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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS BUI THANH TUAN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SUBURBAN DISTRICTS OF HA NOI BRIEF PHD DISSERTATION OF ECONOMICS MAJOR: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Code : 62 31 01 05 HANOI - 2018 The thesis is completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Scientific supervisor: Asso.Prof/Dr Pham Thi Khanh Reviewer 1: Reviewer 2: Reviewer 3: The thesis will be defended in front of the Thesis Committee at Academy level, at the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At…… hour…… date …… month …… year 20 The thesis can be found at: National Library and Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics PREMABLE The urgency of the topic At present, Vietnam agriculture is still an important material production sector of the economy, providing direct food and foodstuff for people; provide, use a number of inputs - outputs for industry or service In particular, "urban argriculture" is based on urban and suburban space, closely linked with urban socio-economic and ecological systems Over the past years, although the production value of the agricultural sector has been low in the economic structure of Hanoi (about - 4.5%), it contributes significantly to the implementation of the tasks economic, political - social capital of the capital Agricultural production in the suburbs of Hanoi has made great progress, such as accelerating mechanization, applying science and technology to production; consolidation of land plots is regarded as a breakthrough, achieving outstanding results; Initially formed and expanded specialized areas of cultivation, productivity, quality and economic efficiency are quite high However, compared with the demand for sustainable agricultural development, the capital is not suitable, besides, the agriculture outside the city of Hanoi has many limitations such as the area of agricultural production will increasingly narrowed by rapid urbanization; small scale production, scaled production, low quality of production and competitiveness, unsustainable production; The internal restructuring of the agricultural sector has been slow and unstable; The research, application and transfer of scientific and technological advances into production is still slow and effective People can not rely on the fields to improve their incomes as well as their quality of life Thus clarifying theoretical and practical issues in developing suburban agriculture in a sustainable manner is an objective requirement that is absolutely necessary for the socio-economic and environmental development of the capital Developed in the context of industrialization, modernization, urbanization and international integration Thus, “Agricultural development in suburban districts of Hanoi” was chosen as the research topic of the doctoral dissertation - majoring in development economics Aims and tasks of the dissestation 2.1 The amis and of the dissestation: Based on the study of the theory of agricultural development in the suburbs and clarification of the situation in the suburbs of Hanoi, the thesis proposes solutions to promote the development of agriculture in the capital in the coming time 2.2 Research tasks: (i) To study the situation at home and abroad on agricultural development outside the city, to find theoretical and practical gaps for further clarification; (ii) To systematize and clarify the rationale for agricultural development in suburban districts, including: concepts, characteristics, roles, contents, indicators and means of measuring development suburban agriculture; (iii) Research, identification of factors affecting agricultural development in the suburbs; (iv) Study of international and local experiences on agricultural development in the suburbs; draw lessons for Hanoi's agricultural development; (v) Analyze and evaluate the current status of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi to clarify the achievements and constraints; difficulties and obstacles to the development of agriculture outside of Hanoi; (vi) Suggesting directions and solutions to promote agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi in the coming time Objective and scope of the dissertation 3.1 Objective of the dissertation The research subject of the thesis is agricultural development in suburban districts of Hanoi, focusing on fields of cultivation and animal husbandry 3.2 Research scope - Contents: The dissertation will study and clarify theoretical and practical issues of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi, focusing on the following topics: (1) The growth of agriculture suburbs; (2) shift the structure of rural agriculture towards sustainability; (3) Improve the efficiency of suburban agriculture Based on that, identify the main orientations and solutions to promote the development of suburban agriculture in the coming time - Regarding the space: The thesis on the survey of agricultural development situation in 17 suburban districts of Hanoi, in which some suburban districts represent the three sub-ecological regions (hilly areas, delta areas and regions riparian areas) and the extent of the impact of urbanization Particularly, based on surveys and surveys of the author and the Institute for Socio-Economic Development in Hanoi, the dissertation focuses on Soc Son, Dong Anh, Gia Lam, Hoai Duc, Phuc Tho districts , Ba Vi, Ung Hoa and Phu Xuyen - Regarding the time: The dissertation will study and survey the realities of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi in the period from 2008 to 2016 and propose solutions for agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi to 2030 by 2050 Theoretical bases and research methods 4.1 Theoretical bases The thesis is based on the basic thesis of Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought; The Party's and State's viewpoints and policies on socio-economic development in general and agricultural development in particular At the same time, the thesis also relies on a number of theories of modern market economics (supply-demand, the role of the state, value chain, supply chain, competition in conditions of association, international import ); the theory of economic development to study the development of suburban agriculture The dissertation on selective research related research has been published by some authors on agricultural development in general, agriculture in the suburbs in particular international and domestic experience; At the same time, to directly conduct surveys and surveys in order to realize the set objectives and tasks 4.2 Research methods The dissertation uses a combination of research methods, which basically uses the following methods: - Methodology for systematization: This method is used in the overview of research related to suburban agricultural development (Chapter 1) and in the basics of the thesis topic (Chapter 2) to thoroughly study the problem; At the same time, the research content of the dissertation should be clearly defined - Analytical and synthesis method: This method is used mainly in evaluating the realities of agricultural development in suburban districts of Hanoi (Chapter 3) - Statistical and comparative methods are used in the assessment of the situation in Chapter - The method of induction and interpretation is used to clarify some basic issues of suburban agricultural development - The method of sociological survey is based on surveys and surveys by the author and the Institute for Socio-Economic Development in Hanoi In the survey of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development in Hanoi, there are 03 subjects, including 01: Households and individuals; Form 02: Enterprises, cooperatives, farms; Form 03: Managers at provincial, district, town and commune level, in 06 selected districts, as well as in Ha Noi Department of Agriculture and Rural Development The questionnaire was obtained, after the cleaning test, to remove the inappropriate votes Data aggregation and processing of questionnaires using specialized software SPSS The dissertation uses part of the results obtained to refer more about the status quo, as well as to be part of the basis for solutions to promote agricultural development outside the city In the survey, survey and in-depth interview of the author, in Soc Son, Dong Anh and Phu Xuyen districts, one sample of questionnaires (households and individuals) were selected for the survey comparison form, confirming the results of the study The author has investigated 250 households and individuals, but in the process of processing data, many of the votes were not used because they did not provide a full answer As a result, the questionnaires were not cleaned before the recall, so the authors did not use the SPSS model, but used statistical methods to analyze the data However, the author argues that, with respect to the scope and scope of the survey, the survey sample data are representative and reliable for comparison and clarification Research results, reflecting the real situation of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi - Using the SWOT matrix used to analyze and evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, challenges and opport unities for agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi as a basis for the orientation and solutions to promote development Suburban agriculture next time New contributions of the dissertation The dissertation is a combination of theoretical and practical research, based on systematization, clarifying the rationale for suburban agriculture development to assess the current situation and propose major solutions to promote agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi after the 2008-2016 study period, vision to 2050 Theoretical and practical significance of the thesis - Reason: The research results of the dissertation contribute to further clarify the theory of suburban agriculture and suburban agriculture development - In practice: The results of the thesis contribute to promoting agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi in the coming time At the same time, the dissertation is a good reference source for research work and teaching at economic training institutions Structure of the dissertation Apart from the introduction, conclusion, reference materials and appendix, the content of the thesis consists of chapters, 10 periods Chapter OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH RELATED TO THEMES 1.1 RESEARCH WORKS IN AND OUTSIDE COUNTRY CONCERNING PROJECT THESIS 1.1.1 Some studies on the role of agricultural development in suburban areas This study was coined by J.H.Von Thunen (1826) in "The Isolated State with Respect to Agriculture and Political Economy"; the author of Nugent (2000), "The Impact of Urban Agriculture on Households and Local Economies"; FAO (2007) in the study "Profitability and sustainability of urban and peri-urban agriculture"; the author of Pham Sy Liem (2009) in "Urban agriculture in the planning of Hanoi"; Nguyen Van Toan (2010) in "Land Use in Hanoi Sustainable"; Nguyen Dang Nghia and Mai Thanh Phung (2011) in "Urban and Suburban Agriculture"; the author Ho Cao Viet (2013) in "The Scientific Basis of Forms of Urban Agriculture Development and Application in the Mekong Delta"; The GSRD Foundation, the Asia Foundation and the Vietnam Urban Planning Association (2016) with the document "Development of suburban agriculture towards a better life for the people"; Works: "Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities" by Smith J., Ratta A., Nase J (1996) ); "Urban agriculture: definition, presence, potentials and risks" by Mougeot J.A (1999); "The Special Program for Food Security: Urban and Periurban Agriculture" by FAO (2001) The Works Clarifying the Role of Suburban Agriculture for cities; create more jobs for family labor; Ensure livelihood security as well as land asset security; improving the living standards of urban people 1.1.2 Studies on the form of suburban agricultural development This study was conducted by J.H.Von Thunen (1826); Authors such as Sinclair (1967), Boal (1970), Bryant (1973) in their studies have shown that a common feature of suburban agriculture (or urban agriculture) often develops into rings Green surrounds the city The author Cao Cao Viet (2013, by Tran Quoc Viet (2014) in "Forms of urban agricultural land organization in Ho Chi Minh City - Analysis from the perspective of economic geography and ecology" It has also identified the basis for the formation of the agricultural belt of cities, including Ho Chi Minh City In addition, many in-depth studies on agricultural development in the urbanecological direction of Pham Van Khoi (2004) in the study "Agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi in the direction of agricultural students "; Le Quy Don (2005) with the theme "Scientific basis for agricultural development towards urban eco-agriculture and rural modernization in Hanoi 2006-2010"; Author Vu Xuan De (2006) in the study "Studying the development of appropriate agro-ecological models in the process of industrialization - modernization and urbanization in Ho Chi Minh City"; author Le Van Tho (2012) in the thesis "Research on agricultural development in Thai Nguyen city towards ecological urbanization"; the topic "Research on the development of urban eco-agriculture in Hai Phong city" conducted by the People's Committee of Hai Phong city (2007); Some solutions for agricultural development, rural suburban of Ho Chi Minh City on the basis of combining high technology and ecological fit "by author Dinh Son Hung (2003) 1.1.3 Studies on the impact of urbanization on suburban agriculture By Ramankutty N., Foley J., Olejniczak N (2000) "People on the land: Changes in global population and croplands during the 20th century" Cultivation in the 20th century); By Rigg, Jonathan (2005) in the study "Poverty and livelihoods after full-time farming: a Southeast Asian view" (Poverty and livelihoods after full-time farming: a Southeast Asian perspective); Authors Michael Spence, Patricia Clarke, Annez and Robert M Buckley (2010) with the study "Urbanization and Growth"; The author Nguyen Tiep (2005) in the study "Rural suburban human resources in the urbanization process in Hanoi"; the author Pham Sy Liem (2009); The author "Nguyen Thi Thom, Charcoal Hang" (2010) with the project "Creating jobs for agricultural labor in the process of urbanization"; author Nguyen Thi Hai Van (2013) in his book "Urbanization and Employment in the Suburbs of Hanoi"; The author Tran Thi Minh Phuong (2015) with the thesis "Solutions to create jobs for rural workers in Hanoi in the context of urbanization" has clarified the impact of urbanization and economic growth This will lead to land reclamation from agriculture to non-agricultural areas such as housing, industrial zones, etc., which will affect the employment and life of suburban residents 1.1.4 Studies on the experience of agricultural development outside the city By Mark Redwood (2012) in "Agriculture in urban planning: livelihoods and food security"; author David Mason (2006) with the work "Urban Agriculture"; author Le Quoc Doanh (2004) with the theme "Research on Scientific Foundations and Economic and Technical Solutions for Agricultural Development in the Peri-urban Area of Hanoi"; The author Tran Hoi Sinh (2006) with the study "Labor restructuring in five suburban districts of Ho Chi Minh City in the process of urbanization - current situation and solutions"; The author Tran Thi Hong Viet (2006) with the thesis "The main economic solutions to shift the economic structure of agriculture outside Hanoi into the direction of ecological agriculture"; GSRD Foundation, Asia Foundation and Urban Planning Association of Vietnam (2016); The author Hoang Thi Ngoc Anh (2016) in "The bright spot of urban agriculture development in Hai Phong" has clarified the reality of agricultural development in cities around the world, especially in developing countries such as Zimbabwe, Ghana, Peru, Congo, Singapore; In Vietnam, it is clear that the contributions of agriculture to food security, livelihoods and health of workers are reflected At the same time, clearly defined policies, capital are conditions for development of suburban agriculture 1.2 GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH WORKS RELATED TO DOCTORAL DISCUSSIONS AND PROBLEMS NEEDED FOR RESEARCH 1.2.1 General assessment From the overview of the study of urban agriculture in general, agriculture in the suburbs in particular, showed that there are many scholars interested in studying this issue from different perspectives and aspects: i) Some studies have initially clarified the role of urban or suburban agriculture in providing fresh food and food; create jobs, ensure social security, regulate the living environment; It also points out the competitive advantages of suburban agriculture; ii) Some studies highlight green belts as a feature of suburban agriculture; At the same time, expressing the close assessment and evaluation of the process of agricultural development in the suburbs; iii) Some research projects on agricultural development in the suburbs in some cities and abroad, focusing on urbanecological agriculture, restructuring agricultural sector; restructuring labor However, there are no research results that have a systematic theoretical and practical in the affected area as outside the city of Hanoi 1.2.2 Thesis issues need to be addressed On the basis of inheriting and receiving the results of these researches, with the "gap" pointed out, the dissertation topic will focus on clarifying the following issues: - Theoretical: The thesis clarifies the basis of agricultural development in the suburbs, focusing on some basic contents as follows: i) Clarify the nature of agricultural development in the suburbs; ii) Analysis of characteristics and role of agricultural development in the suburbs; iii) Identify and analyze clearly the contents and indicators of agricultural development in suburban districts; iv) Analysis of factors affecting agricultural development in the suburbs - Practically: The dissertation focuses on analyzing and evaluating some contents from the suburban agricultural development, such as: i) Analysis and assessment of domestic and foreign experiences on agricultural development in the suburbs; draw lessons for agricultural development outside of Hanoi; ii) Analysis and assessment of the status of agricultural development in suburban districts of Hanoi, achievements, constraints and causes; iii) Study and propose orientations and solutions to promote agricultural development in suburban districts of Hanoi in the coming time Chapter RULE AND PRACTICE FOR FOREIGN AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.1 CONCEPTS, CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.1.1 Concept 2.1.1.1 Agricultural concept The thesis is consistent with the notion: "Agriculture is one of the important material production sectors of the national economy Agricultural activities are not only linked to socio-economic factors but also to natural factors Agriculture in the broad sense includes: cultivation, livestock, forestry and fisheries "in Agricultural Economics - theory and practice, author Dinh Phi Ho 2.1.1.2 The concept of suburban agriculture On the basis of inheriting the rational factors in the concept of "urban agriculture," the thesis author said that suburban agriculture is a part of urban agriculture, with suburban areas, far capital; integrate with the ecosystem and closely related to the socio-economic development, industrialization and urbanization of an urban 2.1.1.3 The concept of agricultural development outside the city On the basis of inheriting the rational factors in the concept of agricultural development outside the city (or urban agriculture, suburban agriculture) is the sustainable development on the basis of harmonious combination of three factors: economic, environmental and social, other concepts of agricultural development, from the perspective of economic development, the author of the thesis that: Development of suburban agriculture is the process of change in quantity The production and efficiency of the agricultural sector is closely linked to the socioeconomic development of the peri-urban area and the restructuring of the agricultural economy in the suburbs in a sustainable manner in order to build a modern agriculture , high technology application 2.1.2 Key features of suburban agricultural development Apart from the general characteristics of agricultural development, the development of suburban agriculture is characterized by the following characteristics: i) Development of suburban agriculture to meet the agricultural products needs of the city; ii) Development of suburban agriculture associated with urban development and green belt development; iii) Development of suburban agriculture in the context of reduced land area due to urbanization and industrialization; iv) Development of suburban agriculture in the condition that agricultural labor moves to non-agricultural occupations; v) The development of suburban agriculture directly affects the situation of socio-political stability in the out-of-urban areas 2.1.3 The role of agricultural development in the suburbs The basic role of suburban agricultural development, including: i) development of suburban agriculture contributes to the economic growth of the city; ii) Development of suburban agriculture contributes to rural economic restructuring in a sustainable manner; iii) Development of suburban agriculture contributes to labor restructuring, job creation, income generation and livelihood of suburban farmers; iv) The development of suburban agriculture contributes to creating a green belt for the city 2.2 CONTENT, INDICATORS, METHODS OF EVALUATION AND FACTORS TO IMPROVE FOREIGN AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT 2.2.1 Content of agricultural development outside the city 2.2.1.1 Growth of suburban agriculture Just like agricultural development in general, the growth of agriculture is a factor of suburban agricultural development Suburban agricultural growth is the increase in agricultural output or gross output of goods and services that primarily serves the needs of urban dwellers in a given period (usually one year) The increase is shown by the scale and speed of development Scale - reflects the increase more or less; speed - is used with relative comparisons and reflects a rapid or slow increase, whether stable or not, increased by scale expansion, or by improved productivity in agriculture between periods development of suburban agriculture 2.2.1.2 Shift the agricultural structure of the suburbs towards sustainability The structure of agriculture in general, the structure of agriculture in the suburbs in particular represents the development of an agricultural economy, so the shift of suburban agriculture structure towards sustainable is the change in the right coin the components of the production base to ensure the high growth, 11 and opportunities in exploiting and developing competitive commodities, including many agricultural products 3.1.1.2 Climate, water source and hydrological regime In general, the climate, water source and hydrographic regime in the suburbs of Hanoi are suitable for the development of tropical and temperate crops and forests and ecosystems However, pollution from agricultural production, domestic waste is threatening the development of agriculture outside the city 3.1.2 Social and economic conditions 3.1.2.1 Economic conditions In the process of industrialization and modernization, Hanoi is developing in the direction of reducing the proportion of agriculture, increasing the share of industry and services, but agriculture still plays an important role, contributing significantly to To perform important socio-political and social tasks of the Capital However, the human resources in rural suburban areas are plentiful but their quality is not high, so they limit the laborers to apply science and technology to production or shift to other industries and services 3.1.2.2 About population, labor and employment According to the Hanoi Statistical Year Book, in 2016, the population of the capital is 7,582.3 thousand; The suburban area of Hanoi is abundant in human resources for agricultural development, and a source of human resources for the socio-economic development of the city However, due to the urbanization process with good job opportunities, income, living conditions and good education, migration from suburban areas and other provinces and cities in the Red River Delta to Hanoi This is a big pressure on all sides for the capital Moreover, the quality of labor in agriculture and rural areas has not met the requirements, with many interventions in the process of industrialization and modernization in the context of industrial revolution 4.0 so the development The application of scientific and technological advances to agricultural development is limited 3.1.2.3 On infrastructure Hanoi has a more developed and developed infrastructure system than many other localities in the Red River Delta; To meet the demand for agriculture and contribute to changing the rural face of suburban districts, improving and raising the living standards of the people in this area Although infrastructure development is quite synchronous, these not meet the foundation for agricultural commodity development 3.2 PATTERNS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN HANOI FOREIGN DISTRICT PERIOD 2008 - 2016 3.2.1 Situation of agricultural growth in suburban districts In the past, due to the urbanization process, agricultural land in the suburbs of Hanoi has tended to decrease, and is continuously affected by natural calamities and epidemics However, the scale and rate of GDP growth of Hanoi's suburban agriculture has increased steadily over the past years The value of agricultural, 12 forestry and fishery production in Hanoi has steadily increased From 2008 until now, the value of agricultural production of the city has always been positive In 2016, the total value of agricultural production in Hanoi reached 39.632 trillion dong (current price), an increase of 105.3 % compared to 2008 (VND 19,304 billion) (see Graph 3.1 for details) Unit: VND bilion 40000 30000 20000 10000 2008 2009 Tổng 2010 2011 Trồng trọt 2012 2013 2014 Chăn nuôi 2015 2016 Dịch vụ Figure 3.1: Agricultural production (at current prices) Source: word processing [12; 13] In the period of 2008 - 2016, the agricultural sector still has a significant increase, the average growth rate of the whole period is about 4%, higher than the set target The growth quality of Hanoi's suburban agriculture has been improving Agricultural production, in the period 2008 - 2015, agricultural production of the city achieved an average growth of 3.5% per year It can be affirmed, from the right policy of the Party Committee, People's Committee, Hanoi People's Council on agricultural development in recent years, together with the efforts of all levels, the the agricultural production in Hanoi has achieved good growth, the structure of agriculture shifted positively 3.2.2 Situation of agricultural restructuring in suburban districts Over the past years, the economic structure of the agricultural sector has been shifted in a positive direction, in line with the development requirements: gradually reducing the proportion of cultivation, raising livestock, aquaculture, agricultural services and forestry The proportion of plants and animals of high quality and economic value, food safety gradually increased However, the pace of the transition is very slow, after years the decline of agriculture is 3.5% In 2008, agricultural production value was 95.6%, seafood 4.2% and forestry 2.0%; By 2016 the share of agriculture decreased to 92.1%, the fisheries sector, the proportion of fishery increased to 7.7%, forestry remained 2.0% Deepening into the internal analysis of the agricultural sector shows that the shift towards increasing the proportion of livestock, reducing the proportion of cultivation, 13 the level of shifting is higher than that of agriculture and fisheries, but so far Demand for agricultural economic restructuring The pace of transition is not adequate Based on data on the structure of agricultural production value by economic subdivision of Hanoi from 2008 to 2016, we can calculate the rate of restructuring of Hanoi's agricultural sector and cultivation , animal husbandry, agricultural services, fisheries and forestry In general, in the period of 2008 - 2016, the rate of change of the agricultural sector is variable and tends to slow down, especially in the period from 2010 to 2014 which tends to go down The rate of change for the period of 2008 - 2009 reached the highest rate of 6.52%; moving to 2009 - 2010, down to 2.59%; 2010 to fall below 1% to 0.97%; 2011 to 2012 increased to 1.73% and the lowest level in 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 decreased to less than 1% to 0.15% and 0.18% respectively; Moving to 2014 - 2015 and 2015 - 2016, the rate of change has tended to increase, respectively 0.95% and 2.03% Although the area of agricultural land tends to decrease due to the urbanization of the city is increasing and the rate of economic restructuring of agricultural sector tends to decrease, but the productivity of agricultural land per hectare upward trend Thus, it is possible to assess the structure of Hanoi's agricultural sector in the recent past, but has shifted towards a positive but gradual decline (see Figure 3.3) Chart 3.3: Speed of CDC in agriculture by economic sector Source: [12; 13] and author's calculations - Structural Change in Crop: Grain-based cereals are the dominant crop with more than 50% of total production value in the period 2008 - 2013, however, tends to decrease In 2016, the production value of cultivation reached VND16,473 billion, up 2.7% against 2015, an increase of 76% over 2008, of which the largest increase was in the fields of vegetables, beans, flowers, Ornamental plants increased 7.1% over the previous year; The food crop for the county in 2014 has increased compared to 2013, but the growth rate is very low 0.78% The production value of crop production in this period has changed considerably, while cereal crops tend to decrease gradually, the group of fruit trees, especially vegetable groups, beans , flowers and bonsai tend to increase rapidly The rate of change of cultivation structure in the period 2008 - 2016 increased quite fast, but not even over the years In the years 2009 - 2010 at 13.92%, in 2014 - 2015 at 8.23%, in the years 2010 - 2013 only at the level of 14 more than 3% In general, in recent years, the pace of restructuring of the industry has been slowing down, especially in the period 2013 - 2014, below 2% However, for the period 2008 - 2016, the rate of restructuring of the cultivation sector was nearly 6% faster than the rate of restructuring of the agricultural sector (Figure 3.4) Figure 3.4 shows that the rate of structural change in the agricultural sector tends to slow down along with the rate of change between the cultivated area and the production value of the sector In spite of the decreasing agricultural land area (0.8% per annum), the value of agricultural production per hectare of agricultural land tended to increase significantly, increasing by 17.1% higher than the restructuring rate of the whole industry Thus, it is possible to evaluate the cultivation of Hanoi in the past has a rapid transition in the direction of high value, serving the needs of urban residents - Transformation in the livestock sector: The production value of the livestock sector in the past years continuously increased In 2014, total production value of the whole city was 14,897 billion VND (compared to 2010), accounting for 51.1% of the agricultural production value Compared with 2013, the production value of livestock sector increased by 3.1% In the period from 2008 to 2014, the production value of the livestock sector increased by an average of 6.5% per year, higher than that of the agricultural sector Great contribution to the production value of the industry is still pig production, in 2014 reached 8,397 billion, accounting for 56.4% of the total production value However, the growth rate of pig production in this period tends to increase slowly, the average level of 2008 - 2014 only increased 3.2% per year; In 2013, 2014 the production value of this sector tends to decrease With the exception of the period 2008 - 2012, the speed of the rapid transformation was due to the expansion of Hanoi's administrative boundaries There was an interaction of data from the livestock sector in Hanoi with some provinces merged In 2013, the whole sector tends to decrease The strongest growth of the livestock sector is the raising of buffalos and cows with an increase of production value in the period of 2008 - 2016 at nearly 35% per year Poultry production increased by 14.1% per annum Accordingly, the structure of the whole livestock sector in this period has a gradual shift; In which the proportion of pigs gradually decreased, increasing the proportion of cattle and poultry In the period of 2008 - 2012, the rate of restructuring of the livestock sector in Hanoi tends to increase rapidly from 1.04% 2009-2010 to 4.71% in 2011 - 2012 However, from 2012 to present The trend is decreasing and only 0.34% and 0.78 in the period 2014 - 2016 (Figure 3.5) This is because the livestock sector in the city is still small scale, high price, constantly facing the disease of cattle and poultry due to the system of slaughtering, preservation storage does not meet standards The rate of application of advanced production processes in animal husbandry is very low Most of livestock producers still use rudimentary equipment; The system of breeding facilities is simple, the work of 15 environmental pollution has been paid attention but the rate is still low People still focus on livestock for productivity, not emphasis on product quality, food safety The application of advanced science and technology in slaughtering livestock and poultry now has many limitations, most people slaughter livestock at the place of production with the rudimentary equipment affect the quality of production products and suburban environment Figure 3.5: Speed of CDC in livestock sector Source: [12; 13] and author's calculations Although the rate of change in the livestock sector is decreasing, suburban farming is growing with a variety of premium products such as lean porkers, dairy cows, chickens, and so forth To develop and develop concentrated livestock areas away from population quarters in strict compliance with the planning on development of clean products, ensuring food hygiene and safety and environmental protection - The structural shift in the fisheries sector, in the period of 2008 - 2014, the production value of the fishery sector is quite trendy, the average growth rate is 15.3% per year The internal structure of the fisheries sector has shifted towards increasing the proportion of breeding services, especially high-quality varieties such as carp, crispy tilapia, etc In 2016, Hanoi has an aquaculture area of 20,886 hectares, down 254 hectares compared with 2015, down 2,251 hectares compared to 2014 In 2014, Hanoi has a breeding area of 23,137 hectares; total aquaculture production reached 90,380.5 tons; Production of fingerlings of all kinds reached 1,440.3 million, up 4% from 2013 In addition, some quality fish species were developed in many regions to meet the increasing requirements of consumers Black carp, tilapia, carp The development of high-end specialty aquatic products has gone in the right direction, showing that the area and output of high quality aquatic products has increased rapidly last time This shows that a positive economic shift focuses on the sustainable development of aquatic resources for the future and on the demand for high-end products of the capital However, the internal structure of the fisheries sector has not been sharply transformed, but the traditional farming structure (mainly fish) 16 has been developed to increase the production value of the whole sector small scale production is the main, technology is so poor will have very difficult item 3.2.3 Current status of quality and efficiency of agricultural production in suburban districts - In terms of value per hectare of agricultural land: In the 2008 - 2016 period, together with the research and deep application of scientific and technological advances to production and business, The structure of crops and livestock, especially the introduction of new varieties, has led to an increase in productivity and the efficiency of suburban farming has increased steadily over the years the value of agricultural and forestry production per hectare of agricultural land is constantly increasing due to the promotion of the application of science and technology; The value of agriculture, forestry and fishery reached 233 million VND / ha, higher than in 2014 and 1.24 times higher than in 2010 In terms of production value per hectare of production land of the livestock sector in the medium term The tendency to increase is quite (7.3% per year) In particular, the sector with the highest increase was the cattle raising sector (34.4% / year) and the poultry sector (14.1% / year) Unit: VND milion/ha 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Nội TP Hồ Chí Minh 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Figure 3.7: Output value per hectare of agricultural land in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City for the period 2008 - 2016 Source: [12; 13] and author’s calculations Figure 3.7 shows that in the period 2008 - 2016, the value of hectares of agricultural land in Hanoi increased from VND 122 million / in 2008 to VND 239 million / in 2016 The hectare of agricultural land in Hanoi has grown steadily over the years, rising rapidly in the period 2010 - 2013, but tends to slow down from 2013 to present Thus, the agricultural sector in Hanoi in recent years, though has brought certain effects, but the quality of growth and competitiveness is low; The research, application and transfer of technical advances into production is slow; Insufficient investment in high-tech agriculture has led to the suburban agriculture not moving quickly towards higher values, serving the needs of urban residents Compared with Ho Chi Minh City, the value of hectares of agricultural land in Hanoi is increasing In the period 2008 - 2016, the value of hectares produced in Ho Chi Minh City is higher than in Hanoi Significant mutation, which widens the value gap of of agricultural land between the two cities This reflects not only 17 the quality and effectiveness of agricultural development in Ho Chi Minh City, but also the investment in the right direction, the application of science and technology, crops and livestock, especially the promotion of hi-tech agriculture in this locality, but later developed but more developed than Hanoi - On the shift of labor structure, job creation, income generation, suburban farmers life: In the past, rural suburban laborers mainly shifted from agriculture to industryconstruction; Labor from the industrial sector - construction to services, labor from the agricultural sector to the service sector is limited With the trend of labor mobility and orientation of suburban economic development in 2016-2020, the proportion of agricultural labor in the social labor structure will be around 20% by 2020 In 2008, the number of rural laborers in Hanoi was 1.43 million, the unemployed was 37.5 thousand, accounting for nearly 2.6% of the rural labor force The number of people employed is quite high, but they are mostly lowincome workers In 2015, the number of unemployed people in agriculture has fallen to 24.1 thousand people (thanks to industrial and service development) and the unemployment rate has fallen Thanks to the economic restructuring and the development of many forms, the economic model requires high skills in agriculture and the income of rural labor has increased In recent years, the quality of life of rural people has been increased and has been continuously improved, positively improved, the per capita income of this area has increased steadily In 2013, the average income of rural people is about 23.7 million VND / person / year, an increase of 169% compared to 2010; increased from 14.0 million (in 2011) to 28.6 million (in 2014); In 2015, it will reach VND 33.0 million / person / year, exceeding VND 8.0 million against the target; 2016 is 36 million VND / year Unit: VND milion 100 80 Nội 60 40 Khu vực nông thôn Nội 20 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Figure 3.10: Average income of rural people in suburban areas compared with Hanoi in 2008 - 2016 period Source: [12; 13] and author's calculations Figure 3.10 shows that in the period 2008 - 2016, the average income of the rural population in Hanoi increases over the years: from VND 8.2 million / person / year (in 2008) to VND 36 million / person per year (2016); the whole period 18 increased 4.4 times However, the average income per capita of Hanoi's rural population compared to the average per capita income of Hanoi is low In the period of 2008 - 2014, the average income per capita of the rural population in Hanoi increases by 3.48 times; The period 2014 - 2016 only 1.25 times Meanwhile, the average income per capita of Hanoi residents is still high (the period of 2014 2016 is 1.5 times) This partly reflects the productivity of rural people, including agricultural producers, which is slowing down, leading to the possibility of accumulating and decreasing agricultural productivity Incoming time Therefore, it is necessary to have solutions to attract capital, invest in science and technology in order to increase labor productivity in rural areas as a basic solution for rural development in Hanoi to develop with potentials and strengths have Along with the positive changes in the income of the rural population in suburban Hanoi, there are also many improvements in the infrastructure of this area thanks to the achievement of the National Target Program on Rural Construction new As well as the achievement of the National Target Program on Rural Construction in Suburban Hanoi, the high level of suburban agriculture has played an important role in maintaining the socio-economic stability of the area The successful implementation of hunger elimination and poverty alleviation of the majority of the population living in this area 3.3 GENERAL ASSESSMENT ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN HANOI FOREIGN DISTRICT PERIOD 2008 - 2016 3.3.1 These achievements - In recent years, agriculture in the suburbs of Hanoi has achieved important results contributing to the overall economic growth of the city Agricultural production has improved, the production value has continuously increased over the years - The structure of the agricultural sector is shifted positively; To increase the proportion of husbandry, aquaculture and high economic value crops and clean and safe products The structure of production in agriculture has changed in the direction of more effective, achieved important achievements and a solid foundation contributing to the socio-economic stability - Initially shaping, forming some specialized agricultural production areas, specialized and highly efficient, meeting the requirements of a clean agriculture, urban agriculture and ecology - Models of organization of agricultural production in Hanoi have gradually changed in the direction of increasing farm economy, enterprises; Agricultural cooperatives are increasingly active - The development of suburban agriculture has contributed to reducing the gap between the rich and the poor among urban districts and the suburbs Farmers have easy access to culture and knowledge 3.3.2 Drawbacks - The speed and dynamics of agricultural growth in suburban districts of 19 Hanoi has not met the potential and strength; It has not met the needs of the city, the provinces and exports Low quality growth due to mainly small-scale, scattered production; Much of the use of the traditional breadth growth model (land use, general labor) - The restructuring of seedlings and animal breeds is still slow and not stable The productivity and productivity of some plants and animals have increased, leading to the low quality of agricultural products and production - Forms of production organization and linkage have been promoted at first, but many activities have not been effective, especially many small scale cooperatives, lack of capital and low production capacity - Large-scale intensive farming areas have not yet been developed; Production areas create key agricultural products with competitive advantages of urban agriculture (high quality products, unique and safe food hygiene ), but mainly in the products simple production, almost the same agricultural provinces and cities with the majority of rice production, breeding - The level of agricultural labor is still low compared to the requirement of moving hi-tech plants and animals The number of skilled and skilled workers in Hanoi suburbs has not met the demand of the labor market 3.3.3 Cause of restriction As mentioned above, agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi has been limited These limitations are due to many reasons, which, there are some basic causes: - The construction and implementation of agricultural development plannings and plans along the direction of industrialization and modernization is slow, not yet bringing into full play their potentials and strengths in terms of natural and socio-economic conditions capital Planning and management of new rural construction plans are still weak Land management in many places is loosened, leading to encroachment, purpose - Investment in agricultural production and rural infrastructure construction is low, scattered and unsuitable, commensurate with the location, importance and contribution of rural areas in the process of building new countryside - The quality of human resources, indicators on education - training, vocational training in some suburbs of Hanoi is still low The limited awareness of a part of staff and people about the content, methods and practices in developing agricultural commodities as well as in new rural construction should be thoughtful and reliant on the support of the State - The research, transfer and application of science and technology in service of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi has not been effective due to the limited size and structure of investment capital; Difficulties in mechanism, policy, staff capacity - Weak capacity of market development, market of agricultural products, especially safe and high quality products of Hanoi's suburban agriculture is not stable and many difficulties have not been overcome Consumer information 20 Chapter MAJOR ORIENTATIONS AND SOLUTIONS AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN HANOI FOREIGN DISTRICT 4.1 ORIENTATION FOR AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN HANOI FOREIGN DISTRICT 4.1.1 Analysis and assessment of SWOT for agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi SWOT analysis shows that the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges of agriculture outside the city of Hanoi; It also serves as a basis for setting strategic orientations for rural development in Hanoi to 2030, with a vision to 2050 4.1.1.1 Strengths and weaknesses for agricultural development outside of Hanoi - Strengths in agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi (S): (i) Agriculture in the suburb of Hanoi is increasingly attracted by the City; (ii) Agricultural research centers in the field, so that the agriculture outside of Hanoi has the advantage of promoting the application of science and technology; (iii) The labor force in the suburbs of Hanoi is abundant and the level is increasing; (iv) Suburban Hanoi has a large market, attractive and potential for development; (v) With the characteristics of an urban agriculture, sustainable development both economically and ecologically environmentally, agriculture in the suburbs of Hanoi plays an important role in creating a green belt - Weakness in rural development in Hanoi (W): (i) Farmers are still fragmented; the role of cooperatives is weak in linking production and consumption; (ii) There is no strong enough policy to encourage the development of hi-tech agriculture; (iii) The rural infrastructure system in the suburbs of Hanoi is not uniformly developed among localities and lack of synchronism so it does not meet the requirements of production and daily living of residents in the suburbs into; (iv) Rapid urbanization of agricultural land is becoming more and more narrowed, polluting the environment 4.1.1.2 Opportunities and challenges for agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi Opportunities for rural development in Hanoi (O): (i) The issue of agriculture, farmers, rural areas in general, and agricultural development in particular is always a "focus" Socio-economic development policy of the Party and State more than 30 years of renovation; (ii) Hanoi's suburban agriculture has seen continuous growth for a long time; (iii) Suburban agriculture is more accessible to urban services, especially the advances from the industrial revolution 4.0 - Challenges for agricultural development in suburban Hanoi (T): Agriculture in suburban districts of Hanoi is not only facing common challenges for agricultural development in the country, but also from the impact of agriculture Specific challenges include: (i) The competitiveness of Hanoi agroproducts is being strongly influenced by neighboring and exotic agricultural 21 products; (ii) Climate change in the capital city is becoming more and more pronounced and the level of influence is increasing; (iii) The environmental pollution together with the unfinished planning, production is spontaneous, no direction for each region, each sector In addition, the development of agriculture outside the city of Hanoi has many challenges such as: the quality of human resources, the indicators of education - training, vocational training in some suburbs of Hanoi is still low; a part of the population has a difficult life 4.1.1.3 Strategic combinations from SWOT for rural development in Hanoi From the analyzes of the advantages, difficulties and opportunities and challenges of agriculture in the suburbs of Hanoi, the thesis has initially introduced a number of strategic orientations to promote the development of suburban agriculture in the coming time Then, from the process of researching and surveying the situation of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi in the period of 2008 - 2016 and strategic directions from SWOT, the thesis agreed by some experts that The development of suburban agriculture is important not only for economic, social and environmental benefits, but also contributes to the sociopolitical stability and well-defined suburban agriculture Internal development should follow the model of urban-ecological agriculture; shifting towards modern, sustainable and high-tech agriculture; Associated with environmental protection, tourism development and new rural construction 4.1.2 Agricultural development orientation of the capital to 2030, vision 2050 From a number of strategic orientations, together with a study on the situation of agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi (in Chapter 3) and based on the development orientation of the capital in general, The basis for the thesis to further define the agricultural development orientation is: i) To develop agriculture in the suburbs of Hanoi along the direction of urban-ecological agriculture in combination with the development of tourism and the importance of protection environment, preserve the green belts; ii) To develop agriculture in the suburbs of Hanoi along the direction of modern agriculture, large commodities, intensive farming; iii) Developing suburban agriculture towards organic agriculture, providing clean, fresh, high value foodstuffs that basically meet the needs of the people of the capital; iv) To develop agriculture in the suburbs towards industrialization and modernization in line with the process of urbanization and construction of new rural areas, promoting the socialization of labor, creating jobs and raising incomes suburban farmers 4.2 MAJOR SOLUTIONS TO STRENGTHEN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN HANOI FOREIGN DISTRICT 4.2.1 To build, perfect and implement the agricultural development planning in the suburbs of Hanoi Agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi must be based on the master plan for socio-economic development and land use planning in order to 22 create a balanced and rational structure between elements in the agro-ecosystem contributing to environmental protection in the Capital Region To attach importance to completing and implementing the master plans on agricultural land use master plan; To plan the development of concentrated specialized production zones with a number of plants and animals of competitive advantages; Development of farm development area Along with the relevant mechanisms and policies to ensure the structure and functions of land use in different fields, especially agricultural land for service purposes To build and develop the Capital along the direction of "Green City, Peace"; contributing importantly to creating jobs, poverty reduction, ensuring social security and stability; Improving the quality of material and spiritual life of rural residents in suburban Hanoi 4.2.2 Promote the development of linkages in the value chain, towards the development of modern agriculture, applying high technology Encouraging co-operation and close cooperation between businesses, cooperatives and rural households in Hanoi to organize production associated with the value chain will overcome the problem unstable agricultural market, or the phenomenon of "the season is falling, the crop prices are rising." At the same time, also overcome the status of agricultural production is small, fragmented with backward technology, low quality agricultural products Therefore, it is necessary to build modern agriculture, high technology application, high degree of commercialization, based on large and concentrated forms of production; Prioritize development into high value-added segments; Promote market rent land use rights 4.2.3 Improve the quality of human resources for agricultural development in suburban districts High quality human resources training in agriculture and rural areas is identified as both a requirement and motivation for sustainable development of suburban agriculture in Hanoi The development of human resources in the suburbs of Hanoi should clearly define the training objectives: i) To contribute to the restructuring of rural labor, change of occupation, redundant labor in the process of concentration, land accumulation; ii) Improved level, suitable for large commodity agriculture, high technology agriculture 4.2.4 Mobilizing, allocating and utilizing agricultural development funds effectively in suburban districts In order to accelerate the development of rural agriculture in Hanoi in the coming time, it is necessary to have a large amount of capital Therefore, it is necessary to develop forms of capital mobilization and forms of investment in order to have sufficient capital plan; At the same time, to allocate and use effectively the capital for agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi in the coming time The city needs to allocate a budget for agricultural development in the suburbs in general; To adopt policies and concrete measures to develop 23 agricultural insurance; provide credit for land lease and purchase agricultural land to encourage well-off farmers to accumulate land Banks in the city provide timely credit with reasonable interest, Long-term, medium-term loans to support capital for farmers and enterprises; simplifying loan procedures Develop credit policies for value chain lending in line with market size; Encourage the private sector to invest capital for procurement of machinery and equipment for production and promote mechanization in production 4.2.5 Promote research, transfer and application of science and technology to agricultural production, processing and trading The promotion of research, transfer and application of science and technology contributes to the immediate and long-term orientation for agricultural production outside of Hanoi; consistent with the increasingly narrow space due to urbanization; compatible with the industrial revolution context 4.0 Promoting research, transferring and applying science and technology into production will bring maximum benefits for farmers from the efficiency brought: optimal productivity, good quality, lower price, more competitiveness of agro-products in the market; at the same time, it is important to create an important basis for ensuring a sustainable and ecological environment by reducing the use of pesticides and banned substances in food preservation Economic sectors, especially research centers and enterprises, which are engaged in the research and transfer of advanced science and technology and hybridization of high-quality plants and animals; To manufacture facilities for efficient production; To apply high technologies to production and processing of agricultural products in order to raise the quality, added value and food hygiene and safety; To increase investment in science and technology research and transfer centers 4.2.6 To promote the market for consumption of products Farm products in the suburbs of Hanoi have been identified as the main consumption market of the city, part of the agricultural products for specialties in the provinces and cities and export However, before the trend of international integration deepening, these items will be subject to fierce competition from imported goods of the same type Moreover, tackling the problem of the market will become more difficult as the demand of urban residents for high-end products and spiritual products is increasing This demand is closely linked to the supply of safe, high quality products in a modern, sustainable agriculture Therefore, it is necessary to improve the role of state management in each suburban district in seriously handling violations of hygiene and food safety; improve market forecasting capacity, especially medium and long-term forecasts; To build a network of wholesale markets and rural markets in order to consume agroproducts for farmers; branding products 24 CONCLUSION Suburban agricultural development is the process of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural sector associated with agricultural restructuring in the direction of industrialization, modernization and sustainable development in order to build a commodity agriculture High-tech, high-tech application, fulfilling role: contribute to promote the economic growth of the city; restructuring the rural economy in a sustainable manner; restructuring of labor, creation of jobs, raising of income and life of suburban farmers; green belt for the city Over the past years, agriculture in Hanoi has achieved important results, contributing to the overall economic growth of the city Agricultural economic growth has always been high, continuously increasing over the years The agricultural structure has been shifted in a positive direction in the right direction according to the comparative advantages of each locality Production organization in the agricultural sector has shown a strong change in quality, many forms of cooperation, link production and consumption of products with high investment efficiency in most suburban districts Suburban agriculture has contributed to reducing the gap between the rich and the poor among urban districts and suburbs; The average income of farmers is constantly improving However, agricultural growth in suburban districts is not equal to potential and strength; the ability to use inefficient resources; The structure of agricultural economy is slow and unstable; Not to form and develop large scale intensive farming areas; The production areas create the main agricultural products with the competitive advantage of urban agriculture The reasons for these limitations are: the construction and implementation of planning and plans for agricultural development along the direction of industrialization and modernization are slow, and the potentials and strengths of the conditions have not been brought into full play natural, socio-economic of the capital; Investment in agricultural production and rural infrastructure construction is low, spreading, not meeting the requirements, not corresponding with the position, importance and contribution of rural areas suburbs; Capacity to mobilize and use limited funds; low human resource quality, limited application technology; The research, transfer and application of science and technology in service of agricultural development outside of Hanoi has not been effective; weak market potential, agricultural product consumption market, especially safe and high quality products of agriculture outside of Hanoi is not stable In order to overcome the above constraints, in the near future, it is necessary to implement in a coordinated and effective manner the following solutions: i) To build, improve and well implement the planning on agricultural development in the suburbs of Hanoi; ii) Promote the development of linkages in the value chain, towards the development of modern agriculture and high technology; iii) Improving the quality of human resources for agricultural development in suburban districts; iv) Mobilizing, allocating and effectively using agricultural development funds in suburban districts; v) Promote research, transfer and application of science and technology to agricultural production, processing and business; vi) To promote the market for consumption of products THE AUTHOR’SCIENTIFIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE DISSERTATION Bui Thanh Tuan (2015), “To Sustainable Agriculture in Hanoi”, Journal of Economics and Forecasting, (10), pp 9-11 Bui Thanh Tuan (2015), “Hanoi Investing in Hi-Tech Agriculture: A Positive Step in Cooperation with Japan”, Journal of Events Journal of Communist Review, (315) , pp.41-43 Bui Thanh Tuan (2016), “Agricultural development in suburban Hanoi is modern and sustainable”, Journal of Economics and Management, (17), pp 57-59 ... before the recall, so the authors did not use the SPSS model, but used statistical methods to analyze the data However, the author argues that, with respect to the scope and scope of the survey, the... teaching at economic training institutions Structure of the dissertation Apart from the introduction, conclusion, reference materials and appendix, the content of the thesis consists of chapters,... urbanization - current situation and solutions"; The author Tran Thi Hong Viet (2006) with the thesis "The main economic solutions to shift the economic structure of agriculture outside Hanoi into the
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