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Aseanluanvansieucap Tài liệu TẢI XUỐNG62Nhật Lệ Đoàn 1 Trang chủGiáo án Bài giảngTiếng anh cac cong thuc tieng anh hay 973,04462 Hannes AlfvénGửi tin nhắn Báo tài liệu vi phạmTải lên: 12,442 tài liệu Upload tăng doanh thuTẢI XUỐNG62 SỰ PHÙ ỨNG GIỮA CHỦ NGỮ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ Sự phù ứng giữa chủ ngữ là động từ là đề cập đến việc chọn động từ đúng hình thái số ít hoặc số nhiều sau chủ ngữ1. Khi 2 chủ ngữ ở hình thái số ít được nối với nhau bằng từ and thì động từ ở hình thái số nhiều VD: My sister and my brother are students 2. Tuy nhiên, nếu 2 chủ ngữ diễn tả 1 cái gì đó được xem là đơn độc thì động từ ở hình thái số ít VD: Milk and cheese is what I need to buy3..Khi 2 chủ ngữ được nối với nhau bằng các từ như: as well as, together with, along with, accompaniend by. Nếu chủ ngữ đầu tiên là số ít thì động từ ở hình thái số ít Nếu chủ ngữ đầu tiên số nhiều thì động từ ở hình thái số nhiều VD: My son, together with his friend, is going to travel around the world. The students, as well as their teacher, have not arrived yet. 4. Khi 2 chủ ngữ được nối với nhau bằng các từ either….or, neither…..nor, hoặc not only…..but also,. Nếu chủ ngữ thứ 2 là số ít thì động từ ở hình thái số ít Nếu chủ ngữ thứ 2 số nhiều thì động từ ở hình thái số nhiều VD: Our room is too crowded –either a table or two chairs have to be moved out Neither her friend nor she has arrived 5. Trong các câu bắt đầu bằng there và here, động từ thường phù ứng với chủ ngữ đứng sau nó hoặc đứng cuối câu. VD: There comes the bus Here are yours key6. Động từ quan hệ phải phù ứng với chủ ngữ của nó, không phù ứng với bổ ngữ VD: The best hope for the future is our childen Our childen are the best hope for the future7. Động từ phải hòa hợp với chủ ngữ đại từ quan hệ: who, which, that. VD: The books likes the worker who always arrives on time 8. Khi danh tập hợp dùng để đề cập đến một đơn vị hoặc một nhóm đơn, nó kết hợp với động từ số it Khi đề cập đến các thành viên trong nhóm nó kết hợp với động từ số nhiều. VD: My family have decided to move to HCM city The average American family has 3.5 membersMột số danh từ tập hợp: Army, audience, class, family, firm, staft, government. Committee, faculty, group, herd, public, and team. 9. Danh từ chỉ số lượng và khối lượng thường kết hợp với động từ số ít VD: Fifteen minites isn’t enough for the student to finish this test Five miles is too much for me to run in one day Twenty dollar is an unreasonable price for the necklace 10. Một số danh từ số ít như statistics, physics, tactics, electronics, athletics. Politics, news, measles, economics, the United States …trông có vẻ là số nhiều nhưng luôn kết hợp với động từ số ít. 11. Các đại từ bất định như anybody, anyone, anything, nobody, no one, nothing, somebody, someone, each, something, everybody, everyone, everything….thường kết hợp với động từ số ít. VD: Nobody has cleaned the floor for months Every elementary school teacher is going to take this examiation 12. Thành ngữ bắt đầu với one of thường đi với danh từ số nhiều nhưng kết hợp với động từ số ít. VD: One of my friend is going to visit Ha Noi next week 13. Các thành ngữ hạn định khác: None of + the + uncountable noun + sl verb None of + the + pl noun + pl verb A number of + pl noun + pl verb The number of + pl noun + sl verb( sl : số ít, pl: số nhiều)1 V_ing và to inf Ta đã biết, động từ tiếng anh được chia theo thì , tuỳ vào ngữ cảnh của từng câu. Động từ một khi không chia theo thời (tense) thì sẽ mang 1 trong 4 dạng sau đây : bare inf (động từ nguyên mẩu không có to ) to inf ( động từ nguyên mẫu có to ) Ving (động từ thêm ing ) P.P ( động từ ở dạng past paticiple ) 1 : cấu trúc câu dạng V_0_V ( chủ ngữ _động từ 1_tân ngữ_ động từ 2 ) A , bare inf Theo sau các động từ như : MAKE, HAVE ( ở dạng sai bảo chủ động ),LET, HELP thì V2 sẽ ở dạng bare inf.Cấu trúc : make have let sb do st . Ex:I make him go. I let him go.B: V_ing Nếu V1 là các động từ như : HEAR ,SEE, FEEL ,NOTICE ,WATCH, FIND, CATCH...thì V2 là Ving (hoặc bare inf )cấu trúc : watch find catch sb doing st : bắt gặp ( xem ) ai đó đang làm gì.See hear feel sb doing st : nhìn thấy. ngeh thấy ai đó đang làm gì. See hear feel sb do st : nhìn thấy. ngeh thấy ai đó đã làm gì. C: P.P Theo sau động từ have , get , V2 có dạng P.Pcấu trúc : have get st done .D: to_V Các trừơng hợp còn lại. 2 : cấu trúc câu dạng V_V ( hai động từ đứng liền nhau )A: VIng Theo sau các động từ Admit, allow, appreciate, avoid , be better off ( khá hơn), cant help(không thể không), cant resist(không thể chịu nỗi), cant stand (không thể chịu nỗi), cease (dừng), cosider (nghĩ đến), delay,deny,dislike, enjoy, escape, fancy, finish,imagine,involve, keep, mind, miss(bỏ sót),postpone, practise, quit, recall, regret, remember, report, resent(căm ghét), resume(bắt đầu lại), Risk (liều lĩnh), stop, succeed, suggest, hate, mention, look forward to,discuss, resist, explain , ….Thì V2 chia v_ing Ex:VD: When i m on holiday, i enjoy not having to get up early.Lưu ý : sau giới từ ( prep ), động từ được chia ở dang v_ing .B : to inf Theo sau các động từ Afford, agree , arrange, attempt, claim, dare, decide, demand, desire, expect, fail, forget, happen, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, manage, mean, need, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, strive, tend, threaten, try, want, wish, would love , would like . have no right ( ko có quyền ), in order , so as( not) … Thì V2 được chia ở dang to_inf Ex:As it was late, we decide to take a taxi home. Những động từ đã liệt kê ở trên chỉ là những từ thông dụng nhất chứ ko phải là tất cả 3 : Một số Động từ đặc biệt có thể dùng cả V_ing và to_inf STOP+ Ving :nghĩa là dừng hành động đang diễn ra đó lại ex:2 I stop eating (tôi ngừng ăn )+ To inf : dừng lại để làm hành động khác ex:I stop to eat (tôi dừng lại để ăn ) FORGET ,REMEMBER+ Ving :Nhớ (quên)chuyện đã làm I remember meeting you somewhere last year (tôi nhớ đã gặp bạn ở đâu đó hồi năm ngóai )+ To inf :Nhớ (quên ) phải làm chuyện gì đó ex:Dont forget to buy me a book :đừng quên mua cho tôi quyển sách nhé (chưa mua ,) REGRET+ Ving : hối hận chuyện đã làm I regret lending him the book : tôi hối hận đã cho anh ta mượn quyển sách + To inf :lấy làm tiếc để ......ex:I regret to tell you that ...( tôi lấy làm tiếc để nói với bạn rằng ...) chưa nói bây giờ mới nói TRY+ Ving : thử ex:I try eating the cake he makes ( tôi thử ăn cái bánh anh ta làm )+ To inf : cố gắng để ...ex:I try to avoid meeting him (tôi cố gắng tránh gặp anh ta )NEED ,WANTNEED nếu là động từ đặc biệt( model V ) thì đi với BARE INF ex:I neednt buy it ( need mà có thể thêm not vào là động từ đặc biệt )NEED là động từ thường thì áp dụng công thức sau :Nếu chủ từ là người thì dùng to inf ex:I need to buy it (nghĩa chủ động )N ếu chủ từ là vật thì đi với Ving hoặc to be P.Pex:The house needs repairing (căn nhà cần được sửa chửa )The house needs to be repaireMEANMean + to inf : Dự địnhEx:I mean to go out (Tôi dự định đi chơi ) Mean + Ving :mang ý nghĩaEx:Failure on the exam means having to learn one more year.( thi rớt nghĩa là phải học thêm một năm nữa)4: các mẫu khác HAVE difficulty trouble +Ving WASTE SPEND time money + Vingchủ ngữ giả ( it)+ take(s) sb + time to do st KEEP + O + Ving PREVENT + O + Vingused to do : trước đây quen làm gì to be used to to be accustomed to + doing : quen với việc làm gìto get used to to get accustomed to +v_ing : trở nên quen với việc làm gì .3 to be likely to do st : có khả năng sẽ làm gfi ĐỘNG TỪ QUY TẮC1. Động từ qui tắc là những động từ mà thì quá khứ (past tense) và động tính từ quá khứ (past partictive) được lập bằng cách thêm ed vào hình thức đơn (the simple form)của động từ .2. Cách thêm hậu tố eda Động từ tận cùng bằng 2 nguyên âm + 1 phụ âm hoặc tận cùng bằng 2 phụ âm :thêm edex: look ==> looked (nhìn ) want ==> wanted (muốn )b Động từ bằng e hoặc ee : chỉ thêm dex : arrive ==> arrived ( đến ) like ==> liked (thích )c Động từ tận cùng bằng phụ âm + y :đổi y thành i trước khi thêm edex : study ==> studied (học , nghiên cứu ) cry ==> cried (khóc )Những động từ bằng nguyên âm + y thì thêm edex : play ==> played (chơi ) obey ==> obeyed ( vâng lời )d Động từ chỉ có 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng 1 nguyên âm + 1 phụ âm : gấp đôi phụ âm trước khi thêm edex: stop ==> stopped (ngừng ) fit ==> fitted ( ăn khớp )Nhưng động từ tận cùng bằng x thì chỉ thêm edex : tax ==> taxed (đánh thuê ) fix ==> fixed ( qui định )e Động từ nhiều âm tiết tận cùng bằng 1 nguyên âm + 1 phụ âm có trọng aam ở âm tiết cuối : gấp đôi phụ âm trước khi thêm edex : omit ==> omitted (bỏ đi ) prefer ==> preferred ( thích hơn )Nhưng động từ không có trọng âm ở cuối thì chỉ thêm ed happen ==> happened (xảy ra ) listen ==> listened (lắng nghe )f Động từ tận cìng bằng l : gấp đôi phụ âm l (ngay cả kho trọng âm không ở âm tiết cuối ) và thêm edex : cancel ==> cancelled (hủy bỏ ) travel ==> travelled ( đi du lịch )g Động từ tận cùng bằng c : thêm k trước khi thêm edex : picnic ==> picnicked (dã ngoại ) traffic ==> traffcked (buôn bán )3. Cách phát âm hậu tố ed a Đọc t sau những âm rung (trừ âm t ): f , k , p ... b đọc d sau những âm có rung (trừ âm d ) c Đọc id sau 2 âm d và t Chú ý :+ Một số động tính từ tận cùng bằng ed dùng như tính từ , đọc id :ex : beloved (yêu quí ) +Một số tính từ tận cùng bằng ed cũng đọc id:ex : aged (tuổi , già ) sacred (thiêng liêng )4. Động từ không theo qui tắc là những động từ có hình thức riêng cho thì quá khứ và động tính từ quá khứ , không thêm ed. (cái này tra bảng )Một số động từ đặc biệt 4 (need, dare, be, get) 1. Need 1.1 Need dùng như một động từ thường:a) Động từ đi sau need chỉ ở dạng nguyên thể khi chủ ngữ là một vật thể sống:My friend needs to learn Spanish.He will need to drive alone tonight.John needs to paint his house.b) Động từ đi sau need phải ở dạng verbing hoặc dạng bị động nếu chủ ngữ không phải là vật thể sống.The grass needs cutting OR The grass needs to be cut.The telivision needs repairing OR The TV needs to be repaired.Your thesis needs rewriting OR Your thesis needs to be rewritten.Chú ý:need + noun = to be in need of + nounJill is in need of money. = Jill needs money.The roof is in need of repair. = The roof needs repairing.Want và Require cũng đôi khi được dùng theo mẫu câu này nhưng không phổ biến:Your hair wants cuttingAll cars require servicing regularly 1.2 Need dùng như một trợ động từChỉ dùng ở thể nghi vấn hoặc phủ định thời hiện tại. Ngôi thứ ba số ít không có s tận cùng. Không dùng với trợ động từ to do. Sau need (trợ động từ) là một động từ bỏ to: We neednt reserve seats there will be plenty of rooms. Need I fill out the form?· Thường dùng sau các từ như if whether only scarcely hardly no one I wonder if I need fill out the form. This is the only form you need fill out.· Needn t + have + P2 : Lẽ ra không cần phải You neednt have come so early only waste your time.· Neednt = không cần phải; trong khi mustnt = không được phép. You needn’t apply for a visa to visit France if you hold a EU passport, but if you are not an EU citizen, you mustn’t unless you have a visa. 2. Dare (dám): 2.1 Dùng như một nội động từ: Không dùng ở thể khẳng định, chỉ dùng ở thể nghi vấn và phủ định. Did they dare (to) do such a thing? = Dared they do such a thing? (Họ dám làm như vậy sao?) He didnt dare (to) say anything = He dared not say anything. (Anh ta không dám nói gì.)· Dare không được dùng ở thể khẳng định ngoại trừ thành ngữ I dare say I daresay với 2 nghĩa sau: Tôi cho rằng: I dare say there is a restaurant at the end of the train. Tôi thừa nhận là: I daresay you are right.· How dare dared + S + Verb in simple form: Sao ... dám (tỏ sự giận giữ) How dared you open my letter: Sao mày dám mở thư của tao. 2.2 Dùng như một ngoại động từ:Mang nghĩa “thách thức”: Dare sb to do smt = Thách ai làm gì They dare the boy to swim across the river in such a cold weather. I dare you to touch my toes = Tao thách mày dám động đến một sợi lông của tao. 3. Cách sử dụng to be trong một số trường hợp · To be of + noun = to have: có (dùng để chỉ tính chất hoặc tình cảm) Mary is of a gentle nature = Mary có một bản chất tử tế.5 · To be of + noun: Nhấn mạnh cho danh từ đứng đằng sau The newlyopened restaurant is of (ở ngay) the Leceister Square.· To be + to + verb: là dạng cấu tạo đặc biệt, sử dụng trong trường hợp: Để truyền đạt các mệnh lệnh hoặc các chỉ dẫn từ ngôi thứ nhất qua ngôi thứ hai đến ngôi thứ ba. No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police. Dùng với mệnh đề if khi mệnh đề chính diễn đạt một câu điều kiện: Một điều phải xảy ra trước nếu muốn một điều khác xảy ra. (Nếu muốn... thì phải..) If we are to get there by lunch time we had better hurry. Something must be done quickly if the endangered birds are to be saved. He knew he would have to work hard if he was to pass his exam Được dùng để thông báo những yêu cầu xin chỉ dẫn: He asked the air traffic control where he was to land. Được dùng khá phổ biến để truyền đạt một dự định, một sự sắp đặt, đặc biệt khi nó là chính thức. She is to get married next month. The expedition is to start in a week. We are to get a ten percent wage rise in June. Cấu trúc này thông dụng trên báo chí, khi là tựa đề báo thì to be được bỏ đi. The Primer Minister (is) to make a statement tomorrow.· were + S + to + verb = if + S + were + to + verb = thế nếu (một giả thuyết) Were I to tell you that he passed his exams, would you believe me.· was were + to + verb: Để diễn đạt ý tưởng về một số mệnh đã định sẵn They said goodbye without knowing that they were never to meet again. Since 1840, American Presidents elected in years ending in zero were to be died (have been destined to die) in office.· to be about to + verb = near future (sắp sửa) They are about to leave.· Be + adj ... (mở đầu cho một ngữ) = tỏ ra... Be careless in a national park where there are bears around and the result are likely to be tragical indeed.· Be + subject + noun noun phrase adjective = cho dù là ... Societies have found various methods to support and train their artists, be it the Renaissance system of royal support of the sculptors and painters of the period or the Japanese tradition of passing artistic knowledge from father to son. (Ở các xã hội đều tìm thấy một số phương pháp hỗ trợ và đào tạo các nghệ sỹ, cho dù là hệ thống hỗ trợ các nhà điêu khắc và hoạ sỹ của các hoàng gia thời kỳ Phục hưng hay phương pháp truyền thụ hiểu biết nghệ thuật từ cha sang con theo truyền thống Nhật Bản) To have technique is to possess the physical expertise to perform whatever steps a given work may contain, be they simple or complex. (Có được kỹ thuật là sẽ có được sự điêu luyện để thực hiện bất kỳ thao tác nào mà một công việc đòi hỏi, cho dù là chúng đơn giản hay phức tạp) 4. Cách sử dụng to get trong một số trường hợp: 4.1. To get + P2get washed dressed prepared lost drowned engaged married divorced.Chỉ việc chủ ngữ tự làm lấy một việc gì hoặc tình huống mà chủ ngữ đang gặp phải. You will have 5 minutes to get dressed.(Em có 5 phút để mặc quần áo) He got lost in old Market Street yesterday. (tình huống bị lạc đường)Tuyệt nhiên không được lẫn trường hợp này với dạng bị động. 4.2. Get + Ving = Start + Ving: Bắt đầu làm gì Wed better get moving, its late. 4.3. Get sbsmt +Ving: Làm cho ai cái gì bắt đầu.Please get him talking about the main task. (Làm ơn bảo anh ta hãy bắt đầu đi vào vấn đề chính) When we get the heater running, the whole car will start to warm up. (Khi chúng ta cho máy sưởi bắt đầu chạy..) 4.4. Get + to + verb6 Tìm được cách. We could get to enter the stadium without tickets.(Chúng tôi đã tìm được cách lọt vào...) Có cơ may When do I get to have a promotion? (Khi nào tôi có cơ may được tăng lương đây?) Được phép At last we got to meet the general director. (Cuối cùng thì rồi chúng tôi cũng được phép gặp tổng đạo diễn) 4.5. Get + to + Verb (về hành động) = Come + to + Verb (về nhận thức) = Gradually = dần dầnWe will get to speak English more easily as time goes by.He comes to understand that learning English is not much difficult Tân ngữ (complement object) và các vấn đề liên quan1. Động từ dùng làm tân ngữKhông phải bất cứ động từ nào trong tiếng Anh cũng đều đòi hỏi tân ngữ đứng sau nó là một danh từ. Một số các động từ lại đòi hỏi tân ngữ sau nó phải là một động từ khác. Động từ dùng làm tân ngữ được chia làm hai loại:1.1: Loại 1: Động từ nguyên thể làm tân ngữ (to + verb)• Bảng dưới đây là những động từ đòi hỏi tân ngữ sau nó là một động từ nguyên thể khác. agreeattemptclaimdecidedemanddesireexpectfailforgethesitatehopeintend learnneedofferplanpreparepretendrefuseseemstrivetend wantwishJohn expects to begin studying law next semester.Mary learned to swim when she was very young.The committee decided to postpone the meeting.The president will attempt to reduce inflation rate.• Trong câu phủ định, thêm not vào trước động từ làm tân ngữ: John decided not to buy the car. 1.2: Loại 2: Động từ Verbing dùng làm tân ngữ• Bảng dưới đây là những động từ đòi hỏi tân ngữ theo sau nó phải là một Verbing admitappreciateavoidcant helpdelaydenyresist enjoyfinishmisspostponepracticequitresumesuggestconsidermindrecallriskrepeatresent7 John admitted stealing the jewels.We enjoyed seeing them again after so many years.You shouldn’t risk entering that building in its present condition.He was considering buying a new car until the prices went up.The Coast Guard has reported seeing another ship in the Florida Straits.• Trong câu phủ định, thêm not vào trước Verbing. John regretted not buying the car. • Lưu ý rằng trong bảng này có mẫu động từ cant help doing but do smt có nghĩa ‘không thể đừng được phải làm gì’ With such good oranges, we cant help buying two kilos at a time.1.3: Bảng dưới đây là những động từ mà tân ngữ sau nó có thể là một động từ nguyên thể hoặc một verbing mà ngữ nghĩa không thay đổi. begincant standcontinuedreadhatelike love preferstarttry He started to study after dinner = he started studying after dinner.Lưu ý rằng trong bảng này có một động từ cant stand to dodoing smt: không thể chịu đựng được khi phải làm gì. He cant stand to wait (waiting) such a long time.1.4: Bốn động từ đặc biệtĐó là những động từ mà ngữ nghĩa của chúng sẽ đổi khác hoàn toàn khi tân ngữ sau nó là một động từ nguyên thể hoặc verbing.1a) Stop to do smt: dừng lại để làm gì He stoped to smoke = Anh ta dừng lại để hút thuốc.1b) Stop doing smt: dừng làm việc gì He stoped smoking = Anh ta đã bỏ thuốc.2a) Remember to do smt: Nhớ sẽ phải làm gì Remember to send this letter. = Hãy nhớ gửi bức thư này nhé.2b) Remember doing smt: Nhớ là đã làm gì I remember locking the door before leaving, but now I cant find the key.Đặc biệt nó thường được dùng với mẫu câu: S + still remember + Ving : Vẫn còn nhớ là đã... I still remember buying the first motorbike3a) Forget to do smt: quên sẽ phải làm gì I forgot to pickup my child after school = Tôi quên không đón con.3b) Forget doing smt: (quên là đã làm gì). Đặc biệt nó thường được dùng với mẫu câu S + will never forget + Ving: sẽ không bao giờ quên được là đã ... She will never forget meeting the Queen = Cô ấy không bao giờ quên lần gặp Nữ hoàng4a) Regret to do smt: Lấy làm tiếc vì phải làm gì (thường dùng khi báo tin xấu) We regret to inform the passengers that the flight for Washington DC was canceled because of the bad weather.4b) Regret doing smt: Lấy làm tiếc vì đã làm gì He regrets leaving school early. Its the biggest mistake in his life.1.5: Động từ đứng sau giới từ8 Tất cả các động từ đứng ngay sau giới từ đều phải ở dạng Ving.1.5a: Verb + preposition + verbingSau đây là bảng các động từ có giới từ theo sau, vì vậy các động từ khác đi sau động từ này phải dùng ở dạng verbing.Verb + prepositions + Vingapprove ofbe better ofcount ondepend ongive up insist onkeep onput offrely onsucceed inthink aboutthink ofworry abountobject tolook forward toconfess toJohn gave up smoking because of his doctor’s advice.He insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane.Hery is thinking of going to France next year.Fred confessed to stealing the jewelsChú ý rằng ở 3 động từ cuối cùng trong bảng trên, có giới từ to đi sau động từ. Đó là giới từ chứ không phải là to trong động từ nguyên thể (to do st), nên theo sau nó phải là một verbing chứ không phải là một verb nguyên thể. We are not looking forward to going back to school.Jill objected to receiving the new position.He confessed to causing the fire.1.5b: Adjective + preposition + verbing:Adjective + prepositions + Vingaccustomed toafraid ofintent oninterested incapable offond ofsuccessful intired ofMitch is afraid of getting married now.We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends.I am fond of dancing.We are interested in seeing this film.1.5c: Noun + preposition + verbing:Noun + prepositions + Vingchoice ofexcuse forintention of method forpossibility of reason for(method of)There is no reason for leaving this early.George has no excuse for droping out of school.There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.He has developed a method for evaluating this problem.9 Các trường hợp khác:Trong các trường hợp khác, động từ đi sau giới từ cũng phải ở dạng verbing. After leaving the party, he drove home. He should have stayed in New York instead of moving to Maine.1.6: Động từ đi sau tính từ:Nói chung, nếu động từ đi ngay sau tính từ (không có giới từ) thì được dùng ở dạng nguyên thể. Những tính từ đó bao gồm.anxiousboringdangeroushardeagereasygoodstrangepleased preparedreadyableusualcommondifficultIt is dangerous to drive in this weather.Mike is anxious to see his family.We are ready to leave now.It is difficult to pass this test.Chú ý: able và capable có nghĩa như nhau nhưng cách dùng khác nhau: (able unable) to do smt = (capable incapable) of doing smt.2: Đại từ đứng trước động từ nguyên thể hoặc Ving trong tân ngữ2.1: Trường hợp tân ngữ là động từ nguyên thểTrong trường hợp tân ngữ là động từ nguyên thể (loại 1) thì bất cứ danh từ hay đại từ nào trực tiếp đứng trước nó cũng phải ở dạng tân ngữ (complement form). Joe asked her to call him.S + V + {pronoun noun in complement form} + to + verb ...Sau đây là một số động từ đòi hỏi tân ngữ là một động từ nguyên thể có đại từ làm tân ngữ gián tiếp.allowaskbegconvinceexpectinstructinviteorderpermitpersuadepreparepromiseremindurgewantWe ordered him to appear in court.I urge you to reconsider your decision.They were trying to persuade him to change his mind.The teacher permitted them to turn their assignments in late.You should prepare your son to take this examination.2.2: Trường hợp tân ngữ là VingTrong trường hợp tân ngữ là một V ing thì đại từdanh từ phải ở dạng sở hữu. 10 Subject + verb + {pronoun noun}(possessive form) + verbing...We understand your not being able to stay longer.We object to their calling at this hour.He regrets her leaving.We are looking forward to their coming next year.We don’t approve of John’s buying this house.We resent the teacher’s not announcing the test sooner.Câu phủ định (Negation) Để tạo câu phủ định đặt not sau trợ động từ hoặc động từ be . Nếu không có trợ động từ hoặc động từ be thì dùng dạng thức thích hợp của do, does hoặc did để thay thế.John is rich => John is not rich.Mark has seen Bill => Mark has not seen BillMary can swim => Mary cannot swim.I went to the store yesterday => I did not go to the store yesterday.Mark likes spinach => Mark doesn’t like spinach.I want to leave now => I don’t want to leave now.1. Someany: Đặt any đằng trước danh từ làm vị ngữ sẽ nhấn mạnh câu phủ định. Cũng có thể nhấn mạnh một câu phủ định bằng cách dùng no + danh từ hoặc a single + danh từ số ít. John has some money => John doesn’t have any money.He sold some magazines yesterday => He didnt sell a single magazine yesterday. = He sold no magazine yesterday.2. Một số các câu hỏi ở dạng phủ định lại mang ý nghĩa khác (không dùng dấu ?): Nhấn mạnh cho sự khẳng định của người nói.Shouldn t you put on your hat, too : Thế thì anh cũng đội luôn mũ vào đi.Didnt you say that you would come to the party tonight: Thế anh đã chẳng nói là anh đi dự tiệc tối nay hay sao. Dùng để tán dươngWasn t the weather wonderful yesterday: Thời tiết hôm qua đẹp tuyệt vời.Wouldnt it be nice if we didnt have to work on Friday.Thật là tuyệt vời khi chúng ta không phải làm việc ngày thứ 6.3. Hai lần phủ địnhNegative + Negative = Positive (Mang ý nghĩa nhấn mạnh) Its unbelieveable he is not rich. (Chẳng ai có thể tin được là anh ta lại không giàu có.)4. Phủ định kết hợp với so sánhNegative + comparative (more less) = superlative (Mang nghĩa so sánh tuyệt đối)I couldnt agree with you less = I absolutely agree with you.You couldnt have gone to the beach on a better day = Its the best day to go to the beach.Nhưng phải hết sức cẩn thận vì :He couldnt have been more unfriendly when I met him first. = the most unfriendlyThe surgery couldnt have been more unnecessary. = absolutely unnecessary5. Cấu trúc phủ định song songNegative... evenstill lessmuch less + noun verb in simple form: không ... mà lại càng không. These students dont like reading novel, much less textbook.Những sinh viên này chẳng thích đọc tiểu thuyết, chứ chưa nói đến sách giáo khoa.Its unbelieveable how he could have survived such a freefall, much less live to tell about it on television.Thật không thể tin được anh ta lại có thể sống sót sau cú rơi tự do đó, chứ đừng nói đến chuyện lên TV kể về nó.6. Phủ định không dùng thể phủ định của động từMột số các phó từ trong tiếng Anh mang nghĩa phủ định (negative adverb), khi đã dùng nó thì trong câu không dùng cấu tạo phủ định của động từ nữa: Hardly, barely, scarcely = almost nothing almost not at all = hầu như không.Hardly ever, seldom, rarely = almost never = hầu như không bao giờ.subject + negative adverb + positive verbsubject + to be + negative adverb11 John rarely comes to class on time. (John chẳng mấy khi đến lớp đúng giờ)Tom hardly studied lastnight. (Tôm chẳng học gì tối qua)She scarcely remembers the accident.(Cô ấy khó mà nhớ được vụ tai nạn)We seldom see photos of these animals. (Chúng tôi hiếm khi thấy ảnh của những động vật này) 7. Thể phủ định của một số động từ đặc biệtĐối với những động từ như to think, to believe, to suppose, to imagine + that + sentense. Khi chuyển sang câu phủ định, phải cấu tạo phủ định ở các động từ đó, không được cấu tạo phủ định ở mệnh đề thứ hai. I dont think you came to class yesterday. (Không dùng: I think you didnt come to class yesterday)I dont believe she stays at home now.8. No matter No matter + whowhatwhichwherewhenhow + Subject + verb in present: Dù có... đi chăng nữa... thì No matter who telephones, say I’m out. Cho dù là ai gọi đến thì hãy bảo là tôi đi vắng.No matter where you go, you will find CocaCola. Cho dù anh có đi đến đâu, anh cũng sẽ thấy nhãn hiệu CocaColaNo matter who = whoever; No matter what = whateverNo matter what (whatever) you say, I won’t believe you. Cho dù anh có nói gì đi chăng nữa, tôi cũng không tin anh.Các cấu trúc này có thể đứng cuối câu mà không cần có mệnh đề theo sau:I will always love you, no matter what.9. Cách dùng Not ... at all; at allNot ... at all: Chẳng chút nào. Chúng thường đứng cuối câu phủ định I didn’t understand anything at all.She was hardly frightened at allAt all còn được dùng trong câu hỏi, đặc biệt với những từ như ifeverany... Do you play poker at all? (Anh có chơi bài poker được chứ?) CÁCH(Voices) Gồm: Chủ động (Active Voice) và Bị động (Passive Voice). 1. Chủ động: Là cách đặt câu trong đó Chủ ngữ đứng vai chủ độngchủ thể.Ví dụ: 1. She learns Chinese at school. 2. She bought a book. 2. Bị Thụ động cách là cách đặt câu trong đó chủ từ đứng vai bị động Ví dụ: 1. Chinese is learnt at school by her. 2. A book was bought by her. Chú ý: Điều kiện để có thể chuyển câu chủ động sang bị động:Thứ 1: Câu chủ động phải xác lập có được tân ngữ. (object)Thứ 2: Câu chủ động phải có Ngoại động từ. (transitive verbs) 3. Qui tắc Bị động cách:a. Động từ của câu bị động cách: To be + Past Participle.b. Tân ngữ của câu chủ động thành chủ từ của câu bị độngc. Chủ từ của câu chủ động thành chủ từ của giói từ BY 12 Active : Subject Transitive Verb – ObjectPassive : Subject Be + Past Participle BY + ObjectVí dụ: The farmer dinks tea everyday. (Active) Tea is drunk by the farmer everyday. (Passive)4. Khi một ngoại động từ ở chủ động có hai tân ngữ, một trực tiếp và một gián tiếp (nhóm tặng biếu), có thể chuyển thành hai câu bị động.Ví dụ: I gave him an apple.An apple was given to him.He was given an apple by me.5. Một số câu đặc biệt phải dịch là Người ta khi dịch sang tiếng Việt.Ví dụ: It is said that = people say that ; (Người ta nói rằng)It was said that = people said that. (Người ta nói rằng) Một số động từ được dùng như trên: believe, say, suggest, expect, ... 6. Ta dùng động từ nguyên thể trong thể bị động: TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE để chỉ một ý định hay sự bắt buộc hoặc sự không thể được.Ví dụ: This exercise is to be done.This matter is to be discussed soon. 7. Sau những động từ: to have, to order, to get, to bid, to cause hay một động từ chỉ về giác quan hoặc cảm tính, ta dùng Past Participle (Tham khảo phần Bảng động từ bất quy tắc) bao hàm nghĩa như bị động:Ví dụ: We had your photos taken. We heard the song sung.We got tired after having walked for long.8. Bảng chia Chủ động sang Bị động: Simple present do donePresent continuous isare doing isare being doneSimple Past did waswere donePast continuous waswere doing waswere being donePresent Perfect hashave done hashave been donePast perfect had done had been doneSimple future will do will be doneFuture perfect will have done will have been doneisare going to isare going to doisare going to be doneCan can, could do can, could be doneMight might do might be doneMust must do must be doneHave to have to have to be done9. Một số Trường hợp đặc biệt khác:a. Một số động từ đặc biệt: remember; want; try; like, hate ... Ví dụ: I remember them taking me to the zoo. (active)I remember being taken to the zoo.(passive) Ví dụ: She wants her sister to take some photogtaphs.(actiove)She wants some photographs to be taken by her sister. (passive) Ví dụ: She likes her boyfriend telling the truth. (actiove)She likes being told the truth. (passive)13 10. Một số Trường hợp đặc biệt nguyên mẫu có TO: Suppose; see; make; Ví dụ: You are supposed to learn English now. (passive)= It is your duty to learn English now. (active)= You should learn English now. (active) Ví dụ: His father makes him learn hard. (active)He is made to learn hard. (passive) Ví dụ: You should be working now.(active)You are supposed to be working now.(passive)Ví dụ: People believed that he was waiting for his friend (active). He was believed to have been waiting for his friend.(passive)Câu (sentences)I Định nghĩa: Câu là một nhóm từ tạo thành nghĩa đầy đủ, và thường được kết thúc bởi dấu chấm (chấm than, hai chấm, hỏi chấm ...).Về kết cấu, câu có thể là một cụm từ. Nhóm từ này có chứa Chủ ngữ và động từ (S + V)Ví dụ: The little girl cried.The little boy looks very happy.Câu có thể chỉ gồm có một từ hoặc hai từ nhưng tạo thành nghĩa đầy đủ:Ví dụ: StopBe carefulHurry upThank youLets go II Các loại mẫu câu:Tiếng Anh có các loại câu cơ bản sau: 1. Chủ ngữ +động từ (S + V)2. Chủ ngữ +động từ + tân ngữ (S + V + O)3. Chủ ngữ +động từ + bổ ngữ (complement) (S + V + C)4. Chủ ngữ +động từ + tân ngữ + tân ngữ (S + V + O +O)5. Chủ ngữ +động từ + tân ngữ + bổ ngữ (S + V + O + C)6. There + động từ + chủ ngữ (THERE + V) III Sự hoà hợp của chủ từ và động từ:1. Chủ từ đơn và vị ngữ đơn: Trong câu luôn có 2 thành phần chủ yếu: Chủ ngữ và Vị ngữ.Ví dụ: The little girl cried loudly.The little boys look very happy.2. Sự hoà hợp của Chủ ngữ và động từ: Động từ luôn luôn phải hoà hợp với chủ ngữ về ngôi và về số (chia ngôithời thì, đặc biệt là ngôi thứ 3 (ba) số ít):Ví dụ: One of them hates learning English.They like learning English.I like English.She likes English..Hai hoặc nhiều chủ từ đơn nối với nhau bằng liên từ and thì đi với động từ số nhiều.Ví dụ: He and I like learning English.Tom and John go swimming every morning. Các danh từ tập hợp có thể đi với động từ số ít hoặc số nhiều tuỳ theo ý chủ quan của người nói.Ví dụ: The police kisses his wife before going to work.14 The police are trying to catch the burglars.Danh từ số nhiều chỉ thời gian, khoảng cách, trọng lượng và chỉ sự đo lường nói chung thì đi với động từ số ít.Ví dụ: Ten kilos of rice is about 50,000 VND.Ten kilometers is not far for her to go.Danh từ tận cùng bằng –s nhưng có nghĩa số ít thường đi với động từ số ít.Ví dụ: The news he gave me is very useful.Physics is very important subject at my school.Các đại từ bất định thường chia theo động từ số ít. Ví dụ: Everyone; everything; everyone......Những trường hợp đặc biệt. as well astogether withor; either ... ornor; neither ... nor Ví dụ: He as well as she likes learning English.He as well as his wife works very hard. He together with his girlfriend likes French.They or John sends the boss a report every morning.Neither my shoes nor my hat suits my jeans.Neither my hat nor my shoes suit my jeans. IV Sự phân loại câu: Có thể phân các loại câu trong tiếng Anh như sau: Câu kể: (Statements)Loại câu kể có thể ở dạng Khẳng định và Phủ định.Ví dụ: The student is learning English, now.The boy is not learning English, now. Câu nghi vấn: (Questions):Câu hỏi cókhông (YesNo): là câu hỏi mà câu trả lời là có (Yes) hoặc không (No), đôi khi còn gọi là câu hỏi dạng một.Ví dụ: Is he a doctor? Yes, he is No, he isn’t.Does he like coffee? Yes, he does No, he doesn’t Câu hỏi phủ định (Negative questions)Ví dụ: Isn’t he a student at this university?Doesn’t he like black coffee? Câu hỏi WH: là loại câu hỏi bắt đầu với các từ dùng để hỏi: what, why, where, when, how. who, whom, which ..Ví dụ: What is this?How are you?Which one is longer? Câu hỏi kể: Câu hỏi kể là loại câu hỏi mang hình thức của câu kể, lên giọng ở cuối câu:Ví dụ: You’ve got some money?You love her? You dont eat rice? Câu hỏi đuôi:+ Nếu động từ trong câu kể là be, phần đuôi sẽ là: Be + not + chủ ngữ.Ví dụ: Tom is here, isn’t he? + Nếu động từ trong câu kể là be + not, phần đuôi sẽ là: Be + chủ ngữ.Ví dụ: Tom isn’t here, is he? + Nếu động từ trong câu kể là các động từ khác ở dạng khảng định, phần đuôi sẽ là: Dodoesdid not + chủ ngữ15 Ví dụ: You like Laotian, don’t you? + Nếu động từ trong câu kể là các động từ khác ở dạng phủ định, phần đuôi sẽ là: Dodoesdid + chủ ngữ.Ví dụ: You don’t like Laotian, do you? + Nếu câu kể bao gồm các trợ động từ, động từ khuyết thiếu ... ở dạng khẳng định, phần đuôi sẽ là: Trợ động từ + not + chủ ngữ.Ví dụ: You can speak English, can’t you? + Nếu câu kể bao gồm các trợ động từ, động từ khuyết thiếu ... ở dạng phủ định, phần đuôi sẽ là: Trợ động từ + chủ ngữ.Ví dụ: You can’t speak English, can you? Tóm lại: câu PHẢI KHÔNG Câu hỏi đuôi (Tag Questions) Với Câu hỏi phải không ta phải nhớ các luật sau đây: 1 Thể tỉnh lược thường dược dung cho câu hỏi phải không? hỏi đuôi.Ví dụ:You love me, dont you?You dont love me, do you? 2 Nếu phần thứ nhất (chính) là thể phủ định , câu hỏi sẽ là khẳng định. Ví dụ:John doesnt learn English, does he?3 Nếu phần thứ nhất (chính) là thể khẳng định câu hỏi sẽ là phủ định.Ví dụ:John learns English, doesnt he? 4 Nếu chủ từ của động từ ở phần thứ nhất (chính) là danh từ, ta phải dùng đại từ danh tự thay nó ở câu hỏi. Ví dụ:John learns English, doesnt he? Hoa met her last night, didnt she? Câu cảm thán:What + danh từVí dụ:What a clever boy he is How + tính từVí dụ:How clever the boy isHow + trạng từ + …..Ví dụ:How quickly he ranTrạng từ như: here, there, in, out, away….. Câu cầu khiến:Câu mệnh lệnh. Để ra lệnh hay ép buộc ai đó làm gì Ví dụ:Go out Get away Do it now Câu yêu cầu. Để yêu cầu ai đó làm gì. Ví dụ:You must go now.Hurry up.TÍNH TỪ(Adjectives)1. Định nghĩa: Tính từ là từ dùng đẻ phẩm định cho danh từ bằng cách miêu tả các dặc tính của sự vật mà danh từ đó đại diện16 2. Phân loại tính từ : Tính từ có thể được phân loại theo vị trí hoặc chức năng:2.1 Tính từ phân loại theo vị trí: a. Tính từ đứng trước danh từ a good pupil (một học sinh giỏi)a strong man (một cậu bé lười)Hầu hết tính từ trong tiếng Anh khi được dùng để tính chất cho danh từ đều đứng trước danh từ, ngược lại trong tiếng Việt tính từ đứng sau danh từ mà nó phẩm định Thông thường, những tính từ đứng trước danh từ cũng có thể đứng một mình, không có danh từ theo sau như nice, good, bad, long, short, hot, happy, beautiful....Tuy nhiên , một số ít tính từ lại chỉ đứng một mình trước danh từ, như former, latter, main ...b. Tính từ đứng một mình , không cần bất kì danh từ nào đứng sau nó: Ví dụ:The boy is afraid. The woman is asleep.The girl is well. She soldier looks ill. Các tính từ như trên luôn luôn đứng một mình, do đó chúng ta không thể nói: an afraid boyan asleep womana well woman an ill soldierNếu muốn diễn đạt các ý trên, chúng ta phải nói:A frightened womanA sleeping boy A healthy woman A sick soldier những tính từ đứng một mình sau động từ như trên là những tính từ bắt đầu bằng a và một số các tính từ khác như: aware; afraid;alive;awake; alone; ashamed; unable; exempt; contentVí dụ:The hound seems afraid.Is the girl awake or asleep? 2.2 Tính từ được phân loại theo công dụng Tính từ được phân thành các nhóm sau đây:a. Tính từ chỉ sự miêu tả: nice, green, blue, big, good... a large rooma charming womana new planea white pen Tính từ chỉ sự miêu tả chiếm phần lớn số lượng tính từ trong tiếng Anh. Chúng có thể phân làm hai tiểu nhóm: Tính từ chỉ mức độ: là những tính từ có thể diễn tả tính chất hoặc đặc tính ở những mức độ (lớn , nhỏ..) khác nhau. Những tính từ này có thể dùng ở dạng so sánh hoặc có thể phẩm định bởi các phó từ chỉ mức độ như very, rather, so...small smaller smallestbeautiful more beautiful the most beautiful very old so hot extremely goodb. Tính từ chỉ số đếm: bao gồm tính từ chỉ số đếm (cardianls) như one, two, three... và những tính từ chỉ số thứ tự (ordinals) như first, second, third,.. c. Đối với các từ chỉ thị: thís, that, these,those; sở hữu (possesives) như my, his, their và bất định (indefinites) như some, many, 17 3. Vị trí của tính từ : Tính từ được chia theo các vị trí như sau:a. Trước danh từ:a small housean old womankhi có nhiều tính từ đứng trước danh từ, vị trí của chúng như sau:b. Sau động từ: ( be và các động từ như seem, look, feel..)She is tired.Jack is hungry.John is very tall. c. Sau danh từ: Tính từ có thể đi sau danh từ nó phẩm định trong các trường hợp sau đây: Khi tính từ được dùng để phẩm chấttính chất các đại từ bất định :There is nothing interesting. nothing là đại từ bất địnhIll tell you something new. something là đại từ bất định Khi hai hay nhiều tính từ được nối với nhau bằng and hoặc but, ý tưởng diễn tả bởi tính từ được nhấn mạnh: The writer is both clever and wise. The old man, poor but proud, refused my offer. Khi tính từ được dùng trong các cụm từ diễn tả sự đo lường: The road is 5 kms longA building is ten storeys high Khi tính từ ở dạng so sánh: They have a house bigger than yoursThe boys easiest to teach were in the classroom Khi các quá khứ phân từ là thành phần của mệnh đề được rút gọn:The glass broken yesterday was very expensive Một số quá khứ phân (P2) từ như: involved, mentioned, indicated:The court asked the people involved Look at the notes mentionedindicated hereafter 4. Tính từ được dùng như danh từ . Một số tính từ được dùng như danh từ để chỉ một tập hợp người hoặc một khái niệm thường có the di trước. the poor, the blind, the rich, the deaf, the sick, the handicapped, the good, the old; ...Ví dụ : The rich do not know how the poor live. (the rich= rich people, the blind = blind people)5. Sự hành thành Tính từ képghép. a. Định nghĩa: Tính từ kép là sự kết hợp của hai hoặc nhiều từ lại với nhau và được dùng như một tính từ duy nhất. b. Cách viết: Khi các từ được kết hợp với nhau để tạo thành tính từ kép, chúng có thể được viết: thành một từ duy nhất:life + long = lifelong car + sick = carsick thành hai từ có dấu nối () ở giữa world + famous = worldfamousCách viết tính từ kép được phân loại như trên chỉ có tính tương đối. Một tính từ kép có thể được một số người bản ngữ viết có dấu gạch nối () trong lúc một số người viết liền nhau hoặc chúng có thể thay đổi cáh viết theo thời gian c. Cấu tạo: Tính từ kép được tạo thành bởi: Danh từ + tính từ : 18 snowwhite (đỏ như máu) carsick (nhớ nhà)worldwide (khắp thế giới) noteworthy (đánh chú ý)  Danh từ + phân từ handmade (làm bằng tay) hearbroken (đau lòng)homegorwn (nhà trồng) heartwarming (vui vẻ)  Phó từ + phân từ neverdefeated (không bị đánh bại) outspoken (thẳng thắn)wellbuilt (tráng kiện) everlasting (vĩnh cửu)  Tính từ + tính từ blueblack (xanh đen) whitehot (cực nóng)darkbrown (nâu đậm) worldlywise (từng trải)d. Tính từ kép bằng dấu gạch ngang (hyphenated adjectives)Ví dụ: A fouryearold girl = The girl is four years old.A tenstorey building = The building has ten storeys.A nevertobeforgetten memory = The memory will be never forgotten. CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG (Passive Voice) 1. Bị Thụ động cách là cách đặt câu trong đó chủ ngữ đứng vai bị động. Ví dụ: 1. Chinese is learnt at school by her. 2. A book was bought by her. Chú ý: Điều kiện để có thể chuyển câu chủ động sang bị động:Thứ 1: Câu chủ động phải xác lập có được tân ngữ. (object)Thứ 2: Câu chủ động phải có Ngoại động từ. (transitive verbs) 2. Qui tắc Câu bị động.a. Động từ của câu bị động: To be + Past Participle (Pii).b. Tân ngữ của câu chủ động thành chủ ngữ của câu bị độngc. Chủ ngữ của câu chủ động thành chủ ngữ của giới từ BY Active : Subject Transitive Verb – ObjectPassive : Subject Be+ Past Participle BY + ObjectVí dụ: The farmer dinks tea everyday. (Active) Tea is drunk by the farmer everyday. (Passive)3. Khi một ngoại động từ ở chủ động có hai tân ngữ, một trực tiếp và một gián tiếp (nhóm tặng biếu), có thể chuyển thành hai câu bị động.Ví dụ: I gave him an apple.An apple was given to him.He was given an apple by me. 4. Một số câu đặc biệt phải dịch là Người ta khi dịch sang tiếng Việt.Ví dụ: It is said that = people say that ; (Người ta nói rằng)It was said that = people said that. (Người ta nói rằng) Một số động từ được dùng như trên: believe, say, suggest, expect, ... 19 5. Ta dùng động từ nguyên thể trong thể bị động: TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE để chỉ một ý định hay sự bắt buộc hoặc sự không thể được.Ví dụ: This exercise is to be done.This matter is to be discussed soon. 6. Sau những động từ: to have, to order, to get, to bid, to cause hay một động từ chỉ về giác quan hoặc cảm tính, ta dùng Past Participle (Tham khảo phần Bảng động từ bất quy tắc) bao hàm nghĩa như bị động:Ví dụ: We had your photos taken. We heard the song sung.We got tired after having walked for long.7. Bảng chia Chủ động sang Bị động: Simple present do donePresent continuous isare doing isare being doneSimple Past did waswere donePast continuous waswere doing waswere being donePresent Perfect hashave done hashave been donePast perfect had done had been doneSimple future will do will be doneFuture perfect will have done will have been doneisare going to isare going to doisare going to be doneCan can, could do can, could be doneMight might do might be doneMust must do must be doneHave to have to have to be done 8. Một số Trường hợp đặc biệt khác:a. Một số động từ đặc biệt: remember; want; try; like, hate ... Ví dụ: I remember them taking me to the zoo. (active)I remember being taken to the zoo.(passive) Ví dụ: She wants her sister to take some photogtaphs.(actiove)She wants some photographs to be taken by her sister. (passive) Ví dụ: She likes her boyfriend telling the truth. (actiove)She likes being told the truth. (passive) 9. Một số Trường hợp đặc biệt nguyên mẫu có TO: Suppose; see; make; Ví dụ: You are supposed to learn English now. (passive)= It is your duty to learn English now. (active)= You should learn English now. (active) Ví dụ: His father makes him learn hard. (active)He is made to learn hard. (passive) Ví dụ: You should be working now.(active)You are supposed to be working now.(passive) Ví dụ: People believed that he was waiting for his friend (active). He was believed to have been waiting for his friend.(passive)Cách dùng thờithì trong tiếng Anh (Tenses in English)1. Thời hiện tại thường: 20  Thời hiện tại được dùng để diễn tả:a. Việc hiện có, hiện xảy ra Ví dụ: I understand this matter now. This book belongs to her. b. Sự hiển nhiên lúc nào cũng thậtchân lýVí dụ: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The earth goes around the sun.c. Một tập quán hay đặc tính Ví dụ: I go to bed early and get up early everyday. Mr. Smith drinks strong tea after meals.d. Chỉ việc tương lai khi trong câu có trạng từ chỉ rõ nên thời gian tương lai Ví dụ: They go to London next month. I come to see her next week. Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + V + (O) S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)V: động từO: tân ngữChú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân ngữ Do (Các ngôi trừ Ngôi thứ 3 số ít) Does (Ngôi thứ 3 số ít)Phủ định S + do notdont + V + (O) S + does notdoent + V + (O) Nghi vấn Dodoes + S + V + (O)? Dontdoesnt + S + V + (O)? Dodoes S + not + V + (O)? Ví dụ tổng quát: 1 Khẳng định I learn English at school. Phủ định I do not learn English at school.I dont learn English at school.do not = dont Nghi vấnDo you learn English at school? Dont you learn English at school? 2 Khẳng định She learns French at school. Phủ địnhShe does not learn French at school. She doesnt learn French at school.does not = doesnt Nghi vấnDoes she learn French at school? Doesnt she learn French at school? Chú ý: Trong thời hiện tại thường, các ngôi (thứ nhất số ítnhiều, thứ 3 số nhiều) được chia như ví dụ tổng quát 1 trên đây, riêng ngôi thứ 3 (ba) số ít (He, she, it Tom, John, Hoa ...), ta cần lưu ý các quy tắc sau: 1. Phải thêm s vào sau động từ ở câu khẳng định. ( V+s)21 Ví dụ: He likes reading books. She likes pop music. Câu phủ định (Xem ví dụ tổng quát 2 trên đây ) Câu nghi vấn? (Xem ví dụ tổng quát 2 trên đây) 2. Ngoài việc s vào sau động từ, ta phải đặc biệt chú ý những trường hợp sau: 2.1. Những động từ (Verbs) tận cùng bằng những chữ sau đây thì phải thêm ES. S, X, Z, CH, SH, O (do, go) + ESVí dụ: miss missesmix mixesbuzz buzzeswatch watcheswash washesdo doesgo goes Ví dụ: He often kisses his wife before going to work. Tom brushes his teeth everyday. 2.2. Những động từ (Verbs) tận cùng bằng Y thì phải xét hai (2) trường hợp sau đây. Nếu trước Y là nguyên âm (vowel) thì sẽ chia như quy tắc 2.1 trên đây. Y Y + SWe play Shehe plays Ví dụ: She plays the piano very well. Nếu trước Y là phụ âm (consonant) thì sẽ chia như sau: (Y IES)We carry Shehe carriesThey worry Shehe worries Ví dụ: He often carries money with him whenever he goes out.  Các trạng từ dùng trong thời HTT: Always, usually, often, not often, sometimes, occasionally, never; Everyday, every weekmonthyear..., on Mondays, Tuesdays, .... , Sundays. Oncetwice three times... a weekmonthyear ...; Every two weeks, every three months (a quarter) Whenever, every time, every now and then, every now and again, every so often  Cách phát âm: Với các ngôi thứ ba (3) số ít, đuôi S được đọc như sau: Cách đọc Các động từ có kết thúc với đuôisF, K, P, TizS, X, Z, CH, SH, CE, GE + ESzKhông thuộc hai loại trên 2. Thời quá khứ thường: Dùng để diễn tả: 22 a. Một việc đã xảy ra và đã xong hẳn, trong câu có trạng từ chỉ rõ thời gian quá khứ, như : yesterday, last week, last year, vv… Ví dụ: The students came to see me yesterday. I came home at 9 o’clock last night. b. Một thói quen hay một khả năng trong quá khứ. Ví dụ: She sang very well, when she was young.  Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + Ved + (O) S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)V: động từO: tân ngữ Chú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân ngữ Phủ định S + did notdidnt + V + (O) Nghi vấn Did + S + V + (O)?Didnt + S + V + (O)?Did + S + not + V + (O)? N.B. Toàn bộ các ngôi (Chủ ngữ) được chia như nhaugiống nhau (Không phân biệt ngôi, thứ) Ví dụ tổng quát:1 Khẳng định I learnt English at school. Phủ định I did not learn English at school.I didnt learn English at school.did not = didnt Nghi vấnDid you learn English at school? Didnt you learn English at school? 2 Khẳng định He learnt English at school. Phủ định He did not learn English at school.He didnt learn English at school.did not = didnt Nghi vấnDid he learn English at school? Didnt he learn English at school?  Các trạng từ dùng trong thời QKT: Yeasterday, last weekmonthyear, ago (two days ago, three months ago, long long ago...) In the past, in those days, ....  Cách dùng Used to trong thời QKT: Used to: được dùng trong thời QKT (nghĩa là: đã từng) để chỉ hành độngthói quen trong quá khứ, và đã chấm dứt trong quá khứ.Khẳng định He used to play the guitar when he was a student. Phủ định He did not use to play the guitar when he was a student.He didnt use to play the guitar when he was a student.did not = didnt23 Nghi vấnDid he use to play the guitar when he was a student?Didn’t he use to play the guitar when he was a student?  Cách hình thành động từ quá khứ:  Những động từ lập thành thời quá khứ và quá khứ phân từ bằng cách thêm ED hoặc D vào sau động từ gốc (gọi là Động từ có Quy tắc) Ví dụ: I work worked I live lived I visit visited Chú ý: Nếu tận cùng bằng “Y” và có một phụ âm đi trước “Y” thi phải đổi “Y” thành “I” rồi mới thêm “ED” (Y IED) Ví dụ: I study studied Nhưng khi trước Y là nguyên âm thì: Y+ed Ví dụ: He plays played Nếu một động từ (Verb) có một hay nhiều âm tiếtvần mà khi đọc nhấn mạnh vào cuối, và tân cùng bằng một phụ âm và đi trước phụ âm đó có một nguyên âm (Công thức 111), thì hãy gấp đôi phụ âm rồi mới thêm ED Ví dụ: Fit – Fitted Stop stopped Drop – DroppedNhưng: Visit – Visited (Vì visit khi đọc, nhấn mạnh vào vần thứ nhất) Prefer – Preferred (Vì prefer khi đọc, nhấn mạnh vào vần thứ hai)3. Thời tương lai thường: Dùng để diễn tảa. Sự xảy ra, hay tồn tại trong tương lai Ví dụ: They will go to Ho Chi Kinh city next Monday. We will organize a meeting on Friday morning.b. Một tập quán dự định trong tương lai Ví dụ: We will meet three times a month.  Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + will +V + (O) S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)will = sẽV: động từO: tân ngữ Chú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân ngữ Phủ định S + will notwont + V + (O) Nghi vấn Will + S + V + (O)?Wont + S + V + (O)?Will + S + not + V + (O)?Ví dụ tổng quát:1 Khẳng định I will phone you when I come home. Phủ định I will not tell him this problem. will not = wont 24 I wont tell him this problem. Nghi vấnWill you see Tom tomorrow? Wont you meet that girl again?Will you not see such films again?  Các trạng từ dùng trong thời TLT: Tomorrow, next weekmonthyear, ... next Monday, Tuesday, ...., Sunday, Next June, July, ....., next December, next weekend .... In two daysweeksmonths, in the years to come, in coming years Chú ý: Từ sẽ ngoài việc dùng cấu trúc trên đây, chúng ta cần nhớ đến Công thức sauS + be + going to do (V) + O (To be going to do smt )Dùng cấu trúc này, khi chúng ta muốn nói hành động nào đó đã được dự định, lên kế hoạch thực hiện. Vì vậy có lúc người ta gọi đó là Thời tương lai gần Ví dụ: I am going to visit Ho Chi Minh city next Monday. Lan is going to take the final exams this summer. Lúc đó cấu trúc trên sẽ tương tự như: S + be + Ving (+ O) (To be doing smt )và nghĩa cũng tương tự sẽ có dự định, lên kế hoạch thực hiện. Ví dụ: I am doing my homework tonight. Lan is going out with her boyfriend to the cinema tonight. Hạn chế sử dụng: going to go going to come mà dùng going to Ví dụ: I am going to the cinema tonight. 4. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành:  Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + havehas + P2 + (O) S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)P2= V+ed: động từ(Có quy tắc V+ed; Bất QT= cột 3 Bảng động từ Bất QT) O: tân ngữChú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân Phủ định S + havehas not + P2 + (O) Nghi vấn Havehas + S + P2 + (O)?(Have dùng cho các ngôi trừ các Ngôi thứ 3 số ít; Has dùng cho các ngôi thứ 3 số ít) Ví dụ tổng quát: 1 Khẳng định I have learnt English for ten years now. Phủ định I have not met that film star yet.I havent met that film star yet.have not = havent Nghi vấnHave you met that film star yet?Havent you met that film star yet?Have you not met that film star yet? 2 25 Khẳng định She has learnt English for eight years now. Phủ định She has not met that film star yet.She hasnt met that film star yet.has not = hasnt Nghi vấnHas she met that film star yet?Hasnt she met that film star yet?Has she not met that film star yet?  Các trạng từ dùng trong thời HTHT: Since :Since + thời điểm (since 1990, since last weekmonthyear; since I last saw him...) For :For + khoảng thời gian (for two days, for the pastlast two months, for the last two years ...). Already, just, yet, recently, lately, ever, never... This is the firstsecondthird ..... time. Dùng để diễn tảa. Một hành động vừa thực hiện xong so với hiện tại Ví dụ: She has just gone to the market. I have just signed on that contract.b. Kết quả hiện tại của một hành động quá khứ. Ví dụ: UK has lost the possession of Hong Kong. c. Một kinh nhgiệm nào đó. Ví dụ: I have been in Bangkok several times. d. Một việc đã xảy ra, nhưng còn tiếp tục. Ví dụ: I have taught English for more than 10 years. e. Việc sẽ hoàn thành ở tương lai; trước mệnh đề đó thường có: when, if, when, before, after, as soon as, etc. Ví dụ: He will return the book as soon as he has done with it. 5. Thời quá khứ hoàn thành: Dùng để chỉ một việc hoàn thành trước một thời gian nhất định ở quá khứ, hoặc trước khi một việc quá khứ khác bắt đầu.Ví dụ: Our children had all gone to sleep before I came home last night. When I came, she had left the house.  Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + had + P2 + (O) S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)P2= V+ed: động từ(Có quy tắc V+ed; Bất QT= cột 3 Bảng động từ Bất QT) O: tân ngữChú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân ngữ Phủ định S + had not + P2 + (O) Nghi vấn Had + S + P2 + (O)?Hadnt + S + P2 + (O)?(Had dùng cho tất cả các ngôi, số) Ví dụ tổng quát: 1 Khẳng định I had learnt English for four years before I went to Hanoi. 26 Phủ định He was very nervous because he hadnt flown before. He was very nervous because he had never flown before.had not = hadnt Nghi vấnHad he left when you arrived?Yes, he had.Hadnt he left when you arrived?Yes, he had.  Các trạng từ dùng trong thời QKHT: Before, after, never, ever, For + khoảng thời gian + beforeafter When S + Ved, S +had +P26. Thời tương lai hoàn thành: Dùng để chỉ một việc sẽ hoàn thành trước một thời gian nhất định ở tương lai, hoặc trước khi một việc khác bắt đầu.Ví dụ: I will have lived in this city for 10 years by the end of this year. She will have arrived in Paris, before you start.• Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + will have + P2 + (O) S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)P2= V+ed: động từ(Có quy tắc V+ed; Bất QT= cột 3 Bảng động từ Bất QT) O: tân ngữChú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân ngữ Phủ định S + will not have + P2 + (O) S + wont have + P2 + (O) Nghi vấn Will S +have + P2 + (O)?Wont S + have + P2 + (O)? 7. Thời hiện tại tiếp diễn: Dùng đểa. Chỉ một việc đang xảy ra ngay lúc nói chuyệnhiện hành.Ví dụ: I am reading an English book now.b. Chỉ việc xảy ra trong tương lai (khi có trạng từ chỉ tương lai). Ví dụ: I am going to call on Mr. John tomorrow. I am meeting her at the cinema tonight. Công thức: Khẳng địnhS + be + Ving + (O)S + be (To be) + Ving:I am dancing. Wetheyyou are dancing. Hesheit is dancing.S: chủ ngữ (chủ từ)be: is, are, am (tuỳ các ngôi thứ) Ving: động từ + đuôi ing O: tân ngữChú ý: Câu có thể có tân ngữ (O) hoặc không cần tân ngữ Phủ định S + be + not Ving + (O) 27 Nghi vấn Be + S + Ving + (O)?  Ving (Doing): Động từ +ING) visiting going, ending, walking, ...a. Nếu động từ có E câm ở cuối , ta bỏ E đi rồi mới thêm ING: work working drink drinking b. Nếu động từ ở cuối có phụ âm, và trước phụ âm mà có một nguyên âm, ta phải gấp đôi phụ âm rồi mới thêm ING: cut cutting run Situation Review of Children in ASEAN For every child Health, Education, Equality, Protection ADVANCE HUMANITY Situation Review of Children in ASEAN A report by UNICEF to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations December 2007 For every child Health, Education, Equality, Protection ADVANCE HUMANITY Cover photographs courtesy of UNICEF, East Asia and Pacific Regional Office © UNICEF, East Asia and Pacific Regional Office, 2007 Any part of this publication may be freely reproduced with the appropriate acknowledgement Design and layout: Keen Media (Thailand) Co., Ltd Printed in Thailand UNICEF East Asia Pacific Regional Office 19 Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200 Thailand Tel: (66 2) 356 9400 Fax: (66 2) 280 3563 E-mail: eapro@unicef.org Website: www.unicef.org/eapro ISBN: 978-974-685-089-6 FOREWORD This year marks an important milestone in the lives of our children Eighteen years ago, world leaders created a global treaty to recognize the rights of children everywhere Today, 18 years on, there is an entire generation of children who have grown up under the protection of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) For children in South-East Asia the commitments outlined in the CRC are starting to bear fruit Progress to guarantee every child’s right to survival, development, protection and participation has been made All 10 Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have ratified the CRC, and have started to align national laws, build stronger legal frameworks for children and establish and strengthen national institutions that deal with children’s issues Significant progress on the reduction of child mortality, increases in school enrolment, better laws to protect children and the improvement in children’s overall well being has been achieved Yet great challenges remain In spite of sustained economic growth in the region that has contributed to lifting many people out of poverty, not everyone is benefiting For many children – whether they are ethnic minorities, children of migrant workers, children living in underserved rural communities, or those crowded in urban shanty towns – the provision of quality social services and their protection from exploitation and violence is still a distant reality Emerging diseases like Avian Influenza (AI), the further spread of HIV and AIDS, and ongoing environmental disasters also threaten development achievements and pose great risk to children This document provides an overview of the situation of children in South-East Asia Divided into chapters focused on each of the key critical components to meeting our child rights obligations, it seeks to review the situation, highlight where progress has been made and illustrate what types of action can be taken to further accelerate results Along with the CRC, leaders from South-East Asia have committed themselves to achieving the global international development goals laid out in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and UNICEF’s World Fit for Children ASEAN’s Commitments for Children (2001), the series of Declaration on Co-operation in Youth Development and the Cebu Declaration on One Caring and Sharing Community (2007) underscore the region’s further commitment to meeting these development goals and promoting equity As a longstanding development partner to countries in South-East Asia, UNICEF remains committed to working with governments to provide the leadership, technical skills and guidance needed In addition to the ongoing work within countries, UNICEF and ASEAN collaboration during the regional Ministerial Consultations on Children, held biennially since 1991, has provided an important forum to address a wide range of children’s issues To make the CRC a reality for every child requires more than just political commitment We need to ensure the right policies and laws are in place, that they are enforced and operational, and the required resources are available to ensure every child’s rights are met CONTENTS FOREWORD INTRODUCTION CHILD SURVIVAL 10 Nutrition 12 Water, sanitation and hygiene 13 Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV 14 CHILD DEVELOPMENT 16 Early childhood education 16 Primary education 17 Secondary education 18 Adolescent development 19 CHILD PROTECTION 21 Violence against children 21 Trafficking, migration and exploitative child labour 23 Children deprived of their family environment 24 Children in conflict with the law 25 CHILD PARTICIPATION 26 CONCLUSION 27 INTRODUCTION An estimated 197 million children under the age of 18 are living in the member states of ASEAN.1 Today, these children are generally better off: healthier, more educated and safer than they ever have been in the past Over the last decade there has been a significant reduction in child mortality, increase in school enrolment and improvement in the quality of life for the majority of the population Political stability, economic growth and social investments in development have all contributed to these successes However, in common with global trends and combined with the region’s enormous economic, social and political diversity, progress is not even and pockets of exclusion remain There are three broad clusters of countries: those that have succeeded in meeting development goals and where, to a large extent, the challenges of development have been overcome; those that are making good progress and for which the goals for children are achievable by 2015; and those that still have a long way to go before being able to declare victory However, for the region as a whole to enjoy stability and prosperity, it is important that more is done to address disparities both between and within countries This requires a concerted effort, especially to reach the most marginalized and excluded people For children the implications of disparity and inequity can be severe, exacerbating the vulnerability of children to malnutrition, ill health, exclusion from education, neglect and all forms of exploitation In this region, the poorest and most vulnerable people can belong to a number of groups They may confront geographical disparity, living in remote and under served areas; they may come from an ethnic minority, such as migrant workers, refugees or displaced people; or they may be living with disabilities or HIV and AIDS and may confront discrimination in access to services Quite often little is known about the situations of these groups The causes of disparity in the region are many and complex Four key factors that can perpetuate existing disparities or create new ones are rapid economic change due to globalization; unregulated economic growth with low priority given to distribution; rapid decentralization that leaves local governments without adequate resources and capacity to deliver services; and unregulated privatization of key services – health, education and water Already governments in this region have realized the importance of tackling these disparities and have sought more inclusive and targeted approaches to reach those most in need A critical step to better addressing the problem must be the collection of disaggregated data on key social development indicators Better quantitative and qualitative data, and analysis with a focus on the poor and most vulnerable are critical for informing policy-making processes and developing appropriate programmes.2 Along with better disaggregated data collection systems, is the need for more inclusive civil registration systems This region has made enormous strides in increasing the number of children registered at birth Birth registration is not only every child’s right, it is also an important planning tool that can help countries to understand what types of social investments will be needed to meet the needs of their population The challenge remains, especially as inter-regional mobility increases, to ensure that both laws and services are available and inclusive to everyone In many countries, the good news is that child-friendly laws and policy frameworks are in place Most countries have ratified and adopted international laws and conventions that seek to protect the rights of women and children Much work has been done to revise national laws to confirm to the CRC and other international conventions The challenge of how to enforce these laws and implement the policies so they can benefit everyone still remains The State of the World’s Children 2007: Women and children, the double dividend of gender equality, UNICEF, New York, 2007 With UNICEF support, many governments have already adopted a form of DevInfo, a software system that can help to centralize data collection Cambodia, CAMInfo; Indonesia’s MDG data is maintained in the UNICEF office, Lao PDR, ChildInfo; Myanmar, Myinfo; the Philippines, ChildInfo; Thailand, Thai language DevInfo/TPD Info; and Viet Nam, ChildInfo/VietInfo ASEAN Situation Review of Children One way to better guarantee public policy measures will work is to ensure adequate social sector financing Sadly, despite the high rates of economic growth, social spending has remained inadequate For example, the region’s spending on public health services remains one of the lowest in the world, while the out-of-pocket payments for medical services is one of the highest in the world, often forcing already poor families into debt On average the region spends only one third to one half of what is invested in other middle- to low-income regions on health care, which is far below the world average.3 In addition to the potential for unrest and social tension caused by disparity, there are three crosscutting issues that, unless properly addressed, continue to pose threats to the region’s development ■ Migration Globally, more and more people are moving in search of livelihoods and new opportunities South-East Asia is no exception as the region experiences movement of people both between countries in the region and beyond to service demand in the Middle East, Europe and the United States Safe, well-regulated migration that guarantees workers’ rights can bring enormous prosperity to individual families as well as to communities and countries Remittances have proved a very important source of foreign investment Yet when not well-managed, migration can put workers, as well as their families, at great risk of exploitation and abuse For children, the dangers of being lured into a dangerous or exploitative work environment or trafficked into child labour or the commercial sex industry are very real For children of migrant workers, the impact can be mixed Evidence from the Philippines, along with research from Indonesia and Thailand, suggests that, compared with non-migrants, the children of migrants can benefit economically and often have access to better health care and education back in their own communities Remittances sent by parents who have migrated are often an important source of income for the families left behind.4 But there are also negative consequences for the children left behind Deprived of parental supervision and support they may develop social problems In the Philippines, for example, the children of migrant mothers reported feeling angry, lonely and afraid For those that bring or have children with them while abroad, the threat of their children being excluded from any services and potentially being thrown out of the country is common In Thailand, although migrant children can access public schools, only 14 per cent (13,000) of the 93,000 registered migrant children under the age of 15 enrolled in school due to the pressure to work.5 ■ The Challenge of HIV and AIDS Overall in Asia, an estimated 4.9 million people were living with HIV in 2007, including the 440,000 people who became newly infected in the past year In Asia, national HIV prevalence is highest in South-East Asia, with a wide variation in epidemic trends between different countries While the epidemics in Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand all show declines in HIV prevalence, those in Indonesia (especially in the Papua province) and Viet Nam are growing Key drivers are use of contaminated injecting equipment, unprotected paid sex and, to a lesser extent, unprotected sex between men A Region Where Every Child Counts UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005; According to WHO’s World Health Statistics on Health Financing, OECD countries spend a larger share of their gross domestic product on health, spending on average more than 11%, compared with 4.7% for countries in WHO’s African and South-East Asian regions This translates to per capita spending of about US$ 3,170 in OECD countries compared with US$ 36 in countries in the African and South-East Asian regions, which are much poorer Linking this spending to epidemiology, the figure shows that although poorer WHO regions, such as Africa and South-East Asia, account for the largest share of the global burden of disease (more than 50% of global disability-adjusted life years lost) and 37% of the world’s population, they spend about 2% of global resources on health The Western Pacific Region, excluding Australia, Japan, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea, accounts for 24% of the world’s population (which is dominated by China), about 18% of the global burden of disease but only 2% of the world’s health resources The State of the World’s Children 2007: Women and children, the double dividend of gender equality, UNICEF, New York, 2007, p 47 Ibid., para 17 CHILD DEVELOPMENT For children to develop to their full potential, their rights to education, to play, and to emotional and spiritual support are all important components Education remains at the forefront as one of the most important ways to contribute to a child’s development, as well as being a critical investment for a country’s future South-East Asia has made impressive progress over the past 30 years to increase primary school enrolment All countries should reach the MDG target for achieving universal primary education Despite this success, the challenges to strengthen early childhood education, improve the quality of primary school education and increase completion rates, as well as increase secondary school enrolment, remain for most of the countries in the region In addition, a small but significant number of children continue to be deprived of their right to basic education These include children from ethnic minorities, children in remote areas, migrant children, children of internally displaced people (IDPs); and children with disabilities.19 Early childhood education Early childhood education has proven to be an important investment in laying the foundation for improved performance throughout the school cycle It also contributes to the reduction of early drop-out rates Yet in this region, progress toward getting children in suitable programmes has been slow In countries in South-East Asia where data is available, net pre-primary enrolment is estimated to have only increased to 35 per cent from 31 percent in 1999 Within that regional average, there is enormous divergence between countries At one end of the spectrum, Thailand and Malaysia lead the way with enrolment at approximately 80 per cent, while in other countries, enrolment is less that 20 per cent One of the challenges in tracking early childhood education rates is that many of the schools are privately run, and often the EMIS monitoring systems not collect private sources of information The other related challenge then is for governments to set up systems to monitor quality and also ensure equitable access, especially for poor families This disparity in access to early childhood learning can further entrench the disadvantages for children whose parents are unable to afford to send them As a good public investment with a high rate of return, there is an urgent need to ensure more public investment in this area to guarantee increased and equitable access Figure 4: Net enrolment ration in pre-primary education, 2004 100 85 75 Percentage 80 60 43 40 31 22 20 Cambodia Lao PDR Thailand Malaysia Viet Nam Philippines Indonesia Source: Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007, UNESCO 19 A Region Where Every Child Counts: Education, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p 16 Child development Primary education While about 92 per cent of primary school age children in South-East Asia enrol in school, only 85 per cent complete their primary education Although on track, both Lao PDR and Myanmar must increase rates of enrolment if they are to meet the MDG goal.20 The good news is that the gender gap is narrowing as equal numbers of boys and girls are entering the school system To make sure the girls stay at school, it is important that efforts are made to address gender roles and stereotypes, as well as provide the sanitation services they need The quality of education still needs improvement This may also act to boost completion rates Poor teaching training, low teacher salaries, lack of textbooks and basic teaching aids, rote learning and poorly designed exam systems all contribute to poor outcomes and dissatisfaction For example, it is estimated that less than 80 per cent of the teachers in Myanmar and the Lao PDR are trained A 2004 government report from the Philippines indicated that the country has a shortage of over 50,000 classrooms, 34.7 million textbooks and 38,535 teachers It predicts that the situation will get worse in the coming years, as student populations are expected to rise 2.8 per cent annually.21 A number of countries in the region have initiated the child friendly school model, which aims to achieve Education for All by systematically addressing quality and making the curriculum relevant This model incorporates standards that promote inclusion and gender-sensitivity, and provides school-based health and nutrition services, as well as safe water and suitable sanitation facilities into national policies or education-sector investment plans.22 In addition to improving quality, in order to reach every child, especially the remaining per cent who are missing out, targeted interventions, appropriate policies and increased financial investments are needed Most countries still not have policies that allow children to start schooling in their own language by learning basic literacy in their mother tongue Research indicates that these types of bilingual learning programmes can help students to better master the national language than those who are forced to learn it when they enter grade one Such approaches, along with expanded early childhood education support, can greatly contribute to a reduction of repetition and drop-out rates There are some positive developments as some countries seek policies aimed at reaching those who are still missing out, especially ethnic minority and disabled children Brunei and Malaysia have model programmes that target children with disabilities While Cambodia, for example, is investing in a bilingual programme to allow ethnic minority children to commence preschool in their mother tongue and spend the first few years of primary school learning the national language as a subject, while at the same time studying math, social studies and reading in their own language.23 Ultimately, it is important that education is a fundamental right Education as free and compulsory is a basic tenet of the CRC Yet in many countries, school fees still pose a barrier to poor families and families with large numbers of children The indirect costs of schooling, such the cost of uniforms, transport, contributions to the school management and maintenance, can also place severe hardship on poor families and further contributes to inequity between the rich and the poor Ministries of Education, in collaboration with the Ministries of Finance, need to explore innovative uses of cash transfer, subsidies and other incentives to reach those most in need 20 Gender Achievements and Prospects in Education: GAP report part one, ‘Myanmar (1.3 per cent) and the Lao PDR (1.2 per cent),’ UNICEF, New York, 2005, p 50 21 Gender Achievements and Prospects in Education: GAP report part one, UNICEF, New York, 2005, p 51 22 Child-Friendly Schools: Quality of education, UNICEF, p.1 23 A Region Where Every Child Counts: Education, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p 17 ASEAN Situation Review of Children Figure 5: Net enrolment ratio in primary education, 2006 or latest year available 99 100 96 94 93 93 92 91 90 85 84 Myanmar Thailand Lao PDR Percentage 80 60 40 20 Brunei Singapore Darussalam Philippines Indonesia Viet Nam Malaysia Cambodia Sources: Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN in Figures 2003 (Brunei); Asian Development Bank Basic Statistics 2006; Developing Member Countries, May 2006 (Singapore); UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007 (Philippines, Viet Nam and Lao PDR); BPS-Statistics Indonesia Welfare Statistics, December 2004; Ministry of Education of Malaysia; Education Management Information System 2005/2006 (Cambodia); UNESCO/UIS database: Enrolment ratios by ISCED level (Myanmar); UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Updated: 2005-12-16, http://www.uis.unesco.org (Thailand) Table 2: Ratio of girls to boys in primary education Data Value Time Period Myanmar 1.01 2002 Malaysia 1.00 2002 Philippines 0.99 2002 Indonesia 0.98 2002 Singapore 0.97 2002 Thailand 0.96 2002 Viet Nam 0.93 2002 Cambodia 0.90 2005/2006 Lao PDR 0.87 2002 Sources: Asian Development Bank Basic Statistics 2006; Developing Member Countries, May 2006; Ministry of Education Education Management Information System 2001 and 2005/2006 (Cambodia) Secondary education On average, in the region, enrolment in secondary school remains low at only 58 per cent, just a four percentage increase from the 1999 average Many children are still missing out It is estimated that currently around 60 million children in the region not attend school after finishing basic education Moreover, when the average gross enrolment is compared to sub-national figures, there are even greater levels of disparity.24 In addition to getting more children into secondary school to complete their education, there is an urgent need to tackle gender disparities, which are far greater than in primary school In some countries in the region, not just girls are being discriminated against, but an increasing number of boys are dropping out or not making the transition from primary school In Cambodia, for example, net enrolment in secondary school is 19 per cent for females and 30 per cent for males In Viet Nam, where enrolment rates are high for both sexes, girls from ethnic minorities constitute a particularly vulnerable group Girls are not necessarily at a disadvantage everywhere Fewer boys than girls actually go to school – especially at secondary level – in the Philippines, Mongolia and Malaysia One reason for this is that boys are often co-opted to work full-time to earn money, putting an end to their formal learning In the Philippines, 65 per cent of girls attend secondary school, against 54 per cent of boys 24 A Region Where Every Child Counts: Education, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p 18 Child development Even in countries where girls and boys are close to enjoying equal educational opportunities, empowerment is still often only one-sided, with girls commonly side-tracked Gender inequality in schools is manifested in many ways, including: an absence of security, particularly for girls, in commuting to school; school designs that lack separate latrines for girls and boys; gender bias in textbooks and teaching materials that portray girls in domestic environments with limited skills; and stereotyping by teachers of gender roles in society These are often factors in forcing girls to drop out of primary school, and, even if they complete a full course, girls often face greater challenges than boys in advancing to secondary education For teachers, gender inequalities are also entrenched in the work place Male and female teachers face differences in how they participate in school management decisions as well as in their working conditions, status, training and the resources earmarked for them In many countries, men predominate in higher-level teaching positions In Cambodia, at primary level, approximately 41 per cent of teachers are female, while in upper secondary level, only 27 per cent are females.25 In the last decade, the global focus of governments and development partners has been on achieving universal primary school enrolment Yet in South-East Asia, it is imperative that this commitment expand to secondary education, especially if countries are to be able to meet the demands of the global economy In many countries, facilities have not expanded, teachers remain in short supply and generally there are too few places for all the children who would like to attend With more students completing primary school and seeking entrance into secondary education, a massive investment, at least a double in funding, is needed to ensure the facilities, teachers and materials are all available Figure 6: Net enrolment ratio in secondary education, 2006 or latest year available 100 93 85 Percentage 80 70 65 65 55 60 47 40 37 37 Myanmar Lao PDR 31 20 Singapore Brunei Darussalam Malaysia Indonesia Viet Nam Thailand Philippines Cambodia Sources: UNESCO Global Education Digest 2006 (Lao PDR, Viet Nam); Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN in Figures 2003 (Singapore, Brunei Darussalam); BPS-Statistics Indonesia Welfare Statistics, December 2004 (Indonesia); UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report 2003/2004 (Thailand); Department of Education, Basic Education Information System 2003 (Philippines); UNESCO/UIS database: Enrolment ratios by ISCED level (Myanmar); Education Management Information System 2005/2006 (Cambodia) Adolescent development Adolescents form a large part of the population in South-East Asia They are healthier, better educated and have greater economic prospects than previous generations of young people At the same time they are facing numerous challenges and risks as a result of rapid economic change, the spread of HIV/AIDS, exploitation and accidents.26 Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood during which young people go through many physical, intellectual and social changes During this stage in the life cycle, a young person’s social, economic, legal and political status is transformed Adolescence is a time of preparation for adulthood It is a period of capacity development and one of increased vulnerability and risk, especially for girls Many of the problems adolescents are experiencing are related to their relative lack of power Legally, politically, socially and economically, adolescents have less power than adults This makes them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, reduces their ability to demand better quality education, and limits their livelihood opportunities 25 UNGEI Roundtable Discussion, Press release, June 2007 26 Meyers, Cliff, Greg Carl, Carmen Madriñan, Junita Upadhyay, Joachim Theis (2005, March) Adolescent Development: Realizing their Potential, a discussion paper, p.1 19 ASEAN Situation Review of Children Young people are one of society’s most valuable resources Governments, institutions, communities and families have an obligation to support adolescents and to ensure that they have the opportunities and capacities, the protection from risk and vulnerability, and the power to make the transition to become productive adult members of society Effective adolescent policies need to recognize adolescents as a distinct population group with particular needs and capacities that are different from those of younger children and from those of adults Particular attention has to be paid to disadvantaged and marginalized adolescents Youth policies and programmes need to take a positive approach towards adolescents and to harness their energies as a positive force for change in their own development and in the development of their communities Experience has shown that negative and punitive approaches to adolescent risk behaviour rarely work Instead, there is a need to reduce risk factors and vulnerability and to strengthen protective and positive factors affecting adolescents and their behaviour Effective approaches must address the real issues adolescents are facing They have to be based on detailed research, thorough analysis and quality data There is a need for a better understanding of the psychosocial factors that affect adolescent development This includes a meaningful dialogue with adolescents on questions about their lives and open debate on sensitive areas, such as sexual and reproductive health and drug use Large amounts of public resources are wasted on youth programmes that address the wrong problems or are poorly designed There is a need to evaluate existing programmes and policies to find out why they are not working in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of existing approaches Many existing programmes for adolescents take a vertical approach by addressing isolated symptoms Experience has shown that narrowly focused programmes may not work There is a need for more intersectoral approaches to address multiple issues, such as unemployment, protection and health Given the diverse socio-economic and cultural conditions in South-East Asia, youth policies and adolescent programming approaches have to respond to the specific circumstances faced by young people in each country Universal strategies alone are unlikely to work One successful example of a concept that has been established in a number of countries in the region is Life Skills-Based Education (LSBE), which allows young people to acquire knowledge and to develop attitudes and skills that support the adoption of positive behaviours – i.e to protect themselves from HIV and AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases and to assist them in making the transition from adolescence to adulthood Different approaches to offering life skills Building on past collaborations, Cambodia and World Education International implements a Life Skills for HIV and AIDS Education Program (LSHE) Since 1998, Myanmar and UNICEF has implemented the SHAPE programme, in which teachers are trained on a range of health and social issues, including HIV and AIDS, personal hygiene, nutrition and drugs They then pass this knowledge on to their students Thailand works with UNICEF in training peer-to-peer educators in the area of life skills and HIV and AIDS education, in addition to including the subject in the national school curriculum Out-of-school and in school rural children and adolescents in Malaysia will have access to youth centres in rural districts in Kedah and Perlis, in partnership with UNICEF The centres offer children and young people a safe space to meet and access peer-to-peer support for life-skills and information on HIV and AIDS 20 CHILD PROTECTION Although each country in South-East Asia is unique, there are children in all countries who cannot have their right to grow up in a safe and protected environment fulfilled Child trafficking, exploitative child labour, children deprived of their family environment, children living on the streets, children in conflict with the law, commercial sexual exploitation of children and violence against children are some of the problems Inadequate child protection measures increase a child’s vulnerability These inadequate measures include insufficient government commitment towards compliance with the CRC; justice systems that fail to enforce special provisions of the existing legal mechanisms to protect children; inadequate knowledge within communities of human rights and of the avenues for legal redress; weak welfare services to protect children and their families from violence; and lack of social support groups and organizations for monitoring, protection and awareness raising UNICEF defines child protection as “strengthening of country environments, capacities and responses to prevent and protect children from violence, exploitation, abuse, neglect and the effects of conflict.” If these systems and mechanisms are not properly established and maintained, then children are robbed of the opportunity to reach their full potential This, in turn, can create larger social tensions and hinder a country’s ability to develop In South-East Asia, there has been considerable progress in creating enabling policy environments for child protection laws, agreements and programmes For example, in many countries, significant progress has been made in increasing birth registration and building better civil registration systems A number of cross-border agreements on trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation have been signed and are starting to show results And many countries have developed mandatory reporting mechanisms for child abuse and domestic violence Historically, efforts have focused on dealing with specific problems as they are identified and then specific responses are developed to address them Experience has demonstrated, though, that the best and most cost-effective approach is to build comprehensive systems that seek to prevent problems, as well as provide services to those affected if problems occur Building a better social protection system is complex, and often involves changing deep-rooted attitudes and perceptions of children To bring about change involves a wide array of actors and is influenced by the power dynamics within society Violence against children Child abuse or violence against children includes the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against a child, by an individual or group, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity.27 Children experience physical, psychological and sexual violence in all settings – the community, institutions and home Increased attention to the issue has resulted from the United Nations Secretary General’s (UNSG) Study on violence against children, in which many ASEAN members participated The core message of the report is that no violence against children is justifiable and all violence against children is preventable 27 Krug, E.G., et al (Eds.), World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005, p 21 ASEAN Situation Review of Children Home Families are the fundamental units of society best able to protect children from violence At the same time children are most vulnerable to violence at the hands of family members and guardians In many countries, children traditionally have a subordinate status in the family hierarchy and are not expected to question or react to parents When this hierarchy operates in combination with one or more of a range of other factors (including alcohol abuse, poverty, unemployment and financial strain) domestic violence in the home can become a significant problem In spite of a somewhat limited sample, the UNICEF regional opinion survey among children, Speaking Out (2001), indicates that 23 per cent of the children in the region say their parents beat them when they something wrong Small-scale studies done by UNICEF Lao PDR and UNICEF Cambodia found that when parents did not hit their children they shouted at them and called them humiliating names The use of physical disciplinary measures in the homes is explicitly prohibited by law only in the Philippines.28 Schools Research shows that when physical punishment is used at home and in the community, it is often used at school Many ASEAN members are moving toward the prohibition of corporal punishment Ending corporal punishment would create more enabling environments for behavioural and attitude change in schools and homes Corporal punishment in schools is explicitly prohibited by law in Cambodia, Thailand, the Philippines and Viet Nam In the Lao PDR corporal punishment is prohibited by Ministry of Education guidelines.29 Youth violence Youth violence and bullying is just beginning to emerge as an issue in the Philippines, Thailand and other countries in the region In a survey in the Lao PDR, 98 per cent of girls and 100 per cent of boys said they had witnessed bullying in schools and, while the precise nature or seriousness of the bullying was not clear, the victims were mainly girls or children from ethnic minorities Bullying is also distinguished from other forms of violence because it represents a pattern of behaviour rather than an isolated event The literature also reveals how almost all bullying is sexual- or gender-based This has changed the way bullying is perceived, so that responses can target the pattern.30 Sexual assault Sexual assault at school is more prevalent than is reported due to stigma, fear of reprisal, shame and a lack of confidential reporting mechanisms A UNICEF-sponsored study in Indonesia (2002) revealed a high incidence of sexual and mental abuse in schools.31 In Thailand, the Children and Family Protection Centre of the Ministry of Education notes that every week at least one school teacher sexually abuses a student.32 In 2001, a Human Rights Watch study on gender-based violence in schools found alarming levels of sexual violence against schoolgirls, and a frightening degree of tolerance and collusion by teachers Such evidence all too often results in pressure on girls to leave school.33 Community When visualizing a community, one must not only think of physical space, but also the social environment and accompanying norms, beliefs and practices.34 In schools the same adult-child power dynamics that affect violence at home also affect violence at school in educational settings 28 The Regional Assessment on Violence against Children in East Asia and the Pacific Region 2005, UNICEF EAPRO, 2005, Bangkok, p 29 Ibid., p.9 30 ‘The United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children (2005) Regional Desk Review: East Asia and the Pacific,’ as cited in UNSG, UN World Report on Violence Against Children, 2006, New York, p 123 31 ‘Sexual Abuse, Sexual Exploitation and CSEC in Indonesia,’ UNICEF Indonesia, Jan.-April 2000 32 ‘Sexual Abuse of Children is Rife in Schools,’ Bangkok Post, June 2003' as cited in The Regional Assessment on Violence against Children in East Asia and the Pacific Region 2005, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p 12 33 Pinheiro, Paulo Sérgio, UNSG World Report on Violence Against Children, 2006, New York, pp 156-153 34 ‘Stop Violence against Children in Communities,’ UNICEF Malaysia, 2007 22 Child protection The often high status of teachers, who in many cases belong to more influential social groups, sometimes prevent families from bringing charges against teachers in abuse cases In some ASEAN states, children living on the streets face gang violence, police brutality, harassment from extortionists and arrest for petty crimes The UNICEF country offices in Cambodia, the Lao PDR and the Philippines ranked violence against children on the streets among their main areas of concern.35 Institutions Some general surveys on orphans and children in alternative forms of care have been undertaken in Cambodia, the Philippines, Viet Nam and Myanmar In Lao PDR, a 2003 study on alternative forms of care for orphaned and abandoned children by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare and UNICEF considered issues related to abuse and maltreatment.36 In Indonesia, the Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand, violence against children in detention centres and/or prisons and by police are ranked as main areas of concern by UNICEF country offices Thirty per cent of the children who participated in a study of children in the Lao PDR detention centres reported that they had been punished at least once while in detention Inhumane and unsanitary living conditions have been reported in many countries, including Cambodia and the Philippines; and in spite of legal prohibitions, children and youth are not always separated from adults, as is the case in the Lao PDR and Cambodia.37 This indicates a need for social services that support ratifications of the CRC, particularly in the area of reporting and response Reporting mechanisms Recent small-scale studies on violence against children by UNICEF Lao PDR and UNICEF Cambodia found that official reporting mechanisms in school and institutions are lacking or underused A joint effort between the Cambodian government, civil-society and UNICEF Cambodia is underway to establish a free three-digit Child Helpline which will be staffed with counsellors 24/7 This hotline is in addition to the services provided by the Cambodian National Police Hotline and ChildSafe Helpline, which provides street children a number to call and seek immediate assistance, and also relies on the hotel and tourism industry as partners in reporting and intervening in violence against children on the streets This is a vital child protection service, as in Phnom Penh an estimated 1,000 to 1,500 children live on the streets with no family contact.38 Even though children working and living on the streets in not a new condition, it is an issue for which ASEAN States and partner agencies have not yet formed a comprehensive response mechanism However, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand are working with UN agencies and NGOs, such as World Vision and Friends International, to respond to the needs of children on the street Trafficking, migration and exploitative child labour While exact figures are impossible to confirm, it is estimated that around one third of the global trafficking in women and children occurs within or from South-East Asia.39 In South-East Asia, migration often leads to trafficking as children, young people and women cross borders in search of better employment Migration is often undertaken without enough preparation and many women and children find themselves in exploitative situations en route or when they reach their final destination Cambodia and Indonesia have large numbers of children working and are partnering with ILO-IPEC to eradicate the worst forms of child labour by addressing child labour on the whole through measures such as passing laws for free and compulsory education for children 35 The Regional Assessment on Violence against Children in East Asia and the Pacific Region 2005, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p.11 36 A Region Where Every Child Counts: Child protection, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p.9 37 Ibid., p.10 38 Statistics 2004, UNICEF Cambodia, Phnom Penh 39 ‘Seventh East Asia and Pacific Ministerial Consultation on Children 23-25th March 2005: Key regional facts on child protection,’ as cited in UNICEF, A Region Where Every Child Counts: Child protection, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p 23 ASEAN Situation Review of Children As trafficking of women and children is most serious in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), where borders are easily crossed and economic disparities are pronounced, ASEAN governments are focusing more on regional cooperation in these countries Ministers from the Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam and China signed the first Regional Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Cooperation against Trafficking in Persons in the Greater Mekong Sub-region This MoU addresses prevention, repatriation, reintegration, child sensitive investigation techniques, and the extradition and prosecution of traffickers and solicitors of trafficked children Thailand and Cambodia signed a MoU on Bilateral Co-operation for Eliminating Trafficking in Children and Women and Assisting Victims of Trafficking in 2003 Children deprived of their family environment Domestic violence, rural poverty leading to urban migration and urban poverty forcing children to work are factors that contribute to children living and working on the streets Fees for public school, which include registration, uniforms, supplies and private tuition, prohibit many poor families from sending their children to school In addition, natural disasters, conflicts and the rise in HIV and AIDS have resulted in many single and double orphans Orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) require special protection by the State, and are entitled to it according to the CRC.40 In Cambodia at least 8,674 children lived in residential care; 43 per cent placed there due to poverty, 40 per cent due to orphanhood and 11 per cent were abandoned (2006).41 Cambodia has been proactive in addressing the needs of OVCs The country recently (2006) passed laws on minimum standards of alternative care, mechanisms to report violence in residential and non-residential care facilities, and procedures for admitting babies into orphanages Best practices in alternative care The Convention provides that children without parental care are entitled to special protection by the State The Committee prefers foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law and adoption over institutional care However, there is a growing concern of reported labour exploitation of some foster children With that said, there are good models of alternative care that ASEAN members are implementing throughout the region: ■ In Jakarta, Indonesia, one government-run institution is a model for an institutional setting because it serves both mother and child at the same time Mothers affected by domestic violence or trafficking receive shelter, with their young children (less than 7-years-old), for six months The institution is a cottage-type home, clean, provides a place for children to play and is well-staffed ■ In Malaysia, Sg Buloh, Selangor, the family/cottage system of children’s homes represents an innovative approach to caring for children in need who have no relatives or families to care for them Children from 8- to 17-years old are referred to the system, which involves creating a family-like institution within the community and gives child residents the opportunity to grow up in a family environment according to their own ethnic, cultural and religious practices ■ In Yangon, Myanmar a complex houses children from a few months- to 16- years old in small familylike cottages Vulnerable children who live in the community but not at the complex also receive assistance The complex receives private sector funding and is registered with the Department of Social Welfare ■ Thailand’s Department of Social Welfare supervises 1,143 foster families that primarily comprise children who are related and orphaned The department supervises and subsidizes some foster families who receive cash allowances with basic necessities for unrelated children 40 A Region Where Every Child Counts: Child protection, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2005, p.21 41 Orphans and Vulnerable Children: Child protection and HIV/AIDS, UNICEF Cambodia, Phnom Penh, 2007 24 Child protection Children in conflict with the law The term ‘children in conflict with the law’ (CICL) refers to anyone under 18 who comes into contact with the justice system as a result of being suspected or accused of committing an offence In the last decade, the number of CICL has increased significantly in almost all countries in the region Most CICL commit petty crimes such as vagrancy, truancy, begging or alcohol use Some of these infractions are known as ‘status offences’ and are not considered criminal when committed by adults, which indicates that children are not given the equal rights in the justice system as adults.42 A number of ASEAN members including Cambodia, Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia are reviewing existing mechanisms for child protection In Thailand the Amended Criminal Procedure Code (1999) allows for better treatment of children in a non-threatening judicial environment, which includes provisions for children to be interrogated in a private setting, separate from adults, in the presence of psychologists or social workers and other persons requested by the child In Cambodia, a juvenile justice law, complying with international standards, has been drafted by the Cambodian National Council for Children and is being finalized by the Ministry of Justice.43 In the Philippines the new Juvenile Justice Bill raises the age of criminal responsibility from 9-years-old to 12-years-old, explicitly prohibits the detention of children with adults, and calls for offenders of petty or victimless crimes to be redirected from the courts to diversion programmes 42 United Nations Children’s Fund, Child Protection: Information Sheets: Children in conflict with the law, UNICEF New York, 2006, p.19 43 United Nations Children’s Fund, Child Protection: Working toward justice for children, UNICEF Cambodia, Phnom Penh, 2007 25 CHILD PARTICIPATION Article 12 of the CRC affirms that children should be listened to on any matter that concerns them and their views be given due consideration in accordance with their age and maturity Participation is a basic civil right, which includes the right to information, to expression, to opinions and thoughts, to decision-making, to form and join associations, to identity and to privacy In South-East Asia, children’s participation has been supported through active- and student-centred learning methods in child-friendly schools, peer education for HIV prevention and health promotion, children’s involvement in research, consultations and conferences, youth journalism, youth clubs and councils A few countries in the region have begun to develop national policies for child and youth participation In many cases, however, children’s participation activities are add-ons to existing programmes and typically involve only a small proportion of relatively well-off children There are significant benefits to a society where adults take children seriously, listen to them, develop their skills to be creative and independent thinkers, build their citizenship skills and encourage their ability to take responsibility Children with access to information about health and sexuality are better able to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies, sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV Children at home, in schools, and/or institutions who have access to effective complaints mechanisms are less likely to be abused Child workers who form or join associations are better able to protect themselves from exploitation and abuse Children who learn and practice citizenship rights and responsibilities tend to become adults who are active citizens exercising their rights and responsibilities Investing in well-informed, aware and educated citizens has benefits for economic growth A smarter workforce is a stronger workforce A stronger workforce produces a stronger economy A stronger economy reduces poverty Active citizenship builds trust, responsibility and reduces violence Without opportunities for productive civic engagement, young people’s frustrations may erupt into violent behaviour and lead to economic and social instability Children’s civil rights and active citizenship are essential for the achievement of children’s rights to survival, development and protection These have to be integral parts of programmes and policies promoting children’s health, education and protection Practical approaches have to be developed to ensure that public decisions at community and national levels are informed and influenced by children’s views The progressive realization of children’s civil rights requires a long-term vision and a plan with concrete benchmarks for achieving this vision Parents, teachers, community leaders, government departments and the media have responsibilities to promote children’s participation and to ensure that children have a greater share in the development of their communities For example, Thailand and the Philippines have adopted student-centred teaching methods and life skills-based teaching approaches that increase and expand the involvement of adolescents in student councils, school management meetings, in clubs and extra-curricular activities, in child-to-child outreach and action research, and in documentation and advocacy This is a key dimension within the Child Friendly School framework, which is now being applied to secondary schools in several countries across the region While elective courses are possible, few countries allow decentralized production of course content and materials for secondary education Viet Nam has sub-national ‘ethnic minority materials development centres’ which produce curricula and materials for primary schools and non-formal courses Provincial education offices in Thailand are equipped to develop and produce ‘localized’ curricula for formal and non-formal courses School clubs, extra-curricular activities and youth clubs in the community have been initiated successfully throughout the region Some examples of innovative youth clubs in the region include the Young Journalist group in Viet Nam, the Thai Youth News network in Thailand, Kids News Network (KNN) in the Philippines and a Young Journalist club in Cambodia There are also examples of adolescents being organized into ‘writers’ workshops’, writing groups, poetry and music competitions, with the publication and dissemination of materials between schools and regions 26 CONCLUSION ASEAN has an important role to play in the region, and can and has already played an influential role in issues related to children and women As a regional body, ASEAN has made various commitments that are relevant to the survival, development and protection of children including: ■ The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Plan of Action includes provisions for “building a community of caring societies to address the issues of poverty, equity and human development.” In order to achieve this goal, the welfare of children needs to be promoted by safeguarding their rights, ensuring their survival and full development, and protecting them against abuse, neglect and violence ■ This commitment is in keeping with the Declaration on the Commitments for Children in ASEAN, adopted in 2001 by ASEAN ministers responsible for social welfare, and reiterates the region’s commitment to promote regional cooperation for the survival, development, protection and participation of children in ASEAN countries These ideals and commitments are embodied in the ASEAN Plan of Action for Children, adopted in December 1993 ■ Improvements in data availability have called attention to some serious and previously hidden aspects of gender disparities, including trafficking of young girls and socially pervasive violence against women In 1998, through the Hanoi Plan of Action, members of the ASEAN themselves vowed to “actively pursue efforts to implement policies and initiatives both at national and regional levels to fight growing trends in the trafficking of women and children.” Subsequent initiatives to address this issue have emerged from the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Organised Crime and the ASEAN Sub-Committee on Women (ASW) ■ The increase of HIV and AIDS, amongst women and children in particular, was addressed in the ASEAN Declaration on HIV and AIDS adopted at the 2001 Seventh ASEAN Summit Paragraph 12 stresses that “gender equality and the empowerment of women are fundamental elements in the reduction of the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV and AIDS, and that youth are especially vulnerable to the spread of the pandemic and account for over 50 per cent of new infections.”44 ■ ASEAN, UNAIDS and UNICEF are working to implement the ASEAN Working Programme on HIV and AIDS Across the region, prevention and protection programmes are being scaled up to reach the most vulnerable people HIV- and AIDS-related services and STI treatment are becoming more accessible and more inclusive More countries are adopting a holistic ‘continuum of care’ approach for people with HIV and AIDS and their families, integrating formal services with community-level care and support ■ In response to the growing numbers of natural disasters, the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) was strengthened in 2003 with the elevation of the experts group into a full-fledged committee The ACDM consists of heads of national agencies responsible for disaster management of ASEAN Member Countries The ACDM assumes overall responsibility for coordinating and implementing the ASEAN Regional Programme on Disaster Management (ARPDM) a mechanism offering an increasingly important tool for cooperation and collaboration among ASEAN member states in disaster-risk reduction An agenda for moving forward Looking ahead, the member states of ASEAN have many opportunities to further fulfill their child rights responsibilities in this region There are though a number of challenges that need to be overcome both to seek that every child’s basic rights are met and also to sustain the progress of the past few decades In general despite the success in many countries, there are still a number of sectors that require particular attention These areas include maternal mortality, sanitation, early childhood development and nutrition, which remain enormous development challenges in many countries and also require increased community participation in their delivery 44 Alternative Care for Children without Primary Caregivers in Tsunami-Affected Countries, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2006, p 20 27 ASEAN Situation Review of Children Across the region, to realize all children rights, governments will have to remain committed to reducing disparities and improving equity A critical component will be increasing financial and human resources and developing specially tailored programmes to reach under-served areas and vulnerable groups The unit cost of these types of targeted investments is likely to be higher than those for the more easily accessible groups in well-served areas Yet as a critical investment for children, it is also important to appreciate that these will lay the foundation for a more prosperous society for everyone Already the region has a wealth of experience, resources and goodwill to address children’s issues Many countries in South-East Asia have pioneered a number of good practices in the social sector and in child-related areas Now, the challenge remains to better document these experiences and share them in a more systematic way so they can be replicated and adapted in different settings ASEAN may wish to consider the establishment of a centre for research on child development that could act as a clearing house for documenting and sharing best practices from the region In addition to sharing best practices and experiences, the centre could also seek to facilitate better data collection, research and analysis on the most underserved areas and populations 28 UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office 19 Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200, Thailand Tel: (66 2) 356-9499 Fax: (66 2) 280-3563 www.unicef.org ... 26 CONCLUSION ASEAN has an important role to play in the region, and can and has already played an influential role in issues related to children and women As a regional body, ASEAN has made... This commitment is in keeping with the Declaration on the Commitments for Children in ASEAN, adopted in 2001 by ASEAN ministers responsible for social welfare, and reiterates the region’s commitment... survival, development, protection and participation of children in ASEAN countries These ideals and commitments are embodied in the ASEAN Plan of Action for Children, adopted in December 1993 ■ Improvements
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