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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - Nguyen Hoai Thu ORGANIZATION OF ARCHITECTUAL SPACE FOR RURAL HOUSING IN THE SOUTHERN SUBREGION OF RED RIVER DELTA IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION Specialty: ARCHITECTURE Code: 62.58.01.05 Summary of doctoral dissertation Hanoi, 2018 The Dissertation has been completed at National University of Civil Engineering SUPERVISORS Supervisors 1: Assoc Prof Dr Nguyen Dinh Thi Supervisors 2: Prof Dr Hoang Dao Kinh Reviewer 1: Ph.D Ngo Doan Duc Reviewer 2: Prof Dr Nguyen Huu Dung Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof Dr Nguyen Khac Sinh The thesis is defensed against the National Committee for doctoral thesis scoring in a session organized at at h of date month 2018 Please find the doctoral dissertation document at the National Library and at the library of National University of Civil Engineering PREAMBLE Rationale for choosing the research topic Over 30 years of renovation and development, “industrialization and modernization of agriculture and rural areas has been a top priority task against the backdrop of the national industrialization and modernization” The task of industrialization and modernization of agriculture and rural areas is “to focus on implementing solutions to improve growth quality, labor productivity and competitiveness of the economy, to continue the efforts of effectively implementing three strategic breakthroughs (completing the socialist-oriented market economy regime; fundamentally and comprehensively reforming education and training; improving human resources, especially high quality ones; building a comprehensive infrastructure system), to comprehensively and synchronously restructure the economy in line with the renovation of growth model; to accelerate national industrialization and modernization, with a focus on industrialization and modernization of agriculture and rural areas in line with the building of new rural areas.” The southern subregion of the Red River Delta consisting of provinces namely Ha Nam, Thai Binh, Ninh Binh and Nam Dinh is a land of rich Vietnamese cultural values It is the national pioneer in implementing “strategic breakthroughs, economic restructure, successful renovation of growth model, becoming the locomotive of economic growth, playing a major role in the national industrialization and modernization and contributing to enhancing Vietnam’s position in the international arena.” The socio-economic and cultural development together with population growth, industrialization and modernization are bringing about comprehensive change to the rural housing architecture in Southern subregion of the Red River Delta The lack of control in rural housing planning and architecture is changing the traditional rural housing architecture in Southern subregion of Red River Delta; including the sudden shift to modern rural housing architecture which is not suitable for rural area landscape Therefore it is necessary to research into the topic of “Organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization.” Purpose of the study The study aims to propose solutions for organizing architectural space for rural housing in southern subregion of Red River Delta against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization to meet the demands of rural nature, culture, socio-economy, ensuring the sustainable development of rural housing in this subregion Objectives of the study Build viewpoints and principles of organizing architectural space for rural housing in southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization Develop a system of evaluation criteria for organizing architectural space for rural housing in southern subregion of Red River Delta against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization; Propose solutions to organize architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization Propose management solutions for developing rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta with community involvement Subjects and scope of the study a Subject of the study: Architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization Research subjects of the thesis are divided into three levels of space: Village, surrounding facilities and housing b Scope of the study: This thesis focuses on the southern subregion of Red River Delta including provinces: Ha Nam, Thai Binh, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh c Duration of the study: Until 2030 Contents of the study This thesis focuses on the following research topics: Overview of organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization in the world and in Vietnam, thus bringing out research issues; Analysis of scientific foundations for proposing solutions on organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization; Proposing solutions on organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization Study method This thesis applies the following research methods: Statistics, information collection and summarization; investigation of current situation by drawing and photographing, sociological investigation; professional method; analysis, synthesis, induction, comparison; forecast Thesis’s new contribution The thesis systematize theories of organizing architectural space for rural housing from the perspective of rural economy against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization; propose a system of evaluation criteria for rural housing architectural space in the southern subregion of Red River Delta to meet the demands of industrialization and modernization; propose solutions to organize architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta at three spatial levels associated with main rural economic types in the context of industrialization and modernization; and propose to complete policies on rural housing development and solutions for promoting community involvement Thesis structure This thesis consists of the following parts: Introduction, Table of content, Conclusion and recommendations, References, Research studies and Appendix The thesis content is divided into chapters as follows: Chapter 1: Overview of architectural space organization for rural housing in the context of industrialization and modernization Chapter 2: Scientific foundations for organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta against the backdrop of industrialization and modernization Chapter 3: Proposed solutions on organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization Explanation of concepts and terms Rural housing: a type of housing used for eating, living, sleeping, resting, studying, worshiping and working purposes by farmers’ families in rural area who earn living mainly from agricultural production, livestock and poultry husbandry, fishery and also trading, etc Organizing architectural space for rural housing: an oriented activity to organize, arrange, combine and connect functional spaces of several rural housing units, ensuring that rural housing spaces can best serve farmers’ living and production purposes CHAPTER OVERVIEW OF ARCHITECTURAL SPACE ORGANIZATION FOR RURAL HOUSING IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION 1.1 Architectural space organization for rural housing in the world 1.1.1 Architectural space organization for rural housing in Japan In its rural industrialization and modernization, Japan successfully learns from the industrialization and modernization of United Kingdom and United States and benefits from capital, technology and market development of European and South American countries Co-operatives play important role in Japan’s rural development Housed are built in traditional closed architecture style Residential boundaries are customary and made with wooden fences or trees Residential areas include main house, yard, auxilary house (storage of agricultural products and farming tools) Rural housing is organized in Japanese traditional housing layout and divided into three main areas: Sleeping area, common area and working area 1.1.2 Architectural space organization for rural housing in South Korea South Korea’s rural industrialization and modernization was considered “a miracle.” This process was associated with “New village” movement, which symbolized South Korea’s rural and agricultural industrialization and modernization Residential area includes main house, auxiliary house, yard, garden, gate, fences Land is mainly rectangle-shaped, most of the construction are closely tied to garden space and traditional yard 1.1.3 Architectural space organization for rural housing in China In the late 1970s, China began implementing open reforms to promote its available natural resources and cheap labor resources China also attracted and harvested capital, technology and especially knowledge from other countries mainly through ways: Trade, investment and studying abroad As a result of industrialization, agricultural productivity accelerated, export of agricultural products also increased, thus making Chinese economy one of the world’s leading economies 1.1.4 General comments Village is developed into agriculture village, handicraft village and service village models Residential areas are organized in clusters, forming communities of agricultural production, handicraft, service and tourism Centralized production service areas exist to connect villages to urban areas Residential boundaries are limited, including main house, auxiliary house or warehouse, yard to form the living areas Garden is combined with common yard of the house to form common production area Houses mainly have sloping roofs, to floors and brick walls Main function areas include living room, kitchen and dining room, bedroom, restroom and reading room Housing architecture has transformed from traditional to modern style 1.2 The development of architectural space for rural housing in Vietnam 1.2.1 Development outline Before 1954: Houses built in this period mainly had one floor, bamboo pillars, tile roof, and straws Houses were built with bricks and lotus-shaped tile roof Housed were designed with or rooms, combined with wing houses, and door system From 1954 to 1986: Village structure in this period remained the same as that of previous period with certain additional public utilities Village area shrank to about 360m2 due to household separation and new land allocation Residential space was similarly organized like that of the previous period, however area for fish pond, yard and garden was gradually covered and decreased From 1986 to present: Subsidy economy shifted into socialist market oriented economy Village shifted from inward, closed structure to outward structure toward urban center Residential space had an area of 100-1000m2 and divides into the following styles depending on its purpose: Pure farmhouse, traditional craft village house associated with tourism development, house in combination with trade and service activities 1.2.2 Architectural space organization for rural housing in some areas of Vietnam in the context of industrialization and modernization The analysis and evaluation of some key areas in Vietnam finds that architectural space organization of rural housing shares the following features: Agricultural, farming and aqua-cultural villages are architecturally organized under new rural planning program Production area is divided according to production sectors, production infrastructure is upgraded to meet the demands of production mechanization Traditional handicraft villages which are associated with tourism activities: Infrastructure for handicraft production has been renovated, supplemented and constructed However the planning of concentrated production areas is not effective, many areas are abandoned or re-purposed into relocation areas Agricultural service and trade villages: the organization of architectural space for village is developed without clear directions Space tends to be divided into small parts and lies along major roads of village or commune 1.3 Current situation of architectural space organization for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization 1.3.1 Current situation of organizing architectural space for village and commune Villages in the southern subregion of Red River Delta is divided into belts with typical architectural space organization as follows: i) Coastal belt has sea dam with mangroves forest, shrimps, crabs and other aquaproducts Aquaproduct farms are established in this area Construction sites are scattered according to farm’s location and scale ii) Belt is located from sea dam to National road 10, people in new residential areas earn their living with salt water grass farming and aquaculture iii) Belt is located deeply inland with old residential areas, rice fields, annual or perennial trees, livestock and poultry husbandry 1.3.2 Current situation of architectural space organization for rural housing a Housing associated with household agricultural production i) Housing associated with rice and vegetables production: its area is about 250-1000 m2 Yard, garden and auxiliary house areas tend to be narrowed while the main house area is widened Functional areas on the premises include main house, auxiliary house, toilet, yard, gate, fences and garden which tend to be combined Spatial structure shifts from traditional housing to urban housing style with detached house, townhouse ii) Housing associated with aquacultural farming: this model is more popular in Nam Dinh and Thai Binh provinces which are lying in the southern subregion of Red River Delta Clams, shrimps and fish are mainly farmed The average area of this housing type is about hectares iii) Housing associated with livestock and poultry husbandry: Rural housing associated with livestock and poultry husbandry model is more common in the provinces of Red River Delta southern subregion The average area of this housing type is about 1,000-5,000m2 Garden, pond and auxiliary house area tends to be widened b Housing associated with farm model: There are main farm models in the southern subregion of Red River Delta which are farms for annual trees, perennial trees, livestock husbandry and aquaculture Most are livestock and aquaculture farms Annual and perennial tree farms are less developed, thus make up a small portion c Housing associated with craft work production in traditional handicraft villages include those associated with fine-art stone processing; salt water grass processing; embroidery, and lace; ceramics; bamboo weaving and incense making; carpentry and fine-art sculpture; cotton sheet making; metalwork d Housing associated with service and trade activities: its average area is about 100-300m2 Garden, pond and auxiliary house area tends to be narrowed Front space is fully utilized for service and trade activities Service shop tends to be widened and dominates other activities Spatial structure swiftly shifts from traditional housing to urban townhouse with service shop and yard as main space 1.3.3 Current situation of managing rural housing development a Current situation of managing village and commune infrastructure construction: Management is vertically carried out from Ministry, Department to District urban management office, communal cadastral office However, responsibilities of management agencies are not clearly defined, legal documents neither directly address the issue nor practical aspects b Current situation of managing rural housing design: Design management is assigned to District urban planning office Building permits for rural housing are granted for planned areas such as relocation area, handicraft production area, etc However construction management is very limited Granting building permits for rural housing follows private “mechanism.” c Current situation of managing rural housing construction: Local construction management is assigned to communal cadastral and construction officials However construction management in rural area is usually loose, houses are built according to demands, desires and financial conditions of households d Current situation of architect training: The architectural training schools expand in number but rural housing architects are not given due attention Architects are confused about rural housing design and management methods 1.4 Research studies related to organizing architectural space for rural housing 1.4.1 Topics, theses and research articles This thesis has analyzed a number of domestic and foreign topics, theses and research articles on Vietnamese rural housing from 1986 to present, some studies are directly related to this thesis’s research topic such as: “Studying and proposing solutions for rural housing space transformation in the Northern Delta against the backdrop of urbanization”, “Identifying basic characteristics of Vietnamese architecture throughout development stages”, “Rural area architecture in the Northern Delta - architectural planning and rural housing architecture issues”, “Transforming structure of villages near big urban areas in Red River Delta into housing units in the context of urbanization.” 1.4.2 Reference books, documents and scientific articles This thesis has analyzed a number of books such as “Tonkin Delta farmers”, “Rural housing architecture”, “Houses of ethnic minorities in the northern midlands of Vietnam”, “The development of Vietnamese traditional structure in Red River Delta”, “Understanding the history of Vietnamese architecture”, “Ancient architecture”, “A history of Vietnamese traditional architecture”, “Vietnamese architecture throughout dynasties”, “A contribution to understanding the character of Vietnamese traditional architecture”, “From traditional cottages”, “Architecture theory”, “Principles of architectural design of residential houses””Rural housing architecture”, “Climate-responsive architecture: Climate-responsive architecture in Vietnamese architecture”, “Solutions for green architecture in Vietnam”, “Understanding Vietnamese cultural identities”, “Vietnamese cultural fundamentals”, “Vietnamese values from tradition to modern and the road to future”, “Housing fung-shui in Vietnam”, “Housing according to folk customs.” 1.4.3 Contests and development projects This thesis has analyzed a number of contests on rural architecture such as “Housing: An ecological balance unit”, “Dong Thap Muoi floating village” Vietnam Association of Architects has organized many big contests on rural housing, among which are: “Rural housing architecture”, “Rural housing architecture in storm and flood prone areas” However contest results did not meed the expectations Many solutions for organizing architectural space for rural housing can not be applied in practice 1.4.4 General comments Scientific topics, theses, reference books, articles and contests have identified traditional cultural values including traditional village and commune structures and proposed solutions for organizing architectural space for rural housing in certain areas However, aforementioned studies only reached verdicts and conclusions mainly from cultural and historical points of view Study results have not solved the issues encountered by specific rural housing aspects in practice In particular, there has no intensive studies that proposed solutions for organizing architectural space for rural housing in consideration of rural and agricultural economy structure in the context of industrialization and modernization 1.5 Overall evaluation and issues to be solved 1.5.1 Overall evaluation a Village and commune structure: Mainly focus on developing infrastructure to create a new look for villages and communes, however village structure is not linked with rural economic development model The planning of rural residential site is not comprehensive and does not taken into consideration of production space It fails to propose suitable production models that fit characteristics of villages and communes in Red River Delta In particular, it has not put emphasis on space for productivity areas b Organizing architectural space for rural housing: Housing architecture in rural area nowadays is not of high quality and aesthetics due to the following reasons: Average household income is low, construction is done spontaneously and arbitrarily Functional layout is not suitable with the fact that rural economic structure has shifted to industrialization and modernization and residents’ living standards are increasing There is a lack of conformity in architectural styles, many of which are not compatible with traditional village landscape 1.5.2 Pending issues to be solved i) Theoretical views and principles of organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta from rural economic point of view shoud be synchronized with attention paid to industrialization and modernization ii) A system of evaluation criteria for organizing architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta should be developed to identify research issues and found the basis for proposing solutions for architectural space organization of rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta It will also facilitate the management of rural housing construction in the upcoming time iii) Solutions should be proposed on the architectural space organization for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta at village level so that function, spatial structure, architectural style and materials of residential area and main house are suitable with household income and economy types iv) Management solutions should be proposed to raise awareness about roles and responsibilities of the authority and communities in managing and developing rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta CHAPTER SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS FOR ORGANIZING ARCHITECTUAL SPACE FOR RURAL HOUSING IN THE SOUTHERN SUBREGION OF RED RIVER DELTA IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION 2.1 Legal basis 2.1.1 Relevant legal documents Legal documents found the basis to develop development management solutions as well as to define limitations in organizing architectural space for rural housing The contents of these documents have been selectively inherited and developed into recommendations of management solutions which are presented in Chapter of this report 2.1.2 Technical regulations, norms and standards on rural village, commune and housing planning with regards to industrialization and modernization The standards, technical regulations on rural planning and rural housing design in Vietnam are underveloped and incomprehensive as presented in Chapter However, the issued standards are considered foundations for the writer to develop solutions on organizing architectural space for rural housing in the Southern subregion of Red River Delta 2.2 Theoretical basis 2.2.1 Theory on architectural development of rural housing towards green and sustainable development It includes theory on “green architecture”, ecology; Theory on green buildings; Values of the traditional rural housing space organization In general, the theories on green architecture and ecological - green buildings reflect the current trends For rural housing in Vietnam, these theories play critical role in clarifying the values of traditional rural housing architecture as well as orienting and supplementing elements to promote the traditional green architecture values in the evolvement of rural housing in the Southern subregion of Red River Delta nowadays 2.2.2 Viewpoints on organizing architectural space for rural housing in Vietnam Prof Dr Hoang Dao Kinh, Assoc Prof Dang Thai Hoang, Assoc Prof Nguyen Dinh Thi, Assoc Prof Tran Van Khai, Dr Nguyen Luan, Dr Ngo Doan Duc, Dr Le Muc Dich In Vietnam, a number of specialists have suggested to organize architectural space for rural housing in a link to local culture, environment and economic development In the context of intensive and extensive economic integrity, the industrialization and modernization process has transformed the traditional architectural space of rural housing into urban one The organization of architectural space for rural housing should not be confined to the layout and appearance, instead attention should be paid to both economic and cultural features and housing space considerations 2.2.3 Fung-shui theory in the space organization for rural housing Fung-shui issues are associated with the urban development in Vietnam It is one of the considerations when people select house location - a practice being applied since long time ago The location for building house should be selected to match with local conditions in terms of topography, geography, geology, climate, adjacent architectural space, etc Vietnamese people select locations for their houses based on “proximity” theory which favors short distance to urban area, river and road in respective order 2.2.4 Industrial revolution 4.0 This industrial revolution 4.0 is established from the breakthroughs of emerging technologies including internet, nanotechnology, biological technology, artificial intelligence, robotics, 3D printing, material science, energy storage, quantum computation, etc Database system is among the most critical resources of this revolution 2.2.5 Trends of rural housing architectural style They are imitation of ancient architecture; modern architecture; mixing modern and traditional architectures; modern - ecological architecture 2.2.6 Classification of rural housing in the Southern subregion of Red River Delta However, to establish a holistic view of rural housing for the optimal organization of architectural space for rural housing that matches with local cultural, social and economic conditions, and based on the proposed approaches, this thesis suggests four classification methods including: Rural housing classified in accordance to residential forms, time (including all forms of rural housing), occupations, and impacts of urbanization, industrialization and modernization 2.3 Lessons learnt from international and domestic practices 2.3.1 International lessons learnt Lesson learnt from the Japan’s movement of One village One product Lesson learnt on developing the traditional space of South Korea Experience on developing mechanism for rural housing planning management and design in Japan: The Government has developed and implemented policies to support agriculture and promote the New Rural Development movement Lesson learnt from UK’s experience of preparing design guidance book Lesson learnt from South Korea’s experience of promoting spiritual power and voluntary participation of the public and making democratic decisions 2.3.2 Lessons learnt in Vietnam Lesson learnt from the development of rural residential area in the Mekong River Delta Projects on planning flood-resistant residential clusters (such as flood-resistant residential cluster in Binh Phu commune of Tan Hong district, Dong Thap province) have only embraced the local residents’s requirements of daily living, accommodation and transportation and fail to pay due attention to climate change adaptation and livelihoods for these people in the future Lesson learnt on rural housing layout: From the review of rural housing architectural space organization in various provinces, it is concluded that the layout of rural housing should be flexible to successfully adapt to the changes in socio-economic conditions and climate Lesson learnt on the organization of architectural space for rural housing: The architecture design should be simple without unnecessary details and suitable to modern construction method 2.4 Factors affecting the organization of architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization 2.4.1 Natural, climate and hydrological conditions Location, climate and soil conditions: The southern subregion of Red River Delta runs along the Red river and Thai Binh river Agricultural area accounts for majority share of the natural land area of the subregion and dominant in Ninh Binh province (70.1%) Farming area is the main component of agricultural area of the subregion (nearly 90%) while the shares of areas earmarked for aquacultural, forestry and salt production activities are not signigicant Geological and topographical conditions: This subregion runs from West to East with diversified topographical terrains, including mountainous area, high land, delta, coastal area and islands, etc However, delta terrain dominates this southern subregion of Red river delta 2.4.2 Climate change impacts on the organization of architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta Similar to Mekong River Dela, the Red River Delta faces with a number of challenges caused by climate change that significantly and negatively impact the living and livelihoods of local residents; these challenges are becoming more and more severe and complicated with floods, coastal landslide, fresh water shortage in dry season, saline water intrusion, more frequent extreme events, etc 2.4.3 Impacts of the industrialization and modernization of rural areas Impacts of the industrialization and modernization to the organization of architectural space for villages: The village space is transformed from “closed” to “open” or “closed and open” status It is open in areas reserved for economic development activities (such as industrial zones, town centers, fields) following the supply chain of agricultural products It now contains the interaction between three kinds of village in which trade village and service-trading village are in close cooperation to each other Impacts of the industrialization and modernization to the organization of architectural space for houses: The area of the house tends to shrink and shifts from horizontal development to vertical development The lower floor which lies on the side of the transportation road is often used for economic purpose Conflicts emerge between living and production space, between area for economic activities and area for the village’s technical infrastructure, between the need to expand production area and the trend of narrowing living area Impacts of the industrialization and modernization to the organization of space for houses: Industrialization and modernization creates impacts on the location of new houses: Houses tend to develop along the road to facilitate the transportation and delivery of production materials and ingredients 2.4.4 Urbanization impacts Urbanization shares common features with industrialization and modernization However, urbanization of rural areas has been defined as external impacts on the rural areas, of which urban is the main impact generator Industrialization and modernization refer to the internal impacts generated from the rural area itself, of which the evolvement of production technology plays key role 2.4.5 Impacts of the agriculture’s and rural’s economic structural change The shift in agriculture economic structure of the Southern subregion of Red River Delta refers to the structural changes of sub-sectors in agriculture [73] This shift takes place following the objective trend The rural’s economic structure shift also has impacts on agriculture development of the southern subregion of Red River Delta 2.4.6 Impacts of social, cultural conditions, lifestyle and traditional practices Cultural features of traditional villages in the Southern subregion of Red River Delta: Cultural features of traditional villages in the Red River Delta are still reflected in the villages in this subregion They provide the space for conducting all cultural, spiritual activities as well as activities related to the relationship between clan and neighbors Habits and traditional practices of residents of the southern subregion of Red River Delta: The farmers are conducting their traditional practices and habits These elements form both foundations for the application of traditional culture and obstacles to the economic development of rural areas in southern subregion of Red River Delta 2.4.7 Population, labor force and demography Population and rural labor transition: The rural population of Southern subregion of Red River Delta still accounts for major component of the total populations in provinces of Vietnam Rural population of Thai Binh dominates (90%) that of the subregion The age and skill of rural labor force in this subregion decide its progress of the industrialization and modernization of agriculture and rural areas So far, vocational training has not been paid due attention in this subregion, particularly trainings on agricultural occupations and services Demographical conditions: The survey of Vietnam families shows that families with two generations (including the spouses and their children) are the most popular form The percentage of families with two generations in the Red River Delta is 63.4% This figure is 67.2% in the Northeast region, 70.3% in the Northwest region and 76.4% in the Central Highland of Vietnam [34] CHAPTER 3: PROPOSED SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIZING ARCHITECTUAL SPACE FOR RURAL HOUSING IN SOUTHERN SUBREGION OF RED RIVER DELTA IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION 3.1 Viewpoints and principles 3.1.1 Viewpoints i) the organization of architectural space for rural housing should be linked with the shift in rural area’s economic structure on the basis of “inheriting” traditional rural housing space ii) the organization of architectural space for rural housing should create a common space for living and economic activities in rural areas as an open and sustainable space iii) the organization of architectural space for rural housing should reserve and promote rural cultural values, promoting positive aspects while at the same time mitigating downside aspects of the traditional rural cultural values iv) organization of architectural space for rural housing is a process to ensure ecological balance in rural areas, harmonize the landscape development between house and village, between areas for living and production purposes, between artificial and natural components 3.1.2 Principles i) Continue to complete the organization of architectural space for villages in compliance to the New Rural Development program for 2009 - 2016, organize the architectural space for production areas towards meeting demands of the agricultural industrialization, in close interaction with the rural resident site and with a view to the development of agricultural service centers and rural product supply chain of each province and of the region as a whole ii) the organization of architectural space for rural housing should be flexible and take into consideration of production activities on the basis of inheriting and further developing ecological values of traditional rural housing iii) Architectural space of housing should bring about convenience to the users while ensure multi-functional on the basis of inheriting and further developing values of traditional architectural space for rural housing 3.2 Proposed system of evaluation criteria for rural housing architectural space in Southern subregion of Red River Delta to meet the demands of industrialization and modernization 3.2.1 Proposed evaluation criteria system Category 1: Criteria that promote economic structural change in agriculture Category 2: Criteria that supplement functions to the commune and village space and closely link them with production space Category 3: Criteria that supplement functions to the architectural space for rural housing Category 4: Criteria that inherit and further promote values of rural architecture Category 5: Criteria on environment-friendly construction technologies and materials with a view to sustainable architecture 3.2.2 Proposed scoring coefficients: Based on results of the collected 10 expert comments, this thesis proposes to apply the following scoring coefficients to the five evaluation criteria categories mentioned above: 30%, 24%, 22%, 14% and 10% for criteria of category to 5, respectively 3.2.3 Application of evaluation criteria Scoring approach shall be applied since criteria are given different scoring coefficients during the evaluation The following formula identifies the final evaluation result: P = a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3 + a4X4 + a5X5 Of which: P: Total score of the organization of architectural space for rural housing in Southern subregion of the Red River Delta in meeting the demands of industrialization and modernization; a: Scoring coefficient; X: Score of the organization of architectural space for rural housing in the southern subregion of Red River Delta in meeting the demands of industrialization and modernization, evaluated by each criteria category 3.3 Proposed solutions for organizing architectural space for rural housing in Southern subregion of Red River Delta to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization 3.3.1 Organization of architectural space for rural housing to meet the demand of agricultural production activities - Organization of architectural space for villages: The village should be able to maintain its traditional space of an agricultural village Agricultural activities account for large share of the village’s economic structure Space for agricultural production should therefore guide the village space organization The organization of village space should meet the demand of agricultural production activities and cover the followings: Public facilities, rural residential area, historical relics, production service area (warehouse, parking area, service area), agricultural production area and technical infrastructure area - Organization of architectural space in term of area: This thesis proposes solutions for the main three rural housing styles: House associated with rice and vegetable planting, house associated with aquaculture activities, and house associated with livestock and poultry husbandry activities The housing area should encompass a variety of functions including living and production areas (ie for planing vegetables, husbandry or aquaculture activities) The thesis proposes to renovate and build new housing area with a view to meet the level of required industrialization and modernization (ie low - medium - high) - Organization of architectural space for housing: It should cover two main functions of living and production The house’s convenience and multifunction are reflected in the integration of different functions into a common space The thesis proposes to renovate and build new house with a view to meet the level of required industrialization and modernization (ie low - medium - high) 3.3.2 Organization of architectural space for rural housing to meet the demand of production of traditional trade village with a view to tourism development - Organization of architectural space for villages: The village space should harmonize the functions of an agricultural village and a service-trading village Professional production activities account for large share of the village’s economic structure The space for professional production should guide the organization of the village’s space The village’s space should include the followings: Public facilities, rural residential area, historical relics, service area for production and trading activities, production area, agricultural production area and technical infrastructure area - Organization of architectural space in term of area: This rural housing is for families with certain goods production; the housing area should therefore has traditional components such as main living area, production area, gate, fence, etc In addition, service area, parking area and area for piling up materials and products should be included The thesis proposes to renovate and build new housing area with a view to meet the level of required industrialization and modernization (ie low - medium - high) - Organization of architectural space for housing: It should cover the facilities that ensure living and supplementary functions For housing associated with secondary income, the housing space should be adapted to the production of goods that the family engages The thesis proposes to renovate and build new house with a view to meet the level of required industrialization and modernization (ie low - medium - high) 3.3.3 Organization of architectural space for rural housing to meet the requirements of agricultural service and trading activities - Organization of architectural space for villages: The village space should harmonize the functions of an agricultural village and a service-trading village Service and trading activities account for large share of the village’s economic structure Space for service and trading activities should therefore guide the village space organization The village’s space should cover the followings: Public facilities (village’s facilities for cultural activities, kindergarten and possibly commune-level public facilities), rural residential site (current and new rural residential sites), historic relics (pagoda, temple), production supporting area (warehouse, parking area, service area), agricultural production area, and technical infrastructure area - Organization of architectural space in term of area: Housing associated with service and trading activities should include the following basic facilities: Living space; shopping, trading and service area which is located in the first floor with access to the road, the exposed area is reserved for trading activities while goods are stored in the less exposed one The thesis proposes to renovate and build new housing area with a view to meet the level of required industrialization and modernization (ie low - medium high) - Organization of architectural space for housing: The thesis proposes space organization solutions for house of 100m2 area on average This size of area is common in existing residential areas lying along the transportation roads The thesis proposes to renovate and build new house with a view to meet the level of required industrialization and modernization (ie low - medium high) 3.4 Additional policies and standards on designing rural housing in the Southern subregion of Red River Delta 3.4.1 Formulation of additional policies - Actual income of the workers should be identified - The government should promptly call back land resources that are currently not efficiently utilized or causing environment pollution, etc and develop them as a resettlement area for workers of agricultural service sector - It is proposed to mobilize the land reserved for urban development as resettlement area for households who are removed with compensation in rural areas - Households engaged in agricultural production activities should be granted with land use tax exemption or reduction; they should be exempted from value-added tax in the first three years - Administration procedures should be simplified the greatest level to facilitate project implementation by investors so as to address housing needs of local residents in a timely manner - Households relying on agricultural production activities should be facilitated to access to funds provided by the Government of Vietnam in its program to promote consumption with 100% interest rate support - It is proposed that a rural housing development company and a rural housing development saving fund should be developed 3.4.2 Development of additional new rural development planning criteria Criteria 1: Planning: Spatial plans of 1/2000 scale for communes and spatial plans of 1/500 scale for prioritized area (such as commune centers, rural residential site and production - service area) should be developed and publicized as scheduled Criteria 7: Rural trading infrastructures: Communes which house rural markets and centers for agricultural service and production Trading arrangments in new urban areas should be connected to traditional markets in old residential areas 3.4.3 Participated management solutions for rural housing architectural space in Southern subregion of Red River Delta a Management of the rehabilitation and adjustment of the village structure to meet the demands of industrialization and modernization: The communities must be consulted and agreement must be reached on the rural residential site planning at the very beginning stage to meet their utmost expectations Planning steps and options must be presented to the communities for consideration and investigation before approval is made b Management of rural housing construction: Given the lessons learnt presented in Chapter 2, it is not feasible to apply rigid policies on rural housing design and construction We should apply flexible approach to this issue, ie UK has successfully developed guidance book to facilitate the understanding and selection of style by local residents that suits their economic and culture conditions c Recommendations: Organization of architectural rural housing with a view to the industrial revolution 4.0 is the trend of industrialization and modernization Local communities should be able to access to policies, make reference to rural housing samples and order the selected design through internet 3.5 Participated management solutions for rural housing architectural space in Southern subregion of Red River Delta 3.5.1 Community participation in the rehabilitation and adjustment of the village structure The communities must be consulted and agreement must be reached on the rural residential site planning at the very beginning stage to meet their utmost expectations Planning steps and options must be presented to the communities for consideration and investigation before approval is made Presentations must be delivered to local communities for their awareness and contribution so as to take full advantages of their traditional experience in fields of topography, water resources, farming fields 3.5.2 Community participation in the rural housing construction management In Vietnam, the profile and capability of rural communities are well developed to make contributions to rural design and construction For example, they are developing village and clan cultures with community regulations It is also evidenced by the fact that rural housing architecture reflects Vietnamese culture values 3.5.3 Community participation in the development of rural housing database system Organization of architectural rural housing with a view to the industrial revolution 4.0 is the trend of industrialization and modernization Local communities should be able to access to policies, make reference to rural housing samples and order the selected design through internet This thesis recommends to develop a rural housing database system and website for each commune This website should be integrated with the commune’s administration system to save operation costs 3.6 Application of the study on organizing architectural space for rural housing in Tu Te village, Thanh Tan commune, Kien Xuong district, Thai Binh province in the context of industrialization and modernization 3.6.1 Overview Tu Te village is the largest of the villages that constitute Thanh Tan commune of Kien Xuong district, Thai Binh province The village population is 1,279 people with 347 households (according to 2015 data) Pagoda and temple are important historic relics of this village 3.6.2 Evaluation of the organization of architectural space for rural housing We evaluated the organization of architectural space for rura housing in Tu Te village against the five criteria categories and proposed solutions to develop the village with a view to meet the demands of industrialization and modernization process The formula calculation gave the final evaluation result: P = 62 points, industrialization and modernization requirements are at average level 3.6.3 Organization of architectural space for rural housing: Space organization for Tu Te village: The village residents are mainly involved in agriculture production activities, including vegetable planting, aquaculture, livestock and poultry husbandry, etc They are producing products in the forms of agricultural enterprises, farms or households The space organization of the village should be supplemented with production support areas, parking area, rural residential site and technical infrastructure system to support local production activities Organization of architectural space for rural housing area of Nguyen Thi Ha - a resident of Tu Te village in Thanh Tan commune: Based on current housing area and her traditional rural housing structure should be maintained Organization of architectural space for rural housing area of Ha Van Lich a resident of Tu Te village in Thanh Tan commune: Based on current housing area and new house should be built next to the current one 3.6 Comments on the study’s results 3.6.1 Comments on the study’s results The study is highly potential for application in the management and implementation of rural housing planning, design management In addition, the study’s results promote the sustainable development of commune and village’s cultural values as well as raise public awareness on rural housing 3.6.2 Application of the study’s results The study is applicable in the field of rural housing planning and management The thesis’s contents can be used as training material and reference document for researches in civil engineering and architectural universities CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion The study on organization of architectural space for rural housing is necessary and captures the society’s issue of concern Various studies on the organization of architectural space for rural housing have been implemented in Vietnam; however such studies fail to link with rural economic development in a holistic manner The quality and appearance of architectural space for rural housing are not good This thesis provides legal and scientific basis including theories and practices to explain the foundations of the proposed solutions It presents viewpoints on organizing architectural space for rural housing in sustainable manner, covering economic - cultural - environmental aspects with focus on economic development The thesis harmonizes the relationship between living and production spaces on the basis of inheriting and further developing traditional cultural values in the context of industrialization and modernization It proposes principles for organizing architectural space for rural housing at different levels of village, rural housing area and living house with focus on architecture space for housing to ensure flexibility, multi-function and combination of rural housing and production abilities The thesis proposes 22 evaluation criteria which are divided into categories to assess the organization of architectural space for rural housing in meeting the requirements of industrialization and modernization This study recommends solutions for organizing architectural space for rural housing in levels of village, surrounding facilities and housing The village production infrastructure system should be rehabilitated and supplemented to meet its development requirements The thesis recommends solutions to rehabilitate and build new facilities in accordance to income level It also proposes solutions on housing structure and layout for houses of less than 250m2 Recommendations of this thesis include the supplementation of policies on organizing architectural space for rural housing in the Southern subregion of Red River Delta, particularly the supplementation of new rural planning criteria and rural housing design standards This thesis recommends to engage community participation through the use of website and database which is suitable to industrial revolution 4.0 Recommendations Ministry of Construction should develop and issue regulations on rural housing design standards, rural construction licensing and guidance book on organizing architectural space for rural housing Department of Construction should manage and implement new rural plans as well as rural residential sites in accordance to the master plan; Department of Natural Resources and Environment should make use of the study’s results in their rural environmental management, particularly in trade villages; Department of Culture, Sports and Tourisms should make use of the study’s results in their reservation of physical and non-physical values in rural areas; Designing consultancy companies should make use of the study’s results while providing consultancy services in fields of planning new rural development, rural residential sites and rural housing design Enterprises can use the study’s results in their investments to develop resettlement buildings, handcraft clusters and tourist attraction sites in rural area Communities may use the study’s results in their propaganda efforts to raise awareness on the importance of rural housing to environmental protection and village/commune cultural development 25 PUBLICATION OF THE WRITER Rural housing functions transition in Red River Delta under the impact of urbanization - Construction Journal ISSN 0866-0762 - April 2013 Organization of architectural space for rural housing, status quo and solutions - Construction Journal ISSN 0866-0762 - July 2016 Organization of architectural space for rural housing in close linkage to agricultural economic development model in Red River Delta Architectural Journal ISSN 0866-8617- September 2016 Developing a database on Duong Lam old village for cultural tourism development in the context of industrial revolution 4.0, Proceedings of workshop on reservation and promotion of cultural heritages under the industrial revolution 4.0, National University Publishing House, ISBN:978604-62-9973-8, December 2017 Proposed solutions to organize architectural space for rural housing in the Red River Delta in the context of industrialization and modernization Construction Journal ISSN 0866-8762 - February 2018 ... Population, labor force and demography Population and rural labor transition: The rural population of Southern subregion of Red River Delta still accounts for major component of the total populations... for villages: The village space should harmonize the functions of an agricultural village and a service-trading village Service and trading activities account for large share of the village’s... Technical regulations, norms and standards on rural village, commune and housing planning with regards to industrialization and modernization The standards, technical regulations on rural planning
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