TỔNG HỢP NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH CƠ BẢN HKII LỚP 10

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E 10 – HK2 - GRAMMAR UNIT CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TYPE 1: Điều kiện xảy If clause S + Vo / Vs/es Be ( is, am, are) Main clause S + will/shall/can/must/have to/has to/ought to/may + Vo EX: If it doesn’t rain, we will go to the beach If someone phones me, tell them to leave a message Áp dụng: If we meet at 9:30, we (have) _plenty of time If you (find) _ a skeleton in the cellar, don’t mention it to anyone If you pass your examination, we (have) _a celebration What (happen) _if I press this button? If you go to Paris, where you (stay) _? TYPE 2: Điều kiện không thật If clause Main clause S + V2/ed S + would/could/should/might + Vo To be: Were / weren’t EX: If it didn’t rain now, we would go to the beach.(e.g It is now raining outside.) If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that expensive bicycle Áp dụng: Lisa would find the milk if she (look) _ for it in the fridge I (call) _ the office if I were you I would repair the roof myself if I (have) _a long ladder If you were made redundant, what you (do) _? If you spoke louder, your classmates (understand) _ you TYPE 3: Điều kiện không thật khứ If clause S + HAD + V3/ED Main clause S + would have/could have/might + have + V3/ed EX: If it hadn’t rained yesterday, we would have gone to the beach.(thực tế : It rained heavily yesterday.) Dịch: hôm qua trời không mưa biển ( thực tế: trời hôm qua mưa) If I had known she was ill yesterday, I would have come to visit her.(thực tế: You didn’t know she was ill yesterday.) Dịch: biết hôm qua ốm, thăm ( thực tế: bạn bị ốm) If he had worked harder, he could have passed the exams (thực tế: he didn’t work hard.) Dịch: anh làm việc chăm hơn, anh vượt qua kì thi ( thực tế: anh không làm việc chăm chỉ) I (bring) _ you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty If the story hadn’t been true, the newspaper (not print) _ it If I had known that you couldn’t eat octopus, I (not buy) _ it You (have) _ no trouble at school if you had done your homework If you (wear) _ a false beard, nobody would have recognized you SHOULD ( nên ; nên) cho lời khuyên S + SHOULD + Vo ( KĐ) S + SHOULD + Not + Vo ( PĐ) (WH,H) + SHOULD + S + Vo ? ( NV) Ex : You should / should not arrive late Áp dụng: (You/park) here It's not allowed What (I/cook) for breakfast this morning? (You/wear) a raincoat It's raining outside Don't leave the beef in the oven for more than one hour  You shouldn't leave the beef in the oven for more than one hour Cut the onions as thin as possible  Don't put in too much salt and chilies  Wait until the water boils before you put the vegetables into it  Heat the oven before you put the beef in  (You/ask/somebody who knows about cars to look at the car for you.) -> 10 (You/not/buy/one simply because it looks beautiful!) -> 11 (You/be/very careful.) UNIT 10: CONSERVATION The passive voice: Câu bị động I General rule: S + V + O S II III +… + BE + V3 /-ed … by + O (chia theo câu ) Ex: - She usually takes my car → My car is usually taken by her - He has sent his son to another school → His son has been sent to another school Active  passive: Thì Hiện đơn Quá khứ đơn Hiện tiếp diễn Quá khứ tiếp diễn Hiện hoàn thành Quá khứ hoàn thành Tuong lai Chủ động Động từ khiếm khuyết be going to V1/s,es + O V2/ed + O am/ is / are + Ving + O was / were + Ving + O has / have + V3/ed+ O had + v3/ed + O will + V0 + O / would/may / might must + Vo+ O can / could Bị động am / is / are + V3/ed + by+O was / were + V3/ed +by+O am/ is /are + being + V3/ed + by+O was / were + being + V3/ed + by+O has / have + been + V3/ed + by+O had + been + v3/ed + by+O will / + be + V3/ed + by+O (Nguyên mẫu) be going to / would/may / might must + be + V3/ed + by+O can / could (Nguyên mẫu) Áp dụng : My students will bring the children home Peter broke this bottle She gave us more information Teacher is going to tell a story Mary is cutting a cake with a sharp knife They have provided the victims with food and clothing They have to repair the engine of the car They can’t make tea with cold water No one had told me about it 10 They are learning English in the room UNIT 12: MUSIC I WH QUESTION( who, where, what, which, when , how , why) DÙNG VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ “ TOBE” WH+ BE +S + COMPLEMENT ? :BE TUỲ THEO THÌ, COMPLEMENT CĨ THỂ KHƠNG CĨ EX: What are you doing?, where is she?, when were we silent? DÙNG VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ THƯỜNG WH + DO, DOES/ DID+ S + Vo? EX: Where you go?, What does she study?, When did they begin? ĐỐI VỚI CÁC THÌ HỒN THÀNH WH + HAS, HAVE/ HAD +S +V3/ED? EX: Why has she gone to school?, What had you eaten? ĐỐI VỚI “ MODAL VERBS” HAY WILL, SHALL, WOULD, SHOULD( May, can, must, could, might, ought to, have to modal vers) WH + MODAL VERBS + S + VO? EX: Why must you go?, where may she come?, what can she do?, What will she do? HOW How much + N( không đếm ln số ít) EX: how much money have you got? How many +N( đếm số nhiều) EX: how many students are there in your class? How far: bao xa, how long : bao lâu, how often : lần, thường không, how old : tuổi…… Áp dụng: The dictionary is 200,000dong It took her three hours to finish the composition -> I need a phone card to phone my parents It’s about 1,500 km from Hue to Ho Chi Minh City -> The dress looked very nice Jill and Joe haven’t been to VN II.TO INFINITIVE TO TALK ABOUT PURPOSES( Động từ Nguyên mẫu mục đích): ÁP Dụng : He opened the window.He wanted to let fresh air in He studied really hard.He wanted to get better marks Jason learns Chinese.His aim is to work in China I didn’t want to see them, so I didn’t open the door I did not want to hear what they were talking about, which is why I put the music louder He married her because he wanted to spend the rest of his life with her I find it necessary to test you on your French, so you must take an exam tomorrow I put out the central heating because I did not want to waste fuel UNIT 13: FILM AND CINEMA ADJ of attitude ( tính từ chì thái độ) - Một số đông từ thêm ing thên ed dùng tính từ - Các từ nghĩa tương tự cách dùng khác  Tính từ tận ING dùng cho vật tính chủ động ED cho người tính bị động  Cách xác định: dùng ING OR ED xác định chủ từ, câu tân ngữ ưu tiên tân ngữ hơn, câu tân ngữ ưu tiên tân ngữ gần EX: That movie is interesting I am interested in that movie The movie make me interested IT WAS NOT UNTIL…… THAT( MÃI ĐẾN KHI) S+ DIDN’T + Vo + UNTIL… IT WAS NOT UNTIL…… THAT + S + V2/ED… EX: she didn’t get home until 9:00pm It was not until 9:00pm that she got home ARTICLES: (mạo từ) mạo từ không xác định” A, AN” mạo từ xác định “THE” A Cách dùng mạo từ không xác định "a" "an" Trong học Dùng a an trước danh từ số đếm Chúng nghĩa Chúng dùng câu tính khái qt đề cập đến chủ thể lần đầ tiên A ball is round (nghĩa chung, khái quát, tất bóng) I saw a boy in the street (chúng ta cậu bé nào, chưa đề cập trước đó) Mạo từ an dùng trước từ bắt đầu nguyên âm (trong cách phát âm, cách viết) Bao gồm: · Các từ bắt đầu nguyên âm u, a, e, i, o: an aircraft, an empty glass, an object ( ngoại trừ uni, euro môn học) · Một số từ bắt đầu h câm Ex: An hour, an honey moon, an heir… · Các từ mở đầu chữ viết tắt: an S.O.S/an M.P Cách dùng mạo từ xác định "The” Dùng the trước danh từ xác định cụ thể đề cập đến trước lần trở lên EX: I saw a boy in the street after that the boy comes to my friend The earth is round (Chỉ trái đất, biết)          I like (a/an/the) blue T-shirt over there better than (a/an/the) red one Their car does 150 miles (a/an/the) hour Where's (a/an/the) USB drive I lent you last week? Do you still live in (a/an/the) Bristol? Is your mother working in (a/an/the) old office building? Carol's father works as (a/an/the) electrician The tomatoes are 99 pence (a/an/the) kilo What you usually have for (a/an/the) breakfast? Ben has (a/an/the) terrible headache  After this tour you have (a/an/the) whole afternoon free to explore the city UNIT 14: THE WORLD CUP WILL (Simple Future tương lai ): S + WILL+ Vo Ex: we will mend this car Near Future (tương lai gần): be going to S + IS/AM/ ARE+ GOING TO + Vo Ex: We are going to have a reception Diễn đạt hành động xảy tương lai gần, thường dùng với phó từ dạng: In a moment (lát nữa), at o'clock this afternoon Nó việc chắn phải xảy theo dự tính cho dù thời gian tương lai xa EX: We are going to take a TOEFL test next year 3.SO SÁNH GIỮA “ WILL” VÀ “ BE GOING TO” KHÁC: + WILL việc xãy khơng, định việc lúc nói, ex: this chair is broken, will you mend it? + WILL Đề nghị, từ chối, đồng ý, hứa làm việc đó, mời mọc, dùng cho câu điều kiện loại EX: I will lend you money( hứa), will you have acup of tea?( mời)… +BE GIONG TO : nói dự định chắn tương lai, kế hoạch chắn xảy ÁP DỤNG : A: Did you buy chicken? B: Oh, no! I forgot to buy it I to buy some tomorrow (remember) I completely forget about this Give me a moment, I it now a will b am going c is going to Tonight, I stay home I've rented a video a am going to b will c a and b I feel dreadful I sick a am going to be b will be c a b If you have any problem, don't worry I help you a will b am going to c a b Where are you going? a I am going to see a friend b I'll see a friend c I went to a friend That's the phone./ I answer it a will b am going to c a b Look at those clouds It rain now a will b is going to c a b Tea or coffee a I am going to have tea, please b I'll have tea, please c I want to drink 10 Thanks for your offer But I am OK Shane .help me a is going to b will c a b CẤU TRÚC IT WAS NOT UNTIL VÀ NOT UNTIL It is/ was not until + mệnh đề thời gian that + S + V dùng để nhấn mạnh khoảng thời gian thời điểm mà việc xảy Khoảng thời gian thời điểm diễn tả từ, cụm từ mệnh đề E.x: She didn't get home until 11 p.m => It was not until 11 p.m that she got home (Mãi đến 11 nhà) We didn't know the truth until the book was published => It was not until the book was published that we knew the truth (Mãi đến sách xuất biết thật.) NOT UNTIL; Mệnh đề thời gian ( đảo ngữ) Quá khứ với trợ động từ Did + S + Vo Quá khứ với be Was/ were S + V ( cần đảo be r viết lại ) NOT UNTIL Thì Do/ does +S+ V0 -Có be cần đảo be lên trước chủ ngữ Mệnh đề sau that Ví dụ -The children didn’t their homework until their teacher came back >Not until did their teacher come back that the children did their homework Phủ định chuyển khẳng định -I didn’t know about him until we cách bỏ didn’t: were classmates S + V2 +… >Not until were we classmates that I knew him -I don’t have to wear uniform until I go to school Phủ định chuyển > Not until I go to school that I don’t have to wear uniform khẳng định cách bỏ trợ động từ - I don’t stop play until I am tired > Not until am I tired that I stop play ÁP DỤNG : She didn’t become a teacher until 1990 It was not until……………………………………… ……… He didn’t know how to swim until he was 30 It was not until……………………………………… ………… They didn’t begin to learn English until 1980 It was not until…… ………………………………………… The boy didn’t his homework until his father came home It was not until……………………………………… ……… Hoa hasn’t finished her task until o’clock …………………………………………………………………………………… It didn’t stop raining until an hour ago …………………………………………………………………………………… Nam and his brother couldn’t swim until they were 10 …………………………………………………………………………………… I don’t have to wear uniform until I go to school …………………………………………………………………………………… We didn’t have any part-time job until we entered the university ………………………………………………………………………… 10.No one cleaned this room until I moved here …………………………………………………………………………………… 11 He didn’t return to his native village until the war ended ……………………………………………………………………… 12 He was unable to take up the post until early the following year ……………………………………………………………………… ... -> 10 (You/not/buy/one simply because it looks beautiful!) -> 11 (You/be/very careful.) UNIT 10: CONSERVATION The passive voice: Câu bị động I General rule: S + V + O S II III +… + BE + V3 /-ed... + V + O S II III +… + BE + V3 /-ed … by + O (chia theo câu ) Ex: - She usually takes my car → My car is usually taken by her - He has sent his son to another school → His son has been sent to... It took her three hours to finish the composition -> I need a phone card to phone my parents It’s about 1,500 km from Hue to Ho Chi Minh City -> The dress looked very nice Jill and Joe haven’t
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