sáng kiến kinh nghiệm về listening

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Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION………………………… CONTENT Part 1: Theoretical and practical background I.Theoretical background: 1: The definition of listening comprehension:…………………3 2: The importance of listening a The importance of listening in general…………………… b The importance of listening to young learner……………….4 3: Listening process…………………………………………4 Listening – aspects of difficulty……………………………5 Students’ characteristics…………………………………… 6 The features of listening tasks in Tieng Anh 3…………….7 II The practical background Advantages………………………………………………………… ……7 2.Disadvantages…………………………………………………… …….8 Part II : The solution Stages of a listening lesson……………………………9 a Pre-listening……………………………………………9 b While – listening……………………………………… 12 c Post- listening……………………………………… 13 Example of a listening lesson …………………………14 Recommendations to teachers and students ……………18 a.Teachers………………………… 18 b.Students……………………………………20 Games ……………………………… 21 Part III: Finding and evaluation …………23 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities CONCLUSION ………………… 25 Experienced lessons …………………….25 Proposals……………………………………………… 25 INTRODUCTION English nowadays is used in a lot of fields in our life and it is considered as the number one international language in the world It is not only a means of communication but also a "useful tool" and a "master- key" to discover the world of science, technology, education, culture, business and diplomacy With the trend of strong global integration, teaching and learning English, therefore, is achieving an important position and now it is a major subject in educational systems in Viet Nam Especially, it is taken to primary schools in most towns and cities throughout the country As a teacher of English for primary students, I always try my best to find and select interesting activities and suitable teaching methods with a view to taking inspiration and enhancing the students' activeness and creativeness Through my practical teaching, I see that ‘short stories’ in Tieng Anh enhances listening skills and helps children develop an ear for the sounds of the English language and it also helps students develop speaking skills and increase vocabulary and understanding of language structure However, I encountered many difficulties during short story lessons Many of my students were not interested in listening They did not demonstrate well in the listening tasks and the listening lessons were said to be difficult and boring This has inspired me to conduct a study to explore pre-listening activities to arouse students’ motivation and interest, thus, help them to study more effectively and overcome difficulties in listening process I read a lot of documents concerning effective listening strategies in theory and in practice in order to bridge between the gap between my understanding of teaching listening and actual Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities practice Detailed lessons with logical and interesting prelistening activities have been created and implemented in my classrooms and the results have been highly positive and exciting The students have been unexpectedly motivated, they are more eager to take part in listening lessons The quality in each lesson and tests has been increasing considerably Especially , students’ pronunciation are better and now they are more confident in communication Basing on my real teaching process , the research on students in grade at my school and the consult on my colleagues' experiences, I would like to suggest " IMPROVING LISTENING SKILL FOR GRADE STUDENTS THROUGH PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES." Be hopeful that I will contribute my small part to help teachers overcome difficulties to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning listening at primary schools CONTENT PART Theoretical and practical background I.Theoretical background: 1: The definition of listening comprehension: Nowadays, there exist different views about listening comprehension According to Buck (2001), listening comprehension is an active process of constructing meaning and this is done by “applying knowledge to the incoming sounds” (p.31) in which “number of different types of knowledge are involved: both linguistic knowledge and non-linguistic knowledge” (p.31) O’Malley and Chamot (1989, p 420) made a conclusion that Listening comprehension is an active and conscious process in which the listener constructs meaning by using cues from contextual information and existing knowledge, while relying upon multiple strategic resources to fulfill the task requirement Vandergrift (1999, p.168) emphasized that Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities Listening is a complex, active process in which the listener must discriminate between sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical structures, interpret stress and intonation, retain what was gathered in all of the above, and interpret it within the immediate as well as the larger socio-cultural context of the utterance In short, listening is not a passive but active and conscious process in which learners construct and convey meaning by using not only the linguistic cues but their non-linguistic knowledge as well Linguistic knowledge is of different types, but among the most important are phonology, lexis, syntax, semantics and discourse structure The non-linguistic knowledge used in comprehension is knowledge about the topic, the context, and general knowledge about the world and how it works 2: The importance of listening: a The importance of listening in general Listening is the most common communicative activity in daily life: "we can expect to listen twice as much as we speak, four times more than we read, and five times more than we write." (Morley, 1991, p 82) Listening is a necessary skill for English learners and it is also important for obtaining comprehensible input that is necessary for language development b.The importance of listening to young learners Just as in mother tongue learning, English should start with an emphasis on listening This is one of the two main skills to teach first Young beginners need to start with plenty of listening practice and opportunities to listen to rich input will naturally lead to speaking tasks.Through listening ,pupils become familiar with the sounds, rhythms, and intonation of English By developing their ability to listen well we develop our students' ability to become more independent learners, as by hearing accurately they are much more likely to be able to reproduce accurately, refine their understanding of grammar and develop their own vocabulary Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities To sum up , the more students listen to English ,the better they will learn c The importance of pre-listening activities: Pre- listening plays a very important role in listening lessons It generate pupils’ interest, build confidence, facilitate comprehension and prepare for the while- listening They help teachers find out about what students already know about the topic Pre-listening stage prepares student by getting them to think about the topic or situation before they listen to the texts In other words, it gives students a purpose to listen It also gets students to relate to what they already know about the topic and arouses their interest and motivation in listening.  Moreover, pre-listening activities can offer opportunities for class discussion and more interaction among students “ It would seem a good idea when presenting a listening passage in class to give students some information about the content, situation and speakers before they actually start listening.”(Penny Ur, 1992, P.4) Another idea about pre-listening stage is said as following: “ Pre-listening work can be done in a variety of ways and often occurs quite naturally when listening forms part of an integrated skills course When planning lessons, time must be allocated for pre-listening activities and these activities should not be rushed.” ( Mary Underwood, Teaching Listening, Longman 1989, P.31) Listening –aspects of difficulty In the eyes of many young learners of English, listening is usually regarded as the most difficult skill and there are many factors that contribute to its difficulty Flowerdew and Miller (1996, as cited in Hasan, 2000, p 139) found that students’ problems in listening to academic lectures were speed of delivery, new terminology and concepts, Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities difficulties in concentrating, and problems related to physical environment Lee Chang Ngee (1985) identifies some problems which listeners often face including the speed of the speaker and the language he uses; students’ unfamiliarity with the sounds, stress, intonation and rhythm of natural spoken English; different varieties or accents; false starts, hesitation, repetitions and incomplete sentences Besides, he also points out that boredom, fatigue or distraction outside the classroom may affect the concentration of the listeners As a whole, there are four main factors that contribute to the difficulty of listening comprehension of primary students - speaker factors: - the listener factors: - the content of the listening - the physical environment: Students ' characteristics : Primary students in general and grade students in particular are active learners and thinkers They are fun ,social, curious , energetic but easily frustrated They are eager to learn and eager to please but they have short attention spans They have great imaginations and a lot of questions , so students need attention , repetition, routines , praise, movement and patience In order to have successful and effective lessons, teachers must base on these students’ characteristics while choosing and designing activities and give students opportunities to be exposed the language as many as possible The features of listening tasks in Tieng Anh Listening plays a very important part in Tieng Anh with the aim of helping students become familiar with the sounds, rhythms and intonation of English There are some main listening tasks : listen and tick ,listen and number, listen and write, listen and tick True or False The goal of these tasks is to Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities provide listening practice embedding the new language structures and vocabulary II, The practical background: Advantages: Firstly, Nghe An Service of Education and Training, as well as Hung Nguyen Department of Education has had right policies in teaching English for primary level The vanguard application ‘English primary innovation project’ of the Ministry of Education and Training has proved this The new English textbook that covers a systematic, helical and topic- based development of the basic English language skills with emphasis on listening and speaking has oriented concretely for teachers This is one of advantage that help teachers to have better teaching plans Furthermore, the Education Department has held many teaching method conferences, which helps teachers to improve their professional skill The Education Department has also equipped some modern facilities: such as robot teacher, touch software board, computer They are very useful in teaching listening Secondly, Teaching and learning English in Nguyen Thi Minh Khai primary school primary school nowadays are prosper The material facility and teaching aids are equipped quite sufficiently Especially , teaching and learning innovation movement has been strengthened highly and school leaders are always willing to provide teachers and students with good equipments such as radios, pictures, posters… Thirdly, teaching staff are standardized Most of them graduated from Universities, two teachers of English had B1 and B2 degree Especially, they have had experienced in teaching English for primary students Besides, they have ever attended some English conferences in methodology Finally, many students are very studious and obedient, they are very eager to take part in learning English They always show their interest in the lessons during the learning process They pay much attention to the teacher's lessons and are enthusiastic to contribute their ideas to the lessons They also tend to work in pairs or small groups and really want to interact with other Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities students Many good students can understand short and simple dialogues and texts Some parents care about students' study They provide their students with enough school things Above are motivations that arouse our creativeness in improving teaching method in order to have better lessons Disadvantages: For teaching facilities: There is still a lack of teaching aids such as reference books, pictures, puppets, posters and cards, which makes it difficult for teachers to plan and design teaching activities For teachers: We have not invested satisfactorily in to listening lessons yet Especially in listening periods, we tend to conduct while- listening activities because there is a limitation of time Pre-listening and post-listening are disregarded or even ignored We seem to test listening, not teach listening As a result, learning and teaching qualification is not as effective as we have expected For students: Although they have learnt English for two years, this is the first year they have been taught listening so most children are not familiar to it They find it difficult to understand the content It is not easy for me to elicit the answers and check the information they listen to Some students not have enough knowledge of English to engage in listening activities actively, these students often show their unwillingness and shyness when being asked to the tasks or answers because they have limited vocabularies, knowledge and experience This affected the teaching and learning quality I took a simple survey for students and asked my students to a test to know what their main difficulties were And here is the results: -The result of the test: CLASS MARK 4,5-5 3,5-4,25 2,5-3,23 < 2,5 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities 3A 12 ps ps 11 ps 6ps 37 ps 32,43% 21,62% 29,73% 16,22% 3B ps ps 14ps 5ps 33ps 18,18% 24,24% 42,43% 15,15% 3C 3ps 6ps 17ps 6ps 32ps 9,38% 18,75% 53,16% 18,75% 3D 4ps 8ps 14ps 5ps 33ps 12,12% 24,24% 42,42% 15,15% 3E 3ps 8ps 15ps 6ps 32ps 9,38% 25% 46,88% 18,75% -The result of the survey for pupils Difficulty Factors that cause problems in listening CLASS in No Different Too many Noise listening motivation voices new words 3A 10/ 10/ 9/ 5/ 3/ 37 3B 9/ 7/ 6/ 7/ 4/ 33 3C 16 / 7/ 4/ 1/ 4/ 32 3D 11/ 9/ 6/ 4/ 3/ 33 3E 22/ 12/ 18/ 19/ 7/ 32 The result from the test and the survey indicates that the listening problems come from both teachers and students Teachers seem not to provide students with sufficient activities before listening, so students lack motivation and interest to Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities listening lessons For students, the difficulty in listening arises from limited vocabulary, background knowledge, poor pronunciation, shyness and nervousness… From this reality, I have noticed that my students have had lots of difficulties in listening comprehension and students wish to get a great deal of support from their teachers to overcome difficulties in learning listening I see that activities before listening are very necessary and important This became a strong inspiration for me to have a study on pre –listening activities through which I could help them to overcome their difficulties and improve their listening comprehension , arouse students’ interest , activeness and creativeness in learning to grasp knowledge I hope that it would help the teachers of English to work out possible solutions to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning listening in primary schools Part 2: The solution Basing on the factors mentioned above, I would like to suggest some pre –listening activities that I have been applying to successfully and effectively for students in grade in my school and some recommendations for teachers with a view to improving listening skill for our pupils I, Pre-listening In my opinion, pre-listening is a very important stage especially to primary students because they have limited vocabularies, knowledge and experience If pre-listening is prepared well, while-listening and post-listening will be simple, easy and effective activities Pre-listening creates interest, build confidence and support a lot for listening comprehension, therefore it will make listeners have purposes to listen and compare with their prediction and make it easy to introduce topics Besides this, some vocabularies and sentences mentioned will make listening more simple, develop students’ creativeness, many activities will help listening have communicativeness and better integration 10 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities Aim: Revise the vocabulary about colors and create interest Time : minutes Preparation: tape recorder Procedure: Step _Show the song on the board and play the recording for students for students to listen -Play the recording sentence by sentence for them to listen and repeat ( twice) -Ask pupils to sing the whole song Step 2: -Ask students some questions to relate to themselves ‘ Do you like red ?’ ‘ What colour is your pen?’ ‘ What colour are your pencil sharpeners ?’ -Students listen and answer Activity 2: Setting the scene Aim: Help them imagine the context and understand listening task Time: minutes Preparation: Two cards of Nam and Mai Procedure: -Show two cards of Mai and Tony and ask ‘ Who are they ?’ ‘ What are they talking about ?’ Students look and answer Unit 10: What you at break time? Lesson – Listen and tick Activity : Chant Break time Football, football, football I play football Chess, chess, chess I play chess Volleyball, volleyball, volleyball I play volleyball At break time What about you ? 23 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities II Recommendations to teachers in order to have effective pre-listening activities The teacher’s method of teaching is one of the important factors affecting student performance Thus, teachers must always effort to improve teaching techniques to help pupils to overcome their listening problems and become better listeners I would like to suggest some recommendations for teachers to have effective prelistening stages They will be presented in details as follows Studying students’ book and teachers’ book Students’ book and teachers’ book are important basis, helping teachers to plan a lesson By studying the content and the aim of each lesson carefully , can teachers organize, control the lesson logically This will help teachers familiarize with the material and know what materials to prepare for the lesson and what activities to conduct Besides, teachers must always listen to the material before it is presented to pupils 2.Impoving teachers’ pronunciation : Pronunciation is very important for listening Pupils listen well only when they pronounce well Teachers should teach pupils how to pronounce properly when presenting new language 3.Impoving teachers’ classroom techniques * Activating or building students’ prior topical and linguistic knowledge Activate current knowledge by encouraging the learners to think about and discuss what they already know about the content of the listening text I often provide the background needed for them to understand the text, and it can help them focus attention on what to listen for Consequently, students begin to predict what they might hear and make connections with what they already know, increasing the relevance of the information * Arousing interest and motivating students Students will be more willing to listen actively to what the speaker says if they are able to relate the listening experience to their own lives Besides, teachers can create an environment 24 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities conductive to listening and encourage effective listening behaviors that are necessary lifelong skills * Using pictures and visual aids Teachers exploit visual aids such as pictures, puppets, cards, posters related to the listening topics to aid students to guess and imagine actively Visual aids draw learners’ attentions, increase their motivation on the topic and help them relate to content of the spoken text, thus listener overcome difficulties such as unknown words, minimal pairs of words * Encouraging prediction Students are asked to predict what the text is about In order to encourage students to imagine and predict what they are going to hear, teacher may tell something about the topic of the listening text or something about the speaker(s) Besides, students can be asked to predict the grammar structures that are likely to be used in the listening text or make a list of words, phrases that relate to the topic and may appear in the listening text By this way, we can familiarize students with key concepts and vocabulary before listening to spoken text When students have certain vocabulary in mind, they will be more selfconfident and thus ready to listen effectively *Encouraging cooperative listening The learners gather in groups or pairs to work out the spoken message together, the bond between them strengthens Cooperative learning gives them the opportunity to share their listening strategies and learn new ones from their classmates, leading to an environment conductive to learning *Providing an effective feedback strategy Many teachers have difficulties in getting pupils to give feedback, so I think that teachers should provide children with the confident to speak, an atmosphere where oral mistakes are not corrected publicly, and reasons to listen to each other Teachers play an important role in pupils’ learning PART III: Findings and evaluation Applying this teaching experience in to teaching listening has given satisfactory results First, this study is suitable for new English textbook curriculum and the dominant view of language 25 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities teaching and learning that favors a great amount of studentcentered learning with the purpose of enhancing students' activeness, creativity and self- study in English language learning Students have more positive attitude towards English learning They are more interested in learning listening, active and creative to widen and grasp knowledge and develop listening skill With pre-listening information or background knowledge, students know what is required in listening They now can place the context into consideration while listening, which can help them understand the text with less confusion As a result, the learning atmosphere is ebullient and gentle Learners have chances to express themselves and feel more confident in communication After applying this theme successfully, I have gained considerable results and valuable experiences for myself I see that we help our pupils learn language when what we ask them to is enjoyable, meaningful, supported ,social, purposeful and full of practice In order to improve listening skill for students, teachers should: - Be always well- prepared and understand the purpose of each listening activities - Choose listening activities that are interesting and suitable for students - Create comfortable environment for students to discuss and exchange information before listening - Make sure that before listening, pupils are supplied with language support and know clearly what they are going to in the following exercises -Make English fun and teach language in context Teacher should explain clearly about the listening context -Move from activity to activity -Give students chances to be exposed to the language as many as possible To sum up, the teachers, with their active role, need to train their students to become efficient listeners The teachers have to adjust the time and efforts to manage the class and make their students involve in the listening lesson Moreover they need to vary 26 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities strategies and activities to aid the students in three stages of a listening lesson This study is done in the hope of finding out and contributing some pre-listening activities in Tieng Anh for teachers in improving the effectiveness of teaching and learning listening skill Although this teaching experience is learned from the study on teaching pre-listening of Tieng Anh 3, it can be applied to any listening text , especially for Tieng Anh and This isn't the only way to develop our students listening or to structure a pre -listening stage, but it is a way that I have found to be effective and motivating for my students As an English teacher, I truly believed that this study would be a great contribution to my current teaching CONCLUSION Listening is a difficult skill to students especially to young learners but it is important for development of language to learners of English Therefore, teachers should try their best to find out listening activities to arouse students’ interest, activeness and creativeness We should plan the listening lesson carefully and pay attention to pre-listening stage in order to help our students to develop good listening skills and strategies This help students feel more confident, interested and active and thus, help them to study more effectively It can not be denied that effective prelistening activities will help pupils overcome their listening problems Hopefully, the findings and recommendations of this study will be of some help to the improvement of the teaching and learning listening comprehension of English of students in general and of primary students in particular Above are my ideas and experiences about carrying out teaching pre- listening phase for students in grade at my primary school Although I have tried as hard as I could, there are some limitations about applying time, experiences and my qualification Therefore, my research is not very perfect I really expect the jury and colleagues to give me some contributions 27 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities B Proposal: The Department of Education should strengthen to organise more training classes to improve knowledge about teaching method for teachers and hold many conferences so that teachers have chances to exchange and foster teaching experiences Besides this, the school leaders should promote to provide enough teaching aids for English teachers such as reference books, pictures, cards, posters and facilitate for teachers to have chances to attend further methodology training classes APPENDIX Time allowed : 20 minutes Questions Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Total Marks: – LISTENING (20 minutes) Question Listen and number a b c d 28 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities Question 2: Listen and write T (True) or F (False) in the box as examples F 00 T Question 3: Listen and draw the lines c b a  d   e Page   f 29 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities Question 4: Listen and tick ( ) - Hi, Mary How are you? a - ………………… - How you spell your name? - ……………… a b b - Hello Hello ……………… a - Hi, Phong Who’s this? - …………….… a ……………… … b b - Is that girl new? - ………………….a b Question 5: Listen and complete There is one example A: What’s that? B: It’s a rubber 30 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities A: How are you? B: Fine, A: Is that girl ? B: Yes, she is A: What’s your ? B: My name’s Linda A: How you .you name? B: T-O-M Full name:………………………… ………… Date…………………… 2017 Marks: Listening Reading and Speaking writing Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 PART LISTENING (20 minutes) Question Listen and number (1pt)  A B C D 31 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities Question Listen and colour (1pt) Question Listen and draw the line There is an example ( pt) Question Listen and tick (1 pt) A B B 32 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities A A B A B Question Listen and write the words in the gaps (1pt) Example: Voice 1: good morning ,Miss Hien 2.Voice 1: Is your …………….big? Voice 2: ….sit…down,please Voice 2: Yes,it is Voice1: What colour is your ………? Voice 2: It’s green Voice 1: What colour are your pencils,Nam? Voice 2: They’re ……………… 5.Voice 1: What you at break time? Voice 2: I play………………… APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE 33 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities (For teachers) This questionnaire is designed to survey for a study on how to improve listening skill through pre- listening for primary students in general and for grade students in particular Your contribution is of great importance to my experience initiatives I would be very grateful for your contribution Please read carefully and answer the questions below What are the factors that contribute listening’ s difficulty? □ Speaker factor □ Listener factor □ the content of the listening □ the physical environment □ All of above What are the reasons if your students not involve in your listening lesson ? □ Nervousness and shyness □ Inefficient learning activities □ Insufficient English knowledge □ Not speaking English fluently □ All of above Do you encourage your students to use their own background knowledge in pre-listening activities ? □ Yes □ No Do you create comfortable environment for students to discuss and exchange information before listening? □ Frequently □ Sometimes □ Rarely □ Never What types of pre – listening techniques you often organize in your classroom? (Tick more than one) □ Prediction □ Eliciting □ Discussion □ Using pictures □ Songs ,chants □ Reordering □ Games □ Asking and answering questions How pre - listening activities enhance your students' learning ? 34 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities □ A lot □ Quite a lot □ A little □ Not at all THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE (For students) 1.Các em có hứng thú với mơn Tiếng Anh khơng? Có Khơng Trong phần nghe, nói, đọc viết phần em thấy khó Nghe Nói Đọc Viết Theo em phần nghe khó vì: Người nói nói q nhanh Người nói có giọng khác Có nhiều từ em khơng hiểu Có q nhiều tiếng ồn Em khơng hứng thú với phần nghe REFERENCE DOCUMENT Dean – ‘Improving children’s learning’ Gordon Lewis – ‘Games for children’ - Oxford University press 35 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities Marry Slattery & Jane Willy – ‘ English for primary teachers’Oxford University press Teaching Resources for Florida ESE (2000) – State of Florida, Department of State O’Malley, J.M, Chamot, A.U & Kupper, L, (1989) Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition Applied Linguistics 10(4),418-437 Routledge - ‘Effective teaching in the primary school O’Malley, J.M, Chamot, A.U & Kupper, L, (1989) Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition Applied Linguistics 10(4),418-437 8.Rubin, J (1994) A review of second language listening comprehension research The Modern Language Journal 78 (2), 199-221 Underwood, M (1989) Teaching listening New York: Longman 10 Vandergrift, L (1999) Facilitating second language listening comprehension: acquiring successful strategies ELT Journal 53(3), 168 36 Improving listening skill for grade students through pre- listeningactivities + 37 ... If pre- listening is prepared well, while -listening and post -listening will be simple, easy and effective activities Pre- listening creates interest, build confidence and support a lot for listening. .. start listening. ”(Penny Ur, 1992, P.4) Another idea about pre- listening stage is said as following: “ Pre- listening work can be done in a variety of ways and often occurs quite naturally when listening. .. satisfactorily in to listening lessons yet Especially in listening periods, we tend to conduct while- listening activities because there is a limitation of time Pre- listening and post -listening are
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