wifeworking genderhh ageh agew local ownh Nrofchildren _cons -.1140658 -.1302042 0630663 1.146638 -.0173014 0754123 2648081 3636794 -.0791885 490267 -.0454748 2839165 1231444 -.432435 0452299 -.1283653 -.2179569 -.0294514 -.0034208 0427999 0098059 2785548 -.0310962 -1.325324 Std Err .2124752 3038937 3484805 4253276 5433674 5269376 5677495 6217929 7068512 0668134 0493019 0635184 1822135 1855256 1634643 177087 1660867 1476576 0179549 0186997 1480431 1362514 0952234 7423991 t -0.54 -0.43 0.18 2.70 -0.03 0.14 0.47 0.58 -0.11 7.34 -0.92 4.47 0.68 -2.33 0.28 -0.72 -1.31 -0.20 -0.19 2.29 0.07 2.04 -0.33 -1.79 63 Number of obs F( 23, 239) Prob > F R-squared Adj R-squared Root MSE P>|t| 0.592 0.669 0.857 0.008 0.975 0.886 0.641 0.559 0.911 0.000 0.357 0.000 0.500 0.021 0.782 0.469 0.191 0.842 0.849 0.023 0.947 0.042 0.744 0.075 = = = = = = 263 9.85 0.0000 0.4867 0.4373 93625 [95% Conf Interval] -.532629 -.7288563 -.6234191 3087678 -1.087702 -.9626228 -.8536241 -.8612149 -1.471643 3586487 -.1425964 1587891 -.2358051 -.7979091 -.2767849 -.4772161 -.5451376 -.320328 -.0387908 0059627 -.2818299 0101479 -.2186806 -2.787805 3044974 4684479 7495517 1.984507 1.0531 1.113447 1.38324 1.588574 1.313266 6218854 0516469 4090439 4820939 -.0669609 3672447 2204854 1092237 2614252 0319492 0796371 3014418 5469618 1564882 1371572 Table 17 - The results of the models (OLS, Logit, Tobit) Current payment for English education Model Model Model OLS Logit Tobit Coefficient Coefficient Marginal Coefficient effect (dy/dx) Marginal effect (dy/dx) Total income -0.015 -0.342 -0.023 -0.233 -0.233 (0.93) (0.55) (0.57) (0.50) (0.50) 0.110 -0.376 -0.027 -0.154 -0.154 (0.61) (0.64) (0.67) (0.74) (0.74) 0.283 1.520 0.062 * 0.683 0.683 (0.29) (0.24) (0.06) (0.30) (0.30) (omitted) 6.654 *** 6.654 *** 5-10 millions VND 10-20 millions VND 20-30 millions VND 1.275 *** (omitted) Over 30 millions VND (0.00) 0.508 *** 1.735 *** 0.113 *** 0.881 *** 0.881 *** (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) -0.046 -0.114 -0.007 -0.067 -0.067 (0.35) (0.56) (0.56) (0.55) (0.55) 0.291 *** 0.347 0.023 0.120 0.120 (0.00) (0.18) (0.20) (0.40) (0.40) 0.096 -1.078 -0.080 -0.729 * -0.729 * (0.59) (0.13) (0.18) (0.10) (0.10) -0.431 ** -0.486 -0.034 -0.242 -0.242 (0.02) (0.50) (0.53) (0.58) (0.58) 0.041 -0.362 -0.025 -0.060 -0.060 (0.80) (0.56) (0.58) (0.43) (0.43) -0.132 -0.582 -0.043 -0.043 -0.043 (0.45) (0.37) (0.43) (0.62) (0.62) -0.242 -0.297 -0.018 -0.265 -0.265 (0.14) (0.62) (0.59) (0.45) (0.45) 0.020 -0.215 -0.013 -0.099 -0.099 (0.89) (0.67) (0.65) (0.75) (0.75) -0.002 -0.061 -0.004 -0.026 -0.026 Current payment for extra class Education level of husband Education level of wife Dummy English var of husband Dummy English var of wife Dummy Public sector of husband Dummy Public sector of wife Wife is working Gender of household’s head Age of husband 64 (0.92) (0.28) (0.30) (0.44) (0.44) 0.041 ** 0.176 *** 0.011 *** 0.093 *** 0.093 *** (0.03) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) -0.012 0.357 0.025 0.236 0.236 (0.94) (0.44) (0.48) (0.41) (0.41) 0.278 ** 0.983 ** 0.073 * 0.618 ** 0.618 ** (0.04) (0.04) (0.06) (0.03) (0.03) -0.030 -0.341 -0.022 -0.148 -0.148 (0.74) (0.27) (0.27) (0.42) (0.42) -1.326 *** -3.623 * -0.518 * (0.01) (0.07) (0.67) Age of wife Location of household Household own a house Number of children _cons (*): Statistic significance at 10% level, (**): Statistic significance at 5% level, (***): Statistic significance at % level Source: Author’s calculation Table 18 - The results of the models (OLS, Logit, Tobit) Current payment for English education Model Model Model OLS Logit Tobit Coefficient Coefficient Marginal Coefficient effect (dy/dx) Marginal effect (dy/dx) Total expenditure -0.083 2.149 0.072 1.000 1.000 (0.88) (0.18) (0.03) (0.24) (0.24) -0.034 2.269 0.142 0.865 0.865 (0.95) (0.14) (0.20) (0.29) (0.29) 0.175 2.419 0.131 1.101 1.101 (0.75) (0.14) (0.16) (0.21) (0.21) 0.652 3.591 0.101 1.964 1.964 (0.27) (0.06) 0.853 (omitted) 2-3.5 millions VND 3.5-5 millions VND 5-10 millions VND 10-15 millions VND Over 15 millions VND * (0.01) ** *** (0.07) * (0.07) 7.923 7.923 0.854 0.854 * (0.18) Current payment for extra 0.451 class (0.00) 1.649 *** (0.00) 65 0.106 *** (0.00) *** (0.00) *** (0.00) *** Education level of husband Education level of wife -0.044 -0.096 -0.006 -0.065 -0.065 (0.36) (0.61) (0.62) (0.55) (0.55) 0.288 0.189 0.012 0.058 0.058 (0.46) (0.47) (0.69) (0.69) (0.00) *** Dummy English var of 0.063 -0.940 -0.068 -0.649 -0.649 husband (0.73) (0.17) (0.22) (0.13) (0.13) -0.364 -0.307 -0.021 -0.165 -0.165 (0.66) (0.68) (0.71) (0.71) Dummy English var of wife (0.06) * Dummy Public sector of -0.023 -0.300 -0.020 -0.055 -0.055 husband (0.54) (0.62) (0.63) (0.47) (0.47) Dummy Public sector of 0.031 -0.559 -0.041 -0.039 -0.039 wife (0.46) (0.38) (0.45) (0.65) (0.65) -0.286 -0.323 -0.019 -0.283 -0.283 (0.61) (0.58) (0.43) (0.43) -0.001 -0.459 -0.026 -0.199 -0.199 (1.00) (0.38) (0.33) (0.53) (0.53) -0.007 -0.062 -0.004 -0.033 -0.033 (0.70) (0.28) (0.29) (0.33) (0.33) 0.042 0.191 0.012 0.102 0.102 Wife is working Gender of household’s head Age of husband Age of wife Location of household Household own a house Number of children _cons (0.10) (0.03) * ** (0.00) *** (0.01) *** (0.01) *** (0.01) 0.037 0.399 0.028 0.284 0.284 (0.80) (0.39) (0.44) (0.33) (0.33) 0.237 0.732 0.052 0.471 0.471 (0.11) (0.14) (0.10) -0.065 -0.164 -0.011 -0.051 -0.051 (0.49) (0.61) (0.61) (0.79) (0.79) -1.061 -6.060 (0.18) (0.03) (0.09) * * (0.10) *** * -1.462 ** (0.33) (*): Statistic significance at 10% level, (**): Statistic significance at 5% level, (***): Statistic significance at % level 66 Table 19 - Questionnaire PART - HOUSEHOLD'S MEMBER LIST M E Please tell us the full name of your family's members, start from the household's lead Gender Relationship to the household's head Year of Birth How old is [name]? Place of inhabitant Marital status E R The family's member is the one who live and eat together with your family at least 6/12 months and shares the expenses Household's head… C Male….0 D Female…….1 E Mark * on the right of household's head name How long has [name] been in HCMc? (Write the name of district) M B Spouse……… Children Parents Single……… Married……… Grandparent Widow…… Grandchildrens…… Nr Of Nr Of Others…………… Divorced…… Legal separation Years Months year 10 11 12 13 14 Note o Center of the city include Dist 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, Binh Thanh, Phu Nhuan, Tan Binh, Tan Phu and part of Dist o Suburbs area include Dist 2, 9, 12, Binh Tan, Binh Chanh, Hoc Mon, Cu Chi 67 PART - EDUCATION INFORMATION Please let us know the education information of your household's members M E M B The highest education level of [name] attained No certificate Primary Junior high school E Senior high school R Primary vocational… Vocational…………… Professional school Vocational colleges Colleges BA MA………………… 10 C O D E 10 What is the type of the school? Public school… Charter school…2 Private school… International school………… Other (?)……… 11 Certificate / Grade of English which [name] attain (if any) 12 Self-assessment the English level of [name] Don't know………… Pre-intermediate (basic communication)…… Intermediate (good communication)…… Advance (fluent in skills (Listen, speak, read, write………… PhD………………… 11 Other (specific )… 12 10 11 12 13 14 68 13 14 FOR THE CHILDREN Does the [name] take part in any English class within last 12 months? Yes No At school At English center Age start learning English? PART - CAREER - INCOME – EXPENDITURE 15 16 17 18 Total income (monthly) Total expenditure (monthly) Expenditure for food Unit 1000 VND Unit 1000 VND Unit 1000 VND 19 [name]… Job… * Position *Employment status Worker/staff… M Employment sector E M B Employed…1 Manager…2 E R Unemployed…2 Retirement…3 Owner…3 Others…4 Expenditure for Health's care Private (domestic Co.)…1 Private (foreign Co.)…2 Public…….3 NGOs.……….4 C O D E 10 11 12 13 14 69 Unit 1000 VND 20 EDUCATION COST FOR THE CHILDREN Expense for education of …[name] per month (1000 VND) a b c d Tuition Extra Extra Total English learning (a+b+c) class at English school at English center Table 20 – Price of English class of beginner and pre-intermediate of English centers and school in Ho Chi Minh City School/Center English name British Council Primary – ILA Jumpstart (below years old) Cleverlearn Vietnam Class name Beginnner and Pre-intermediate level (from 6-11 years old) CleverKids Cleverstarter VUS Apollo Beginner For preschool children (below years old) Superkids For primary school children (from 6-11 years old) Kindy (below years old) Kids (6-11 years old) Duong Minh Early Start Pre Super Bac My Kindergarten Pre-starter and Starter Alanta Jump start A Au Foreign language school Nong lam University HCM University of Education English at primary school Pre-intermediate English at Teacher’s house Beginner and Pre-intermediate Beginner and Pre-intermediate From Class - From Class - 70 Price 4,200,000 VND/month 2,752,000 VND/month 2,752,000 VND/month 2,445,000 VND/month 2,220,000 VND/month 1,309,000 VND/month 1,230,000 VND/month 1,204,000 VND/month 1,338,000 VND/month 710,000 VND/month 890,000 VND/month 875,000 VND/month 942,000 VND/month 750,000 VND/month 500,000 VND/month 433,000 VND/month 450,000 VND/month 100,000 – 300,000 VND/month 150,000 – 300,000 VND/month Divided Rank of CPE Over 2,000,000 VND/month 1,000,000 – 2,000,000 VND/month 500,000 – 1,000,000 VND/month 300,000 – 500,000 VND/month Below 300,000 VND/month 71 ... education expenditure of the households in Ho Chi Minh City based on their total income, total expenditure and some of the characteristics of the Ho Chi Minh s household Second, the ordinary least... education expenditure theories Theory of Education expenditure: Education production function Pritchett and Filmer (1999) present a theory of education expenditure via the education production... theories of the education expenditure, the household production function and the income elasticity of education expenditure Some recent empirical researches concerning the expenditure on education in
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