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1 INTRODUCTION Reason for choosing topic The rapid development of science and technology in the XXI centrury has created uncounted material and intellectual products for the modern society This requires each nation to constantly innovate and adapt to the endless changes to everyday life To resolve these challenges, the Education and Training industry needs to lead and take responsibility to improve education, discover and nurture talent with the focus on increase their own intellectual values In other words, education should not just care about the product of intellectual pursuit but should also focus on the process of innovating our way of thinking to create talents that are all-rounded and possess qualities that are suitable to a person in the 21st century This conclusion had been research and asserted at many developed countries like: The United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Russia… To have those successes, they had applied the theory of developing critical thinking in education In the midst of globalisation, the Resolution from the 8th Central Committee Conference session XI of the Executive Central Committee of the Communist Party about the comprehensive renovation of the basis of education and training (Resolution No 29-NQ/TW) had also pointed that the development of intellectual AB will the strategic goal for the development of education in the period of 2011-2020 (issued with Resolution 711/QĐ-TTg on the 13/6/2012 from the Prime Minister) “Focus on developing intellect, physique, form good qualities, ability as a member of society, discover and nurture talents, help focalise students to their careers Improve the quality of education comprehensively, focusing on the education of ideals, traditions, ethics, ways of life, foreign languages, information technology, ability practical skills, applying knowledge to reality Developing the ability to innovate, self-learning, promote lifelong learning” Following that, alongside the development of personal qualities and ability (AB) for students (ST), the Party and the Country also focus on, and care about the development of a high-quality workforce, especially gifted ST Besides that, the phrase “develop critical thinking” is one of the important mission of a country in the process of industrialisation and modernisation with the focus on socialism It was shown in Resolution no 44/NQ-CP, on the 09/6/2014 from the Prime Minister: “Changing the form, method of testing, quizzing and evaluating educational results in order to evaluate the ability (AB) of the learner Focuses on evaluating the following critical AB mentioned here: AB to self-learn, AB to solve issues, NL to innovate, AB to self-manage, AB to communicate, AB to cooperate, AB to utilise information technology and communications, AB to use languages, AB to calculate” [87] 2 The content about the basic knowledge of general chemistry which belongs to the grade 10 Chemistry curriculum, focuses in-depth on the theory of formation of matter and chemical process based on practical results, and calculation from quantum chemistry; alongside with this are the hypotheses from various scientist with different viewpoints, perspectives, and opinions Each hypothesis only explains certain points relating to the formation of matter or chemical process This will reveal the limit in each viewpoint, and opinion of each scientists Because of this, the content about the basis of general chemistry has the potential to develop CTA for ST of a gifted high school Thanks to that, the topic of “Developing critical thinking ability for student in the teaching of grade 10 Chemistry for gifted high school” is realistic, up to date, and satisfy the need for both theory and practical in the changing of teaching chemistry method currently The aim of this research To define critical thinking ability, the expressions of it, the criteria and level indicator for evaluation scale, building and utilising the evaluation toolkit, utilising certain teaching method (TM) in order to positively develop CTA for ST specialised in Grade 10, helping to improve the teaching quality in chemistry at gifted high school Research missions 3.1 Research the theory and reality 3.2 Design and use the evaluation toolkit for CTA in teaching the section of basic knowledge for general chemistry 3.3 Propose methods to develop CTA for students in teaching of teaching the section of basic knowledge for general chemistry at a gifted high school - Method 1: Utilise the teaching method (TM) of discovering and solving issues using the method of multi-dimensional thinking - Method 2: Using chemistry practice exercises - Method 3: Using chemistry experiments 3.4 Practical teaching at a number of gifted high school in order to ascertain the possibility and efficiency of each method proposed Subject, topic scope 4.1 Subject of research: The teaching process of the content about the basis of general chemistry at gifted high school 4.2 Topic of research: CTA in chemistry and the methods of developing CTA in the teaching of chemistry (in the section about the basic knowledge of general chemistry) in grade 10 at gifted high school Scientific theory If we can identify the expressions, the criteria, the specific level indicator for CTA, building, and using the appropriate evaluation toolkit, propose and utilise certain flexible methods, effectively then we can develop CTA for chemistry gifted grade 10 students, helping to improve the teaching quality in chemistry at gifted high school Research method Utilising a mix of research methods which are specialties of education research: theoretical method, practical method, mathematical method The scope of research - Content of research: the section of basic knowledge of general chemistry of grade 10 specialised chemistry curriculum - Research period: 12/2013 – 12/2017 - Geographical area of research: The Southern and Mid-Southern Regions Original points of this topic - Systemise and define a number of theoretical and practical issues to use as a basis to develop CTA for ST in the teaching of chemistry at a gifted high school Evaluate the reality of developing CTA in the teaching of gifted high school at the moment - Propose common principles, and procedures to develop CTA for grade 10 chemistry specialised students - Identify the expressions, criteria and specific level indicator for the development of CTA for ST of a gifted high school - Design and use the evaluation toolkit for CTA in teaching the section of basic knowledge for general chemistry in the specialised chemistry curriculum of grade 10 - Propose methods for the development of CTA for grade 10 chemistry specialised students, which are: using practice exercises, using chemistry experiments, using the teaching method of discovering and solving issues using multi-dimensional thinking Structure of the project Apart from the introduction (6 pages), conclusion and recommendation (2 pages), references and appendix (122 documents), appendix (150 pages), the project have chapter: Chapter (45 pages), chapter (69 pages), chapter (32 pages) There is also a list of all abbreviation, a list of all the tables (30 tables), diagrams, illustrations (8 illustration), a list of all works relating to the project that has been published (5 works) CHAPTER THOERETICAL BASIS AND REALITY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRTITICAL THINKING ABILITY FOR STUDENT IN THE TEACHING OF GRADE 10 CHEMISTRY FOR STUDENTS IN A GIFTED HIGH SCHOOL 1.1 HISTORY OF THE RESEARCH ON DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY FOR STUDENTS Presenting all the scientific research works about the development of CTA for worldwide and Vietnamese students 1.2 THINKING, CRITICAL THINKING,CHEMISTRY OMPREHENSION 1.2.1 Overview about thinking 1.2.1.1 Conception: Presenting the concepts about Sociology and Psychology thinking 1.2.2.2 The levels of thinking: Presenting levels of thinking based on Bloom scale 1.2.2 Critical thinking 1.2.2.1 Critical concept: Present, compare and combine two different meaning of the word “critical” to bring out the officially critical concept 1.2.2.2 Critical thinking concept: Analyze the critical thinking concept under Psychology and Mathematics view to bring out the officially concept of critical thinking 1.2.2.3 Critical thinking features: On the basis of synthesizing the views of psychology, pedagogy and mathematics, the TDPP featuress included: problem analysis, problem evaluation, problem synthesis 1.2.3 Chemistry comprehension 1.2.3.1 The concept of chemical thinking is the process of studying the relationship between all the particular structural features of a substance and the modification laws 1.2.3.2 The essential chemical thinking manipulation needed to be developed for high school students: analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, inductive, interpretive, analogical 1.3 ABILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 1.3.1 Overview about ability Summarizing views on NL by domestic and foreign authors According to the OECD, the NL is divided into: general and professional NL Each NL is composed of elements, behavioral indicators, quality criteria 1.3.2 Evaluating ability Evaluating high school student’s ability is the process of using assessment tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of outputs so that teachers, students and stakeholders can visualize objectively, accurately the results of the learner after the learning process 1.3.3 Critical thinking ability of high school students Critical thinking ability of high school students is the ability to conclude and solve the scientific problems based on the basis of analysis, evalutation, synthesis, comparision of advantages and disadvangatges existing in the researching problems in the best way 1.3.4 Critical chemical thinking ability of high school students 1.3.4.1 Concept: Critical chemical thinking ability of high school students is the ability to conclude and solve the scientific problems in the best way based on the basis of analysis, evalutation, synthesis, comparision of advantages and disadvangatges existing in the researching problems in Chemistry 1.3.4.2 The general expression of a person who is capable of critical chemical thinking: recognizing the problem of chemistry, skeptic of chemistry, brainstorming through graphical thinking tools, evaluation and self-evaluation in the best way 1.3.4.3 Critical chemical thinking ability of THTH high school students who specialize in Chemistry is the ability to flexibly use and create chemical knowledge, skills in order to bring out unique, breakthrough results throughout the process of solving chemical problems 1.4 RESEARCHING METHODS TO HELP DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY FOR STUDENTS OF A GIFTED HIGH SCHOOL 1.4.1 The basis of changing teaching method to develop the ability of learner including:Behavioural theory: Study to change a behaviour; Comprehension theory: Study to solve an issue; Creation theory: Study to create knowledge 1.4.2 Teaching method of discovering and solving an issue 1.4.3 Teaching method of using practice chemistry exercise 1.4.4 Teaching method of using chemical experiment 1.5 THE REALITY OF DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY FOR GRADE 10 STUDENTS OF GIFTED HIGH SCHOOLS We have conducted a survey on the awareness of 318 teachers about the performance of CTA, the frequency of using CTA assessment methods and tools, and the CTA of 1140 students achieved through ability assessment tests: 1.5.4 Survey results 1.5.4.1 Survey results for teachers Most teachers have not fully aware of the development of CTA for students Therefore, the use of CTA assesment methods is somehow partial, only two methods are frequently used (constructed-response questions and multiplechoice questions) and the rest are rarely used (rubrics, checklists, questionnaires) 1.5.4.2 Results of the student’s surveys: The results of the two CTA assessments reflect the uneven development of student’s CTA performance, with only out of 10 developed at a good level, while the rest was at satisfactory level Thus, in Vietnam CTA of 10th grade student specializing in chemistry in specialized high school development is very limited CHAPTER DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY FOR GRADE 10 CHEMISTRY SPECIALISED STUDENTS IN THE TEACHING THE BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY 2.1 ANALYSING THE GRADE 10 CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM OF GIFTED HIGHSCHOOL In conclusion, the curriculum of specialised chemistry in high school at the moment has somewhat mentioned the development of, but it is still more content focus Hence the research on the content and teaching method in the teaching of the basic knowledge of general chemistry at specialised high school with the focus on developing ability is a critical and necessary issue 2.2 FRAMEWORK FOR CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY OF STUDENT OF A GIFTED HIGH SCHOOL IN CHEMISTRY 2.2.1 The process of building a framework for critical thinking ability in chemistry for student of gifted high school Step Identify the scientific basis of the process of building a framework for CTA in chemistry for students of gifted high schools; Step Propose the contributing abilities; Step Propose the criteria for evaluating the levels of expression for cho each contributing abilities; Step Consult the opinion of experts about the draft framework of ability; Step Propose a detailed description table for expression levels of CTA in chemistry (behaviour index) Level A: Execllent; Level B: Good; Level C: Average;Level D: Bad;Step Consult the opinion of expert and experiment with the detailed description table for the expression levels of CTA in chemistry; Step Finalise the framework for ability and the detailed description table for the expression levels of CTA in chemistry for student of gifted high school 2.2.2 Structure of the framework for critical thinking ability for students of gifted high school Table 2.2 Framework for CTA in chemistry for students of gifted high schools Contributing No Criteria’s ability Identifying the nature or operating law of the chemistry issues Ability to analyse To ask questions relating to the chemistry chemistry issues issues Explain the scientific issues Ability to evaluate Identify the limit of issues that need to be fix chemistry issues Defend their own opinion and point of view To make conclusion about the scientific issues in question Propose different scientific hypotheses Make plans to actualise scientific hypotheses Actualise plans independently and creatively 10 Self-modify the actualised plan when the solving of issues is not successful 2.3 A NUMBER OF METHODS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CHEMISTRY FOR STUDENTS OF GIFTED HIGH SCHOOL 2.3.1 To orientate the proposal of methods of developing critical thinking ability in chemistry 2.3.1.1 Requirements when proposing methods of developing critical thinking ability in chemistry a Facilitate students to think and consider carefully, deduce inversely during the process of solving the chemical problem b Facilitate students to have a positive attitude of scientific skepticism c Facilitate students to recognize and correct mistakes d Facilitate students to recognize the development of critical chemical thinking ability of high school students for each stage of study 2.3.1.2 Principle of determining methods of developing critical thinking ability in chemistry Principle Ensure the specificity of the Department of Chemistry Principle Ensure the orientation of the program’s target Principle Ensure the pedagogy Principle Ensure the diversity and comprehensiveness Principle Ensure the practicality 2.3.1.3 The process to begin and apply methods of developing critical thinking ability in chemistry Step 1: Use the investigative methods; Step 2: Propose measures for the development of critical chemical thinking ability of high school students; Step 3: Use methods of experts; Step 4:Experiment the measures in teaching for grade 10 students who specialize in chemistry in high school; Step 5: Educe all the experienced lessons; Step 6: Use mathematical statistical methods to select the most optimal, feasible and effective measures; Step 7: Experiment all the measures; Step 8: Evaluate the development of critical chemical thinking ability of high school students of grade 10 students who specialize in chemisstry through NL assessment tools Step 9: Learning from experience, adjusting and improving the proposed measures Ability to aggregate chemistry issues 2.3.2 Method Utilising teaching method of solving issues with the orientation to use multi-dimensional thinking in order to develop critical thinking ability for students 2.3.2.1 The content of the method Phase “Multi-dimensional analysis” is the phase that requires the learner to consider, observe, analyse learning objectives from multiple perspectives, viewpoints, glasses to come up with many comparison, understandings, evaluation of their own with respect to each approach to chemistry object Phase “Multi-dimensional evaluation” is the phase that requires the learner to propose their own opinions and evaluations with respect to each approach to different chemistry object Based on this, the learner will generalise the comprehension process of the chemistry object Phase “Multi-dimensional aggregation” is the phase that require the learner to self-aggregate, and filter out the different understandings to propose, construct, and enact the optimal method of comprehending a chemistry subject 2.3.2.2 Developmental goal of CTA in chemistry of this method Phase “Multi-dimensional analysis” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to analyse chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (1), (2), (3) Phase “Multi-dimensional evaluation” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to evaluate chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (4), (5), (6) Phase “Multi-dimensional aggregation” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to aggregate chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (7), (8), (9), (10) 2.3.2.3 The process of using the method in order to develop CTA in chemistry for students in grade 10 of gifted high school Step Prepare Step Organise and perform the teaching actives at the phase of “Multidimensional analysis” Step Organise and perform the teaching activities at the phase of “Multidimensional evaluation” Step Organise and perform the teaching activities at the phase of “Multidimensional aggregation” Step Teachers comment, aggregate and evaluate CTA in chemistry of students based on the results of the evaluation table 2.3.2.4 Samples lesson plans a Lesson plans for “Chemical bonds” (Appendix 6) b Lesson plans for “Complex” (Appendix 7) c Lesson plans for “Reactivity level” (Appendix 8) 2.3.3 Method Using chemistry practice exercises to develop critical thinking ability for students 2.3.3.1 The content of method Based on the description table of the framework, the criteria for evaluating CTA in chemistry for students of gifted high school (table 2.2) and the directions within the proposal of methods for developing CTA in chemistry (part 2.3.1), we split the chemistry practice exercises to develop CTA in chemistry into types: reason out the number of possible cases, discovering and correcting mistakes, optimising solutions a Practice exercise “Reason out the number of possible cases” are practice chemistry exercises that require the learner to fully exploit the dialectical relationship between hypotheses and conclusions on the basis of careful consideration, thorough deliberation, multi-dimensional analysis between the datum and the solve requirement of the math exercise b Practice exercise “Discovering and correcting mistakes” are chemistry exercises build based on common mistakes of students in the process of learning The learning objective of the learner is to discover, and explain these mistakes using the basis of utilising their chemistry knowledge and practical skills in addition to the ability to analyse, evaluate the relationship between hypotheses, conclusions, and methods of solving the issue in each specific chemistry situation Through this, the learner will propose and perform the method to correct their mistakes c Practice exercise “Optimising solutions” are chemistry practice exercises that require the learner to analyse the advantages and limitation of other people’s solving methods for chemistry issues on the basis of utilising their own knowledge, skills, and experience From this, the learner will self-propose the modification, replacement, addition or deletion of the steps in the process to improve the efficiency, and possibility as well as overcoming the remaining limitations of the previous methods for solving chemistry issues 2.3.3.2 Developmental goal of CTA in chemistry of this method a Practice exercise “Reason out the number of possible cases” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to analyse chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (1), (2), (3) b Practice exercise “Discovering and correcting mistakes” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to evaluate chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (4), (5), (6) 10 c Practice exercise “Optimising solutions” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to aggregate chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (7), (8), (9), (10) 2.3.3.3 The process of using the method in order to develop CTA in chemistry for students in grade 10 of gifted high school Step Prepare Step Form and develop the ability to analyse chemistry issues Step Form and develop the ability to evaluate chemistry issues Step Form and develop the ability to aggregate chemistry issues Step Evaluate and conclude about CTA in chemistry for students 2.3.3.4 Samples lesson plans a Lesson plan for “Practice in atomic structures” (Appendix 9) b Lesson plan for “Practice in acid - base” (Appendix 10) c Lesson plan for “Practice in chemical thermodynamics” (Appendix 11) 2.3.4 Method Using chemistry experiment in order to develop critical thinking ability for students 2.3.4.1 Content of method Phase “Analysis – Understanding” is the phase require the learner propose the principles, processes to perform titration based on the analysis, evaluation, comparison of characteristic composition, physical and chemical constants (equilibrium constant K, standard electrode potential E 0, overpotential, etc.) of each chemical in the titration process, the nature of the chemical reactions in each titration methods After which the learner will proceed with titration with their own process and their proposed indicators Phase “Evaluation – Proposal” is the phase requiring the learner selfevaluate, self-deliberate the advantages and limitation of the process, and handling of the experiment of other people on the basis of analysis, and comparison of results from chemical experiment From this, the learner will propose methods to fix the mistakes relating to the chemical experiment in question Phase “Modification– Perform” is the phase requiring the learner to selfbuild and perform the new process of titration in order to slowly reduce wrong answers to the limit based on the process of aggregation, selection of opinions, analysis, evaluation of previous methods from fellow learner or teacher 2.3.4.2 Developmental goal of CTA in chemistry of this method Phase “Analysis – Understanding” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to analyse chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (1), (2), (3) 11 Phase “Evaluation – Proposal” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to evaluate chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (4), (5), (6) Phase “Modification – Perform” is mainly used to measure the level of expression of the ability to aggregate chemistry issues, corresponding to criteria (7), (8), (9), (10) 2.3.4.3 The process of using the method in order to develop CTA in chemistry for students in grade 10 of gifted high school Step Prepare Step Developing analysis ability for chemistry issues through the organising and performing the teaching activities at phase “Analysis – Comprehension” Step Developing evaluation ability for chemistry issues through the organising and performing the teaching activities at phase “Evaluation – Proposal” Step Developing aggregation for chemistry issues through the organising and performing the teaching activities at phase “Modification/Selection – Perform” Step Evaluate and conclude about critical thinking ability 2.3.4.4 Samples lesson plan a Lesson plans for “Titration acid – base” (Appendix 12) b Lesson plans for “Titration oxidation – reduction” (Appendix 13) c Lesson plans for “Titration to form complex” (Appendix 14) 2.4 EVALUATING CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CHEMISTY FOR GRADE 10 STUDENTS OF GIFTED HIGH SCHOOL 2.4.1 Using the ability evaluation scale OBSEVATION TABLE FOR CTA CRITERIAS EVALUATION WHEN PERFORMING MULTI-DIMENSIONAL THINKING ACTIVITES High school Date month year Name Observation subjects: Class ., Group Lesson name 12 Level of Evaluation criteria for the completion of Evaluation expression of CTA in Evaluatio criteria chemistry when performing learning objectives nal prove multi-dimensional thinking Analyse the dialectical relationship between the component parts of a chemical or the relationship between the chemicals in the reaction Propose sceptical question about the accuracy, trustworthiness in each Chemistry approach, on which basis the handout learner will accept or refute the appropriate/inappropriate approach with the chemical subject in question Explain the chemistry issue based on the evaluation of the role of the chemistry subject in question through different approach Analyse the advantages and limitation the range of application/activity of each approach Use scientific experiment or Student disproof example to identify evaluation the advantages and and selflimitation to each approach evaluation Conclusion about the handout comprehension of the chemistry subject through the essentialisation and generalisation of each approach method 13 Level of Evaluation criteria for the completion of Evaluation expression of CTA in Evaluatio criteria chemistry when performing learning objectives nal prove multi-dimensional thinking Propose the content that need to be added or new solving methods in order to perfect the approach method to the chemistry subject Specify, and detail the content that needs to be Handout added or the new method of for solving modificati Explain, proof the ability to on essentialise, the accuracy, the trustworthiness in each content or new solving method Self-modify the steps when 10 performing the new solving method Total score: /30 0: not able to perform; 1: Grading scale perform wrong; From to 5: Level D Conclusio 2: perform correctly but not fully; From to 14: Level C n 3: perform correctly and From 15 to 23: Level B fully From 24 to 30: Level A Level of CTA achieved: OBSERVATION TABLE FOR CTA CRITERIAS EVALUATION WHEN USING PRACTICE CHEMISTRY EXERCISE (For teacher) High school Date month yeah Name: Observation subjects: Class ., group Lesson name/topic 14 Level of Eval completion of uati Evaluation criteria for the expression learning on of CTA when using chemistry objectives Crit practice exercise eria Analyse the relationship between theory and the requirement of the practice exercise to identify the various cases that could happened Propose sceptical and scientific questions to accept/refute the cases that are accurate or illogical Reverse-analyse to explain the chemistry issue in question Analyse, evaluate the illogicality or illogical points in each method to solve a chemistry issue Using examples of counter-argument or proof to defend their own view points and arguments Come to a conclusion about the satisfactory level of each solution and propose plans to fix mistakes Modify or propose the steps to increase efficiency, and feasibility for previous methods Specify, and improve the accuracy of the steps in the process of modification or replacement of previous methods Using the results to proof the improvement in efficiency and feasibility in comparison with the previous methods Self-modify when performing the 10 steps of improvement/replacement Evaluationa l prove Students’ answers and handout for learning objectives selfobservation Evaluation handout for students learning activities Handout for request to modify and addition 15 Level of Eval completion of uati Evaluation criteria for the expression Evaluationa learning on of CTA when using chemistry l prove objectives Crit practice exercise eria Total score: /30 Evaluation scale 0: not performed; 1: performed From to 5: Level D Con incorrectly; From to 14: Level C clus 2: performed correctly but not fully; 3: From 15 to 23: Level B ion performed correctly and fully From 24 to 30: Level A Level of CTA in chemistry achieved: OBSERVATION TABLE FOR CTA CRITERIAS EVALUATION WHEN USING CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (For teacher) High school Date Month Year Name Observation subjects: Class ., group Lesson name/topic Level of Eval completion of uati Evaluation criteria for the expression Evaluatio learning on of CTA when using chemistry nal prove objectives Crit experiment eria Identify the principle, and process of titration based on the analysis and evaluation of characteristics, physical and chemical constants, the uniqueness Students’ of the chemical reaction between the handout subjects being titrate for Propose questions with scientific chemistry scepticism about choosing the practical appropriate indicator lesson Analyse the reverse-titration process (changing the roles of each chemicals in the process of titration) to explain the method of titration in question Identify the flaws that need to be Handout corrected by reducing the error margin for the to the minimum evaluatio 16 Eval uati on Crit eria Evaluation criteria for the expression of CTA when using chemistry experiment Level of completion of learning objectives Evaluatio nal prove Utilise scientific proofs, arguments or counter-argument questions to protect their own opinions and arguments n of the Aggregate the scientific arguments, experime visual proofs to come to a solution nt result about the accuracy, trustworthiness, and satisfactory of the experiment in question Propose modifications, additions for the previous titration process based on the aggregation and analysis of opinions from their fellows and Handout teacher for the Specify, and detail the modification modificati and addition to the steps of the on, previous titration process addition To proceed with self-performing the to the new process and using the results of process of the experiment to proof the increase in chemical efficiency in compare to the previous titration process Self-modification of the steps when the 10 performance of the new process is not successful or efficient Total score: /30 Evaluation scale 0: not performed; 1: performed Con From to 5: Level D incorrectly; clus From to 14: Level C 2: performed correctly but not fully ;3: ion From 15 to 23: Level B performed correctly and fully From 24 to 30: Level A Level of CTA achieved: 2.4.2 Evaluation through teacher’s handout HANDOUT ABOUT THE LESSON UTILISING METHODS TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CHEMISTRY (For teachers) High school 17 Date month year Class ., Name: Lesson name: If the teacher would like to cross (X) on the appropriate square expressing the level of effectiveness the method has had on the development of CTA in chemistry of students The level of effectiveness of method Eval to the development of CTA in uatio Expression of CTA in chemistry n chemistry crite Not Mini Moder ria significa Highly mally ately No nt Understand the nature and underlying principle of the chemistry issue Propose questions with scientific scepticism about the chemistry issue in question Explain the chemistry issue fully, in-depth, and comprehensively Identify the limitations that needs to be fix Utilise scientific argument to defend their opinion, and viewpoints Conclude about the accuracy, the trustworthiness, and the satisfactory of the chemistry issues The new proposal is a modification or addition to the previous solution or replace with a new solution method Specify, clarify the steps in the new proposal Use the results of the new proposal to proof the efficiency, and the feasibility in comparison to the previous method 10 Self-modify the steps when the 18 performing the new proposal unsuccessfully 2.4.3 Evaluation through student’s self-evaluation handout SELF-EVALUATION HANDOUT FOR CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CHEMISTRY FOR STUDENTS High school Date Month Year Class .group Lesson name/topic Name If you would kindly let us know your level of development of CTA in chemistry before (TTD) and after (STD) these lessons by circling the number corresponding with the levels from (1) to (5) With 1: Very slow; 2: Slow; 3: Moderately; 4: Fast; 5: Very fast Evaluati on criteria No Expressions of CTA in chemistry Understand the nature and underlying principle of the chemistry issue Propose questions with scientific scepticism about the chemistry issue in question Explain the issue fully, in-depth, and comprehensively Identify the limitations that need to be fix Utilising scientific arguments (chemical equation, counterexample,) to protect their own opinion, and viewpoint Conclude about the accuracy, the trustworthiness, and the satisfactory of the chemistry issues The new proposal is a modification or addition to the previous solution or replace with a new solution method Perio d Level of development TTD STD TTD STD TTD STD TTD STD 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 TTD STD TTD STD TTD STD 19 Specify, clarify the steps in the new TTD proposal STD Use the results of the new proposal to proof the efficiency, and the TTD feasibility in comparison to the STD previous method Self-modify the steps when the TTD 10 performing the new proposal STD unsuccessfully 2.4.4 Evaluating through the ability evaluation quiz 2.4.4.1 The process of designing the ability evaluation quiz Step Identify the purpose of the quiz; Step Identify the form of the quiz We have designed types of ability evaluation quizzes: multiple choice test and normal test Each type of quizzes is performed at two periods before and after the application of the ability development methods The difficulty of each quiz will have to be comparable; Step Establish a matrix for the quizzes; Step Create questions for the matrix; Step Create a marking guide, score scale, and conversion table; Step Review the process of creation; Step Experiment in teaching chemistry at a gifted high school; Step Edit and finalise 2.4.4.2 Sample evaluation quizzes for evaluating CTA in chemistry Multiple choice only quizzes (Appendix 15, 19, 23, 27) and multiple choice and long answers quizzes (Appendix 17, 21, 25, 29) CHAPTER PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT 3.1 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENT 3.1.1 Purpose of experiment Pedagogical experiment (PDGE) is performing to confirm the accuracy of the scientific the scientific hypothesis and evaluate the feasibility, efficiency of the methods to develop CTA in chemistry in the teaching of grade 10 chemistry at gifted high schools 3.1.2 Experiment objective - Choose the subjects and area to perform PDGE - Identify the content and method for the PDGE - Prepare the lesson plan, teaching tools and discuss with teachers about experimental lesson plans, evaluation toolkit, the way to use the methods - Prepare the evaluation toolkit for CTA in chemistry of students - Plan and perform PDGE according to plan: Exploratory experiment, gain experience Official PDGE is at round and - Process PDGE results (qualitative, quantitative), come to a conclusion 20 3.2 PERFORMING PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT 3.2.1 Choosing the subjects, are of experiment - PDGE subjects chosen are grade 10 students studying the specialised curriculum of Chemistry Due to the nature of each gifted high school only having grade 10 specialised chemistry class, PDGE will be perform on only group of students in the school - PDGE area of experiments are the gifted high schools in the Southern and Mid-Southern area 3.2.2 Choosing the content of the experiment Table 3.1 The content of the pedagogical experiment Method of Order of Topic Code experiment experiment Method 1 - Topic “Chemical bonds” GA1 Utilising teaching method of solving - Topic “Complex” GA2 the issue using multi-dimensional - Topic “Reactivity level” GA3 thinking -Topic “Practice in atomic structures” GA4 Method - Topic “Practice in acid - base” GA5 Utilising practice - Topic “Practice in chemical chemistry exercise GA6 thermodynamics” - Topic “Titration acid – base” GA7 Method -Topic “Titration oxidation – GA8 Utilising chemical reduction” experiment - Topic “Titration to form complex” GA9 3.2.3 Process of performance 3.2.3.1 Exploratory experiment Step Beginning evaluation; Step Choosing the content of the experiment;Step Design lesson plans (LP) for the experimental classes; Step Discuss with the teacher participating in the experiment; Step Perform the lesson plan; Step Organise and extract experience;Step Ending evaluation Step Processing of experimental statistics;Step Conclusion 3.2.3.2 Evaluation experiment Similar to the exploratory experiment 3.2.4 Choose the method of processing experimental statistics 3.2.4.1 Qualitative analysis of experimental results 3.2.4.2 Quantitative analysis of experimental results 3.3 RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT 21 3.3.1 Evaluation results from the evaluation table - CTA in chemistry of students have developed in a positive direction, meaning the percentage of students achieving low score (level 0, level 1) appears to be decreasing (both below 5%) and the number of students achieving a high score (level 2, level 3) appears to be increasing (above 95%) and spread out amongst all the expression of CTA in each method The development of CTA of students were also shown through the content of each lesson Through each experiment, their total ability score was shown to slowly increased (table 3.8, 3.10, 3.12) - This process of change is not spontaneous but is from the influence of each method, because the p value in the T – Test statistical test was always lower than 0,05 Not just that, the effect of the teaching method was shown to be increasing after each experimental content 3.3.2 Evaluation results through teacher’s handout According to the evaluation opinion of the 11 teachers who participated in the PDGE, the development of CTA in chemistry all received high effect from the methods Besides the criteria that received a large and regular effect of the methods like criteria number 1, 2, 5, (always accounting for at least 18,18%) there are also criteria that are minimally or moderately effected like criteria number 3, 4, 8, This shows that the development of ability in general and CTA in chemistry specifically requires time and the proactiveness to self-discipline of students after each learning period like criteria number 10 3.3.3 Evaluation results through students’ self-evaluation handout When performing the experiment with method 1, almost all the criteria were evaluated by the student to have develop ranging from 0,23 to 2,23, with criteria (2) and (6) having the largest change at the periods TTD – STD respectively being: 2,23 (1,78- 4,01); 2,20 (1,83-4,01) Similarly, method had criteria (8), (9) with the change: 2,09 (2,03-4,12); (2,13-4,02) and method had the largest change in criteria (1), (2) with the respective range of change: 2,58 (1,33-3,91); 2,55 (1,46- 4,01) As you can see, each method will have their own advantageous criteria group, and the mutual resonating effect of the methods had help the expressions of CTA developed fairly evenly 3.3.4 Evaluation result through the ability evaluation quiz 22 Figure 3.4 Line describing the development of CTA in chemistry for grade 10 students of gifted high schools The results from ability evaluation quiz shows the difference in average values between STD and TTD of the experimental classes increasing after each PDGE methods For example, in method 1, this difference increases after each quiz with the respective values: 9,53; 10,26; 10,46; 10,94 (Table 3.19, 3.20) Method and also have similar results We can see that the students have slowly familiarised themselves with the form, content, method of evaluating CTA in chemistry This positive change also reflects the increasing influence of each method, specifically at method where the ES values changed after each round of experiment, respectively: 0,86; 0,91; 0,92; 0,93 (table 3.21; 3.22) From this, we can conclude that the development of CTA in chemistry for students always have clear influence from proposed methods The results from the analysis, comparison, and evaluation of experimental statistic above had help us see that CTA in chemistry of grade 10 students in gifted high school have had clear development after the utilisation of the methods: “Utilising the method of discovering and solving the issue using multi-dimensional thinking”, “Utilising practice chemistry exercise”, “Utilising chemical experiment” This process of change is not spontaneous but is from the influence of the methods, because the p value in the T – Test statistical test for the comparison between the two periods TTD and STD at the experimental classes was always lower than 0.05 23 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion The dissertation has fulfilled its purpose, proposed research tasks and achieved new results as follows: 1.1 Systemised and clarified a number of theoretical issues related to the dissertation’s topic - Thinking and developing thinking, AB, CTA of grade 10 students specializing in chemistry of specialized high school - Systemised characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of some teaching methods to develop chemical thinking ability for grade 10 students specializing in chemistry of specialized high school 1.2 Investigated some practical issues related to thesis topic - Investigated, analyzed results and draw conclusions about the current situation of development of critical chemical thinking ability from 38 specialized schools with 318 teachers, 1140 students in grade 10 who specialise in chemistry - Analyzed programs and textbooks for students in grade 10 specializing in general chemical base knowledge 1.3 Based on the theoretical and practical experience, a new proposal was made for the development of critical chemical thinking ability in teaching for grade 10 students specializing in chemistry in specialized school - Proposed the frame of critical chemical thinking ability for chemistry specialized grade 10 students in specialized schools - Provided orientations for proposing measures for the development of CCTA for chemistry specialized grade 10 students in specialized schools including: principles and steps of the proposing process, applying measures in teaching chemistry for specialized grade 10 students in specialized schools - Proposed measures to develop CCTA for students in grade 10 specializing in chemistry in specialized high school: + Measure 1: Use methology to solve problems in the direction of multidimensional thinking + Measure 2: Use chemical exercises + Measure 3: Use chemical experiment - Since then, develop a set of tools for CCTA assessment for chemistry specialized students: an observant checklist, a teacher questionnaire, a student self-assessment paper, an ability assessment test 1.4 Conducted pedagogical experiments: Conducted trial teaching and later main PDGE through two rounds from 11 specialized schools with the 24 participation of 11 teachers and 424 students The CPE results are evaluated through: teacher's questionnaire, a student self-assessment paper, an observant checklist, an ability assessment test All the TN data was processed by SPSS and Microsoft Excel 2007 software showing the positive average scores of the TN classes at the time STD was more higher than TTD, the difference was significant and the impact magnitude ranged from TB to great Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the three measures for the development of CCTA Thereby, confirms the correctness of the proposed scientific hypothesis 1.5 Conclusion: The TNSP results after statistical processing showed that the application of the three proposed measures has developed CCTA for students in grade 10 specializing in chemistry in specialized high school CPE has also shown that proposed measures in the dissertation are effective, feasible, contributing to the innovation in chemical teaching in specialized schools today Recommendations: Throughout the research and experiment process, we have the following recommendations: - The results of the project are continuously implemented and widely applied in teaching chemistry in specialized schools - The topic will continue to be implemented and expandingly reserached to build a system of chemical questionnaires, chemistry exercises to develop CCTA for students in grade 10 specializing in chemistry in specialized high school based on the frame and CCTA criteria assessment mentioned by the dessertation - The specialize high schools need to pay more attention, focus, and investment in developing CCTA for for students in grade 10 specializing in chemistry by encouraging teachers to use teaching methods in the direction of developing CCTA such as : teaching method of solving problem , methods of using chemical exercises, methods of using chemical experiments ... EXPERIMENT 3.2.1 Choosing the subjects, are of experiment - PDGE subjects chosen are grade 10 students studying the specialised curriculum of Chemistry Due to the nature of each gifted high school only... grade 10 students specializing in chemistry in specialized school - Proposed the frame of critical chemical thinking ability for chemistry specialized grade 10 students in specialized schools... grade 10 students in specialized schools including: principles and steps of the proposing process, applying measures in teaching chemistry for specialized grade 10 students in specialized schools
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