(Internet of things technology, communications and computing) jordi mongay batalla, george mastorakis, constandinos x mavromoustakis, evangelos pallis (eds ) beyond the internet of things everything

408 10 0
  • Loading ...
1/408 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 28/11/2018, 10:29

Tài liệu các kiến thức cơ bản về Internet of Things (IoT): như công nghệ, truyền thông, và tính toán.Các chủ đề chính trong cuốn sách này đề cập đến mô hình hoá, phân tích và quản lý có hiệu quả thông tin trong các ứng dụng IoE. Cuốn sách cũng đề cập đến việc xử lý các kỹ thuật mới trong các lĩnh vực và xu hướng nghiên cứu gầ đây. Tài liệu có một cân bằng tốt giữa lý luyết và thực hành các vấn đề, bao phủ toàn bộ các trường hợp nghiên cứu , các báo cáo đánh giá và kinh nghiệm rút ra được, đặc biệt là các thực hành tốt nhất cho các ứng dụng IoE hữu dụng. Tài liệu cũng cung cấp thông tin về các khía cạnh kỹ thuật, công nghệ khác nhau từ các khái niệm cơ bản đến các tài liệu nghiên cứu. Tài lệu có 4 phần: I. Các thách thức đằng sau IoT II. Các công nghệ để kết nối vạn vật, III Ứng dụng kết nối chặt chẽ vạn vật, IV New Hozirons: Large Scenarios Internet of Things Jordi Mongay Batalla George Mastorakis Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis Evangelos Pallis Editors Beyond the Internet of Things Everything Interconnected Internet of Things Technology, Communications and Computing Series editors Giancarlo Fortino, Rende (CS), Italy Antonio Liotta, Eindhoven, The Netherlands More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/11636 Jordi Mongay Batalla George Mastorakis Constandinos X Mavromoustakis Evangelos Pallis • Editors Beyond the Internet of Things Everything Interconnected 123 Editors Jordi Mongay Batalla National Institute of Telecommunications Warsaw Poland George Mastorakis Department of Commerce and Marketing Technological Educational Institute of Crete Crete Greece ISSN 2199-1073 Internet of Things ISBN 978-3-319-50756-9 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-50758-3 Constandinos X Mavromoustakis Department of Computer Science University of Nicosia Nicosia Cyprus Evangelos Pallis Technological Educational Institute of Crete Crete Greece ISSN 2199-1081 (electronic) ISBN 978-3-319-50758-3 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016959252 © Springer International Publishing AG 2017 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland To Sara, whose uncertain smile makes us so happy Jordi Mongay Batalla To my son Nikos, who always makes me proud George Mastorakis To my wife Afrodyte for her unconditional understanding and support Constandinos X Mavromoustakis To Vasiliki and Meletios for the time I did not spend with them, working for a book that they will never read Evangelos Pallis Contents Part I Challenges Beyond the Internet of Things Context-Aware Systems: Technologies and Challenges in Internet of Everything Environments Everton de Matos, Leonardo Albernaz Amaral and Fabiano Hessel Enabling User Context Utilization in the Internet Communication Protocols: Motivation, Architecture and Examples Yu Lu 29 Security Challenges of the Internet of Things Musa G Samaila, Miguel Neto, Diogo A.B Fernandes, Mário M Freire and Pedro R.M Inácio Part II 53 Technologies for Connecting Everything A Novel Machine to Machine Communication Strategy Using Rateless Coding for the Internet of Things Boulos Wadih Khoueiry and M Reza Soleymani 85 Energy-Efficient Network Architecture for IoT Applications 119 P Sarwesh, N Shekar V Shet and K Chandrasekaran ID-Based Communication for Access to Sensor Nodes 145 Mariusz Gajewski, Waldemar Latoszek, Jordi Mongay Batalla, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X Mavromoustakis and Evangelos Pallis QoS/QoE in the Heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) 165 Krzysztof Nowicki and Tadeus Uhl vii viii Part III Contents Applicability of Interconnecting Everything Integration of Internet of Everything (IoE) with Cloud 199 Sarbani Roy and Chandreyee Chowdhury Multimodal Low-Invasive System for Sleep Quality Monitoring and Improvement 223 Fábio Manoel Franca Lobato, Damares Crystina Oliveira de Resende, Roberto Pereira Nascimento, André Luis Carvalho Siqueira, Antonio Fernando Lavareda Jacob, Jr and Ádamo Lima de Santana On Real Time Implementation of Emotion Detection Algorithms in Internet of Things 243 Sorin Zoican Recognizing Driving Behaviour Using Smartphones 269 Prokopis Vavouranakis, Spyros Panagiotakis, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X Mavromoustakis and Jordi Mongay Batalla Part IV New Horizons: Large Scenarios Cloud Platforms for IoE Healthcare Context Awareness and Knowledge Sharing 303 Alireza Manashty and Janet Light Thompson Survey on Technologies for Enabling Real-Time Communication in the Web of Things 323 Piotr Krawiec, Maciej Sosnowski, Jordi Mongay Batalla, Constandinos X Mavromoustakis, George Mastorakis and Evangelos Pallis Crowd-Driven IoT/IoE Ecosystems: A Multidimensional Approach 341 Xenia Ziouvelou, Panagiotis Alexandrou, Constantinos Marios Angelopoulos, Orestis Evangelatos, Joao Fernandes, Nikos Loumis, Frank McGroarty, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Aleksandra Rankov, Theofanis Raptis, Anna Ståhlbröst and Sebastien Ziegler Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 377 Despina T Meridou, Maria-Eleftheria Ch Papadopoulou, Andreas P Kapsalis, Panagiotis Kasnesis, Athanasios I Delikaris, Charalampos Z Patrikakis, Iakovos S Venieris and Dimitra I Kaklamani Introduction The networked connection of people, things, processes and data is called the Internet of Everything (IoE) It provides high revenues to many companies due to the increase of work efficiency, as well as to the increase of security and comfort of the workers The sector-specific infrastructures, where the IoE is successfully implemented are smart grid, critical infrastructure management and smart meters, among others Nonetheless, the increase of revenues is going to multiply in public and private sectors due to IoE deployment together with a big contribution to the well-being of people IoE is based on near Internet ubiquity and includes three types of connections: machine-to-machine, person-to-machine and person-to-person Machine-to-machine is closely related to security, including civil security (e.g., security in the road, disaster alert, etc.) and military security Person-to-machine communication brings an unquestionable increase of well-being in home automation systems but also is fundamental for intelligent parking, patient monitoring and disaster response, among others At last, person-to-person connection is already changing the inter-personal relations, which are becoming more multimedia and located in the social networks IoE will increase the scenarios of person-to-person networked communication as, for example, telework, networked learning and telemedicine The future of the implementation of the IoE depends on the effective solution to a number of technical challenges that this paradigm introduces These challenges include sensor capabilities improvement and sensor miniaturization (many hardware companies as Intel and Qualcomm are increasing the research and production of improved sensors and tiny chips for the application in all the aspects of our life), Big Data treatment and efficient remote data management (by introducing new remote management oriented architectures), as well as the open and secure composition of processes, which may be easily implemented into the IoE scenarios Some initiatives try to build IoE from scratch (e.g., some infrastructures for smart cities proposed in China), but the normal trend is to group together specific use cases of the IoE, cloud computing and all-as-a-service communication frameworks In fact, the approach of IoE is to find the potential benefits of the interaction of the existing infrastructure, in order to build extensive ecosystems for increasing ix x Introduction the number of services and their value The backbone of the IoE is the sum of the existing technologies: fiber and mobile high-speed access to the Internet, GPS, multimedia devices (video cameras, end users’ terminals), wired and wireless sensor networks, cloud computing The management of the IoE should be distributed at different layers Privacy and authorization and authentication should be managed at the application level (i.e., communication between processes) Instead, highly resource requesting security processes should be provided at the network level due to rather low complexity required for sensors and things All the features related to security and privacy should be controlled by rules and norms at different levels: international and national law, Internet operator’s practices, rules of companies, so the security and privacy behavior of the IoE will be the interaction of such rules and norms Other management and control functionalities will be inserted in the IoE processes in such a way that there will be no difference between processes giving service out of the networked environment (i.e., to the end users) and inside At last, the high degree of management distribution will be seen as self-capability of IoE management In this context, the major subjects of the proposed book cover modeling, analysis and efficient management of information in IoE applications and architectures It addresses the major new technological developments in the field and will reflect current research trends, as well as industry needs This book comprises a good balance between theoretical and practical issues, covering case studies, experience and evaluation reports and best practices in utilizing IoE applications It also provides technical/scientific information about various aspects of IoE technologies, ranging from basic concepts to research-grade material, and including future directions Scientific research provided in these pages comes from different research projects provided by eminent scientists, one of these projects is IDSECOM project, which is finalizing the activities just in these months The book is divided into four parts: (I) Challenges Beyond the Internet of Things, (II) Technologies for Connecting Everything, (III) Applicability of Interconnecting Everything, and (IV) New Horizons: Large Scenarios In Part I, motivation and challenges of the internet of everything are exposed under the examples of context-awareness and security enhancement Part II exposes new technologies in all levels: macro, micro and nano for implementing energy-efficient and high-quality communication between devices At higher level, the Internet of Everything opens new applications thanks to the connectivity with the cloud and ubiquitous of sensors Novel applications are presented in Part III, whereas Part IV presents extended platforms for connecting everything, including access to cloud, individual processes (e.g., security), and human interaction Jordi Mongay Batalla George Mastorakis Constandinos X Mavromoustakis Evangelos Pallis 394 D.T Meridou et al Fig The WSB Policy Model Ontology state-of-the-art privacy-aware access control model [27] supporting semantic definition of the privacy principles and policies In order to achieve expressiveness, the Policy Model Ontology is used for the specification of access control rules As shown in Fig 7, a rule may be either a Permission or a Prohibition Each rule applies to an Action, where an Actor (access requestor) is allowed or denied to perform an Operation (e.g., view, edit, execute, etc.) on a Resource (e.g., tools, services, data, etc.) The object properties hasActor, hasOperation and hasResource associate each rule with the aforementioned involved rule entities represented by the HLDOntologyEntity class Based on the attributes of the aforementioned entities and taking into account contextual parameters (if needed), the system administrator may define this action The Expression class models either a concept of the HLD Ontology (as depicted in Fig 7, this concept refers to an instance of one of the following classes of the HLD ontology: Device, Role, ObservationType or BodyMeasurementType) or a logical relation between the aforementioned concept and a value, modelled as the datatype property hasExprStringValue, by using an operator which is defined as an individual of the Operator class (i.e., greaterThan) The Expression class is associated with the HLDOntologyEntity class via the refersToConstraint and hasExprValue object properties Furthermore, the underlying purpose of an action is reflected through the refersToGoal object property while contextual parameters, such as events, under which the Actor is allowed to perform an Action, are defined as logical relations via the Expression class Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 395 The individuals of the HLDOntologyEntity class are characterised by Attributes via the hasAttribute object property The types and names of the access requestors’ (Actors) and Resources’ attributes are modelled through the AttributeName and AttributeType classes and their possible values are specified through the hasAttrValue datatype property A type of an Actor attribute could be any feature typical of a user, such as their role Resource attributes may refer, for example, to the type of the resource that the actor wants to access (such as data or a service) or the owning person In addition, actions that should have preceded or follow the enforcement of a rule are represented by the RequiredAction class, which is linked to a rule through the requiresPreAction and prescribesPostAction object properties, respectively, and have the same structure with the actions A postAction could be, for example, the logging of the access by the system With the adoption of such a flexible access control model, which is based on user and resource attributes, the need of explicit authorizations assigned directly to individuals is avoided and real-world needs of an IoE environment for multi-factor decision support are satisfied Furthermore, to protect data collected, processed and shared between the entities involved in the WSB platform, Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) [28] is used, which extends the Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) and the user’s private key and the cipher depend on various attributes, assuming the identity of the user as an attribute This way, data, involved in these transactions, incorporate access policies, thus reducing the need for trustworthy storage systems and complex schemes for maintaining access policies across the WSB services, enabling also information confidentiality The Attribute-based Data Encryptor of the platform is responsible for encrypting the end users’ semantic personal data, including diagnostic-prognostic data and reasoned data, in a way that is efficient to process transmission of such data, having as primary objective the protection of privacy As far as the decryption of the data is concerned, the ciphertext depends only on the attributes of the user Concerning the messages exchanged between the different services and components of the system, those are encrypted in order to ensure trust and confidentiality of the information transmitted among them All communicating components have to use correlation IDs that are generated by the request initiator and then travel along with all consequent requests to other services and data sources, as all access attempts are logged for the detection of any possible threats from and misbehavior of the platform components Finally, as far as the physical security of the whole infrastructure is concerned, it is taken for granted that it is ensured and protection from destruction by physical phenomena or unauthorized human access is provided by the data center, where the infrastructure is deployed 3.3 Cloud-Based Deployment The WSB Platform as an architecture of interconnected and independent services needs to assure that at any given moment the Quality of Service (QoS) is 396 D.T Meridou et al exceptional mostly because of the constant incoming streams of data Cloud solutions and specifically the IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) resource delivery model has become a necessity among health related platforms as it offers the required features out-of-the-box Currently, two control models are offered as an IaaS; private and public cloud infrastructures In the WSB Platform, the private cloud approach is mainly preferred for control, security and privacy reasons That means that from the owning organizations’ perspective, the allocated resources (e.g Virtual Machines) must not be exposed at public networks and must be protected behind a corporate firewall This requirement complies with the need for data privacy and security among the various interconnected services of the WSB Platform In the proposed architecture the only thing that could be exposed to the public internet are the service endpoints for user incoming data and third-party applications or platforms Below we describe the most common features of IaaS stacks and how the WSB Platform can profit from them As a reference technology stack the WSB Platform uses the Openstack [29] suite, as a pioneer in the domain of private cloud solutions Load Balancing and Elasticity The elastic nature of clouds allows the continuous monitoring of services and VMs and is scalable with respect to the offered resources according to the currently monitored workload and the user SLA (Service Level Agreement) Elasticity is a more abstract term and a characteristic of cloud infrastructures that tries to tackle situations where certain services experience a sudden increase to their workload The term Load Balancing as an elasticity implementation method refers to a cluster of VMs that are allocated to a specific service One node of the cluster usually acts as a request forwarder to other nodes that perform the actual service logic Load balancing only applies to stateless services that usually perform basic data-oriented operations Since the WSB Platform is service-oriented, load balancing can be applied to most of its services, whether they implement REST APIs (HTTP) or maintain message queues to communicate with the main service bus (JMS) Load balancing can ensure that requests can be evenly forwarded to nodes in order to achieve both high service availability and acceptable request processing time The elastic nature of the cloud paradigm allows for dynamic addition or removal of nodes to a cluster according to the current workload that is monitored at certain periods For instance, it is expected that most user activity data will be generated during morning hours and, thus, the WSB Platform is more likely to experience higher workloads at these hours Apart from the Load Balancing mechanisms that are offered out of the box by most private Cloud vendors, elasticity needs to be applied in cases that the workload cannot be distributed in more than one node This becomes apparent when we consider the case of the service bus, which is the central communication channel of the WSB Platform In order to cope with an increased workload, the VM that holds the service bus must be able to scale according to its needs Fortunately, lately this can be achieved as modern cloud IaaS technologies support live resizing so that a Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 397 certain VM acquires or releases computational resources with minimal to no downtime Infrastructure Monitoring As mentioned above, in order for the infrastructure to be able to offer effective elastic and load balancing solutions, it needs to monitor the services and take precautionary actions to prevent service downtimes and data loss Monitoring mechanisms are nowadays offered as a part of the underlying IaaS and can be customized to match the user’s needs Monitoring can be performed in an active fashion by measuring the number of requests that arrive for a specific service or the amount of data that is exchanged between services A sudden increase in requests or in the amount of exchanged data means that the infrastructure should take action and ensure that the service will be able to cope with the increased workload However, monitoring can be also performed passively by monitoring the VMs’ utilization of resources Based on analysis of historic data, the monitoring service can take appropriate action when it detects certain peaks in the utilization of CPU or RAM, something that indicates that the workload for a VM has increased Networking as a Service The term Networking as a Service includes the provisioning of virtualized network resources to the user This includes the creation of virtual appliances (routers, firewalls) as well as services (NAT, VLAN) Virtualized and user specific networking can be essential for the deployment of the core blocks of the WSB Virtual networks can add another layer of security as they can isolate even more sensitive VMs from the rest of the network as well as the outside world and, thus, prevent side-channel attacks Two-phase NAT is widely used in private cloud deployments, where VMs are secured behind a virtual router instead of sharing the same private network with the physical infrastructure Persistent Storage and Data High Availability Data is the most sensitive aspect in the WSB platform and it must be available at all times regardless of the workload that the platform or the underlying infrastructure might be experiencing To ensure that data are always available, every system must eliminate potential single points of failure Single points of failure can occur in the case of hardware failures (hard disk failures is the most common case) or VM errors (downtime, migration, hypervisor failures) Modern cloud solutions tackle such issues by employing services that offer persistent storage features Persistent storage blocks can be attached to VMs as an external storage medium and data written to them stay there even after the destruction of the VM and the release of its resources One of the most sophisticated mechanisms Cloud infrastructures employ is the efficient replication of these data blocks into multiple and -if possible- geographically scattered servers 398 D.T Meridou et al Image snapshots are another way of ensuring that the offered service and data are available at all times Redundancy techniques are very common when platforms perform sensitive data operations As in the case of the WSB platform, data handling and transformation services need to be constantly available VM snapshots that are stored and deployed can ensure that, in the unfortunate case of VM or hardware failure, a backup VM that is identical can replace it and pick up the work almost immediately Modern Cloud technologies also offer Databases as a Service (DaaS) These feature the allocation of database management systems to users through the use of APIs Apart from the convenience and the efficiency offered, these services also ensure that data are always available by creating clusters for distributed management Most NoSQL database systems already incorporate distributed architectures in order to improve performance and ensure that data are protected and available in case of software or hardware failures Interfacing the Users: The Social Health Avatar Approach Users participate in the platform through the use of a privacy protecting anonymous avatar, and a health and wellness monitoring framework, where information from personal, wearable devices is transparently fused into the platform, linked to the owners’ health profile, and visualized and accessed by the end-users through a special dashboard The data collected and inferred for each user form their health avatar, which is used as the electronic equivalent of a human and features a dynamic life profile corresponding to the human owner’s physical status, living conditions, and habits The Wellbeing Service Bus platform brings the health avatars of the subscribed users together with the view of forming a network of people; simple users and medical experts or other professionals of health and wellbeing-related domains The avatars of these users will present their health and wellbeing information in the form of tweet-like posts, which could be visible to their family and their doctors, always based on the permissions that have been set by themselves (the data owner) This way the health avatar of a data owner is “upgraded” to a social health avatar [20, 30] The advantages offered by such a social network are multiple and multisided To name a few, users (either suffering from a particular illness or just being concerned about their fitness) can communicate with their doctors or dietitians virtually and instantly This way, unnecessary visits to the professional’s site of practice are avoided, while home recovery and tele-health are embraced At the same time, users of the Social Health Avatar Network can connect with each other and exchange their experience of a certain condition or disorder they suffer from, as in group therapy Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 4.1 399 Categorising Users A user, and consequently their social health avatar, may belong to one of the following categories The Health and Lifelogging Data Owners (HLD Owners) are the ones that generate the data that are posted to their health avatar profile These pieces of information are collected through personal wearable devices, such as activity-tracking armbands or wristbands, health-related mobile applications, such as Apple’s Heart application, and public devices/appliances, such as smart weight scales Data Owners have the ability to define which devices and applications will be used as sources of data through their profile This information is stored in the platform, so that the appropriate interfaces are defined between the LOINC Data Handler and the devices Then, any new pieces of health and lifestyle information derived from the selected devices are acquired in a push fashion through the Client Service of the Wellbeing Service Bus and posted to the user’s profile The Health and Lifelogging Data Users (HLD Users) represent the group of medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses and pharmacists, dietitians and fitness coaches HLD users can monitor the status updates of an HLD owner either because they are linked to the latter in real life (i.e., by being the owner’s doctor or coach) or for reasons of statistics In the first case, HLD users may send advice to an HLD owner in the form of notifications At the same time, a specially-designed UI is offered so that medical professionals can create rules that will be later used during the semantic reasoning process that takes place within the WSB platform The rules creation process is based on the IFTTT (IF This Then That) [31] methodology by leveraging the concepts and attributes defined in the underlying ontology It has to be noted that HDL owners are responsible for providing access to specific HLD users or make their profile public to everyone Finally, a third, conceptual category of users is the one of software agents that crawl the data owners’ profile with the intention of processing the produced data in order to provide automated prognosis or extract statistical data While all other (human) users can hold an HLD owner and an HLD user profile at the same time (a doctor can produce data relevant to their own health and lifestyle), software agents are linked to a single HLD user profile Connections between avatars are not limited to the HLD owner—HLD user relationship In fact, multiple HLD owners can interact with each other, exchange their opinions on a common health issue, provide support to each other, etc Similarly, HLD users are presented with the ability to work together in the context of providing remote care to common patients in a comprehensive way While the identity of HLD owners can remain a secret due to the sensitive medical information being shared, this is not necessary in the case of HLD users 400 4.2 D.T Meridou et al User Interfaces Each HLD profile comes with a special user interface that enables the owner of the avatar to perform certain actions These actions differ according to the role of the avatar in the social network HLD owners are given the opportunity to set their own goals, such as weight loss or improvement of their physical condition Through the dedicated user interface, they can select one of the predefined types of goals and adjust their parameters so that their preferences are covered After a user has set a goal, it is disseminated to the platform through the Client Service The appropriate processes are triggered and a schedule relevant to the goal set by the user is produced This schedule is made known to the user through the Goals UI In this course, the user is informed of the schedule they must follow, the activities they must engage in and any other actions they have to take in order to succeed in their goal While a goal is active, any relevant information produced by the user’s wearable devices or provided manually by the user is taken into account by the platform’s tools This way, if the user deviates from their goal, the platform can produce a new schedule from scratch or apply some changes to the already existing one and present it to the user through the same UI The main functionality of the data users’ profile is the ability to create rules for their patients/trainees These rules are stored in the Rules Repository of the Wellbeing Service Bus and exploited by the Semantic Microservices in order to deduce valuable information or define the occasions that require a notification to be sent to a data owner Rules are shaped according to the IFTTT logic, as described above Based on the IFTTT paradigm, a service (i.e., a function) is triggered when an action has been performed In this course, if a data owner has completed a set of actions, thus fulfilling a goal, or if they have failed to perform an action that has been part of a goal, an appropriate notification is sent to them via their social profile Finally, as far as access to personal data by professionals (regardless of their profile) is concerned, because of the application of the ABE mechanism, the data owner is responsible for managing access to their data by defining data encryption policies, describing the requirements that any user should meet so as to be allowed to access the requested data The same applies for information, such as diagnosis, produced by professionals about a specific user For example, a user may select to allow only Internists to have access to their blood glucose value measurements, and particularly the one that they have identified as their personal doctor, while the latter can set an access policy for their diagnosis that allows only a group of treating doctors for the particular patient to have access to them and the corresponding prescriptions Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 4.3 401 Social Network Functionality Apart from the Goal and Rules UI of the data users and the data owners, respectively, each user of the Health Social Avatar Network is able to send a friend request to another user, make a post to their personal profile, create or join a group and perform a search based on certain attributes Each of these functions is described below As in all major social networks, users are able to make posts either manually or through their wearable devices or mobile applications The content of the posts may refer to the results of a new measurement, the mood of an avatar user, a medical article, etc The visibility of such posts can be set individually (for each post) or globally (for the user’s profile in whole) Users can also participate in groups created either by their avatar or other users This way, data owners are able to discuss with other data owners facing similar issues or having the same health- and lifestyle-related interests They can also engage in group therapy activities, retaining their anonymity Similarly, data users can join the same groups and provide advice to people facing medical issues At the same time, they can be part of groups of professionals so that they can discuss, for example, about the health condition of a common patient The search functionality of the Social Health Avatar Network does not resemble the one of the well-known social networks In fact, due to anonymity constraints imposed by data owners, search based on a person’s name is not always effective For this reason, the social network allows for performing search functions based on attributes, such as age, condition, goal or lifestyle interests This way, users with common conditions or interests can connect to each other, while their identity is kept a secret or not, based on the choice they have made through their profile settings Friend requests can also be sent from one avatar user to another, this way establishing a friendship There are four friendship levels, as shown in Fig A data owner or user that has no connections to other owners or users is considered a private avatar Posts made by such a user are not visible to anyone else in the social network At the same time, such users are not included in the search results of other users An avatar relationship is established when a user follows another user The follower is allowed to view posts of the user being followed if the latter has defined so in their settings, but their identities are kept anonymous As in all social networks, the user being followed is not obliged to connect to their followers Two users are considered to be friends if they are mutually connected through a friend request A user may have access to the posts of their friends, always based on their settings and exchange private messages, with their identities remaining hidden by default Lastly, connected users that wish to reveal their identities to each other are considered to be executives Such a relationship is common in case of a data owner and the data users (e.g., doctors, coaches, etc.) that are linked to the former in real life 402 D.T Meridou et al Fig Friendship levels between Avatars Overall, by adopting the successful model of online social network interaction through the Social Avatar, the presented platform provides a flexible communication medium that integrates and connects practitioners, patients, and virtual entities such as decision-support systems into a community for improving the quality of personal health The Wellbeing Service Bus in a Welfare Use Case To demonstrate the Wellbeing Service Bus platform and its functionality, we have selected a welfare-related use case, linked to weight loss In this use case, the user is able to define the parameters of the weight-loss goal, such as the amount of weight they desire to lose, the duration of the diet or of the daily or weekly exercise At the same time, the user can state any culinary restrictions, due to their dietary habits or due to limitations caused by health issues (e.g., diabetes, allergies, lactose or gluten intolerance) As discussed in Sect 2, already existing solutions take the user’s preferences into consideration and provide a well-defined dietary plan but most of them present certain limitations with respect to their functionality For instance, some of them require manual data entry and not provide the necessary interfaces for interacting with smart devices and others not combine this dietary plan with exercise In our proposal, the welfare platform is using data collected through wearable devices, such as watches or armbands, smart scales, or mobile applications Given a well-defined user target, the platform processes the collected data so that it can Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 403 generate a proper nutrition plan In particular, the Goal Planning Service and the Wellbeing Manager Service undertake the definition of and collaborate within a user-set goal of losing an amount of weight Given a set of historical data for a user, the Goal Planning Service creates a long-term, abstract dietary plan The purpose of this plan is to define how many calories the user should take in daily and the amount of exercise that they should engage in, in order for the user to lose the desirable amount of weight during the predefined time period The Goal Planning Service also defines the number of servings per food group (basic food groups; grain, protein, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and oil) a user should consume daily, without providing concrete meal suggestions In turn, the Wellbeing Manager Service provides a specific dietary schedule, offering a number of alternatives of daily meals, taking into consideration the culinary preferences of the user and any food limitations, as discussed above Specifically, the Wellbeing Manager Service produces daily meal schedules, taking into consideration the plan extracted by the Goal Planning Service and, at the same time, respecting the preferences of the user While the Goal Planning Service identifies the necessary amount of each food group that should be consumed daily (e.g., 48 gr servings of whole grain1), the Wellbeing Manager Service allocates the aforementioned amount to all or some of the meals of the day, providing specific products and recipes (e.g., slices of whole-grain bread (see footnote 1)) From the moment the goal has been set and the WMS has produced a dietary schedule, any new pieces of data arriving from the wearables to the service bus are considered to be events, which are handled by the Events Manager Service The latter implements a special kind of internal logic, which is able to process the incoming events and infer if they are relevant with the goal (diet) If this is the case, they process the event data in combination with the goal-related data and update the latter accordingly For example, if the event contains information regarding a meal that has been consumed by the user, the Events Manager Service updates the amount of the remaining quantities of each food group, accordingly If the Events Manager Service comes to the conclusion that the diet has not been respected by the user (e.g., a meal has been skipped, excess quantity of a food group has been consumed or daily exercise has not been performed as planned), it can produce further events that will either be disseminated to the user in the form of warnings or will lead to the generation of a new diet schedule from scratch, through the Wellbeing Manager Service Evaluating the Service Bus The Wellbeing Service Bus is currently under development, so its evaluation with respect to performance is not feasible at the time being However, the WSB follows the architectural paradigm of the intelligent Enterprise Service Bus (iESB) The recommendations are extracted from the non-profit consumer advocacy group Whole Grains Council (http://wholegrainscouncil.org/) 404 D.T Meridou et al Table The average execution times of the data access use case Triple store MySQL database Average execution time (msec) F1 F2 F3 F4 163,38 160,52 140,58 140,64 186,20 138,50 134,78 150,40 developed within the European project ARUM2 (Adaptive Production Management) The iESB [32] is an agent-based platform that relies on semantic technologies in order to plan, schedule and handle the manufacturing processes of highly-customized products, such as aircraft Special focus is given to small-lot production and production ramp-up, which present a high frequency of disturbances (Table 2) In the context of evaluating the semantic data managing services, namely the Ontology Service and the Events Manager Service, their performance, along with the performance of the underlying triple store, was compared to the use of a MySQL database maintaining part of the triple store data In this respect, two use cases were considered; the first one concerned the evaluation of the Ontology Service through four representative functions, whereas the second one aimed at depicting the proficiency of the Events Manager Service through the generation of unexpected disruptions within a production process At this point, it has to be noted that any details on the actual functionality of the above services are omitted, since they are considered to be out of context of this study The aforementioned use cases are summarized as follows The first use case refers to the communication of the Ontology Service, the semantic data provider, with the Factory Network and Scenario Designer (FNSD), a tool of the iESB that is used to create models of the involved production processes The use case simulates four consecutive requests for data, with each one requiring the application of a certain type of logic to the triple store data by the Ontology Service Table depicts the average execution times of this use case In particular, the average execution times of the four functions of the Ontology Service (F1, F2, F3 and F4) are presented both with respect to the use of a triple store and a MySQL database Similarly, Fig presents a graphical representation of the aforementioned execution times The results show that, despite the fact that a triple store is a rather complex data structure compared to a relational database, it behaves better in two out of four functions The fact that, at the time of the experiments, the triple store held 13 times more data than the MySQL database is quite important, as well The second use case describes the creation and publishing of production events It refers to the communication of the Operational Scheduler, a tool that is responsible for designing detailed schedules of the production processes required to build a certain product, with the Events Manager Service This use case shows the http://www.arum-project.eu Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 405 Fig Graphical representation of the average execution times of the four functions of the Ontology Service: comparison between the use of a MySQL database and a triple store individual parts, to which the total execution time is divided within a single event creation and sharing As shown in Fig 10, it takes 382.8 ms in average to create and publish an event of a certain type This particular use case involves the communication of the Operational Scheduler with the Events Manager Service in the scope of an event publishing request, the application of logic to the semantic data, the publication of the event and, finally, the response which is sent to the former by the latter In this case, the logic applied by the Events Manager Service to the underlying data requires the generation of an additional event In this respect, the communication of the two services took 240.80 ms, whereas the processing of the request and the application of logic required 87.60 and 54.50 ms, respectively The evaluation of the iESB was conducted through experiments ran on a personal computer with an Intel Core i5 2.80 GHz processor, GB RAM, on a Microsoft Windows Professional operating system and a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) v 1.7 The iESB followed the JBossESB paradigm, which was deployed to a JBoss v 6.1 Application Server MySQL v 14.14, distribution 5.7.9 was installed to the same computer Each experiment was executed ten times and the average times were calculated for each case During the aforementioned experiments, the triple store of the iESB maintained 94 MB of data, which corresponded to 137,198 RDF objects and 680,968 RDF statements Similarly, 30,520 records were stored to the MySQL database and its size was equal to 6.3 MB, which made it almost 94 % smaller in comparison with the triple store 406 D.T Meridou et al Fig 10 Graphical representation of the average execution times of creating and publishing a production event within the iESB Conclusions In this chapter, a health-related, service-based intelligent Wellbeing Service Bus is presented The purpose of this service bus is to provide an ecosystem, where smart devices, applications and systems can integrate through a platform following the Enterprise Service Bus paradigm The intelligent services of the platform exploit the power of ontologies and deductive reasoning in order to produce meaningful data that are not directly stated through existing real-life capabilities The extracted data is processed by agent-based services that are capable of providing structured advice towards the achievement of user-defined goals and producing prognostic or diagnostic results with respect to the health status of a user The dissemination of meaningful data is made easier through a health-related social network, which unites patients, medical professionals, athletes, and trainers This social network, the Social Health Avatar Network, is paving the way towards the improvement of remote treatment and home recovery As regards the implementation of the collaborative platform described in this chapter, the individual components such as the Social Health Avatar [30], the Health and Lifelogging Ontology [1], and the Wellbeing Service Bus [1] have been implemented and tested individually A full scale test of the integrated platform in order to extract conclusions on how to effectively link knowledge and expertise of Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything 407 health professionals and make use of it in order to improve quality of life is the next step towards validation of the approach and ideas presented here Finally, our future plans include following IDSECOM [33, 34], an innovative ID-based approach for connecting IoT objects References Meridou, D T., Kapsalis, A., Kasnesis, P., Patrikakis, C Z., Venieris, I S and Kaklamani, D I.: An Event-driven Health Service Bus In: Proceedings of the 5th EAI International Conference on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare - Transforming healthcare through innovations in mobile and wireless technologies (MobiHealth 2015), October, 14–16, 2015, London, Great Britain Wortley, D.: How Wearable Devices Can Impact Corporate Health and Competitive Advantage Cutter IT Journal, Vol 28, No Cutter Consortium, 2015 SuperTracker, https://www.supertracker.usda.gov/default.aspx Eat this much, https://www.eatthismuch.com/ Glooko, https://www.glooko.com/ Sen.se, https://open.sen.se/ Kaur, K., Rani, R.: A Smart Polyglot Solution for Big Data in Healthcare In IEEE IT Professional Smart Systems, vol.17, no 6, pp 48–55, IEEE (2015) IBM: IBM Enterprise Service Bus for Healthcare Solution Brief, IBM Software Group (2010) IBM: IBM’s Healthcare Integration Solution Solution Brief, IBM Software Group (2012) 10 Ryan, A., Eklund, P W.: The Health Service Bus: An Architecture and Case Study in Achieving Interoperability in Healthcare In: Proceedings of the 13th World Congress on Medical Informatics, pp 922–926, IOS Press (2010) 11 Evans, D.: The Internet of Everything: How More Relevant and Valuable Connections Will Change the World Cisco IBSG (2012) 12 FHIR® – Fast Health Interoperable Resources http://www.hl7.org/implement/standards/fhir/ 13 D Bender, and K Sartipi, “HL7 FHIR: An Agile and RESTful approach to healthcare information exchange”, in Proceedings of the IEEE 26th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), pp 326–331, 2013 14 LOINC, http://loinc.org/ 15 Geraci, A.: IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries IEEE Press, 1991 16 IEEE Standards Association (PHD - Personal Health Device), https://standards.ieee.org/ develop/wg/PHD.html 17 ISO, http://www.iso.org 18 IEEE: ISO/IEEE 11073-10415:2010, Health informatics – Personal health device communication – Part 10415: Device specialization – Weighing scale (2010) 19 IEEE: ISO/IEEE 11073-10441:2013 - Health Informatics – Personal health device communication Part 10441: Device specialization–Cardiovascular fitness and activity monitor (2015) 20 Meridou, D T., Papadopoulou, M.-E Ch., Kasnesis, P., Patrikakis, C Z., Lamprinakos, G., Kapsalis, A P., Venieris, I S., Kaklamani, D.-T I.: The Health Avatar; Privacy-Aware Monitoring and Management IEEE IT Professional Wearable Computing IEEE, 2015 21 Carroll, J J., Bizer, C., Hayes, P., and Stickler, P.: Named graphs, provenance and trust In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web, pp 613–622 ACM, 2005 22 American Heart Association, http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ 408 D.T Meridou et al 23 American Heart Association: Understanding blood pressure readings, http://www.heart.org/ HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/Understanding-BloodPressure-Readings_UCM_301764_Article.jsp#.VoVLKFJcuVA 24 American Heart Association: American heart association recommendations for physical activity in adults,: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/ FitnessBasics/American-Heart-Association-Recommendations-for-Physical-Activity-in-Adults_ UCM_307976_Article.jsp 25 Mobihealthnews: Fitbit changes the way it tracks active minutes, http://mobihealthnews.com/ 42241/fitbit-extends-minimum-time-frame-for-active-minutes/ 26 Hu, V C., Ferraiolo, D., Kuhn, R., Schnitzer, A., Sandlin, K., Miller, R., Scarfone, K.: Guide to Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) Definition and Considerations NIST Special Publication 800-162, Computer Security 2014 27 Papagiannakopoulou, E., Koukovini, M., Lioudakis, G., Garcia-Alfaro, J., Kaklamani, D I., Venieris, I S., Cuppens, F., Cuppens-Boulahia, N.: A privacy-aware access control model for distributed network monitoring Computers and Electrical Engineering, 2012 28 Bethencourt, J., Sahai, A., Waters, B.: Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (S&P 2007), Oakland, USA, 2007 29 Openstack, https://www.openstack.org/ 30 Delikaris, A I., Patrikakis, C Z.: My Social Net-Clone In: Proceedings of the 10th International Scientific Conference eRA-10 Technological Institute of Piraeus, 2015 31 About IFTTT, https://ifttt.com/wtf 32 Meridou, D T., Kapsalis, A P., Papadopoulou, M.-E Ch., Karamanis, E G., Patrikakis, C Z., Venieris, I S and Kaklamani, D I.: An Ontology-based Smart Production Management System IEEE IT Professional Smart Systems, November-December, 2015, pp 36–46 33 Mongay Batalla, J and Krawiec, P.: Conception of ID layer performance at the network level for Internet of Things Springer Journal Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol.18, issue 2, pp 465–480, 2014 34 Mongay Batalla, J., Gajewski, M., Latoszek, W., Krawiec, P., Mavromoustakis, C., Mastorakis, G.: ID-based service-oriented communications for unified access in Io Elsevier Computer & Electrical Engineering Journal, 2016 ... Latoszek, Jordi Mongay Batalla, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X Mavromoustakis and Evangelos Pallis QoS/QoE in the Heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) 165 Krzysztof Nowicki and Tadeus... http://www.springer.com/series/11636 Jordi Mongay Batalla George Mastorakis Constandinos X Mavromoustakis Evangelos Pallis • Editors Beyond the Internet of Things Everything Interconnected 123 Editors Jordi Mongay Batalla... benefits of the interaction of the existing infrastructure, in order to build extensive ecosystems for increasing ix x Introduction the number of services and their value The backbone of the IoE is the
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: (Internet of things technology, communications and computing) jordi mongay batalla, george mastorakis, constandinos x mavromoustakis, evangelos pallis (eds ) beyond the internet of things everything, (Internet of things technology, communications and computing) jordi mongay batalla, george mastorakis, constandinos x mavromoustakis, evangelos pallis (eds ) beyond the internet of things everything, 1 Policies, Privacy, and Trust, 3 People/End-User Perspective of the IoT Lab

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay