Using mind mapping technique to improve the 12th graders’ english vocabulary at my hao high school

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NGUYỄN THỊ NGỪNG VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Nguyễn Thị Ngừng COVER PAGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE USING MIND MAPPING TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE THE 12th GRADERS’ ENGLISH VOCABULARY AT MY HAO HIGH SCHOOL MA THESIS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE COURSE: 2016 – 2018 HANOI, 2018 VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Nguyễn Thị Ngừng USING MIND-MAPPING TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE THE 12th GRADERS’ ENGLISH VOCABULARY AT MY HAO HIGH SCHOOL Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Đặng Nguyên Giang, Ph.D HANOI, 2018 DECLARATION BY AUTHOR I, the undersigned, hereby certify that the thesis entitled “Using Mindmapping Technique to Improve the 12th Graders’ English Vocabulary at My Hao High School” is the result of my own research for the Degree of Master of Arts in English Language The substance of the thesis has not, wholly or in part, been submitted for any other degree to any other universities or institutions Except where reference has been made in the text, this thesis contains no material previously published or written by another person The study reported in this thesis was approved by Graduate Academy of Social Sciences Author’s Signature Nguyễn Thị Ngừng Approved by SUPERVISOR Đặng Nguyên Giang, Ph.D Date:…………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Although only one name appears as the author of this work, writing a thesis is indeed a collaborative effort I would like to express my sincere thanks to the many people who made it possible First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and deep appreciation to Đặng Nguyên Giang, Ph D, my supervisor, for his helpful and warm encouragement as well as his insightful comments on my work from the beginning to the end of the study Next, the completion of this thesis would not have been possible without the cooperation from the respondents (ninety 12th graders at My Hao High School) who have been willing to take part in the study I am very grateful to all of them for providing detailed information for the analysis of the study In addition, I would like to thank all of the lecturers who gave me interesting lessons, dedication and advice during my study at Graduate Academy of Social Sciences I also offer my special thanks to my colleagues and friends whose support and encouragement help me to have this thesis accomplished Last but not least, I must express my gratitude to my family It is their endless love and expectations that have motivated me to complete this thesis I am immensely thankful for all the assistance they have given me ii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aims of the Study 1.3 Research Questions 1.4 Scope of the Study 1.5 Significance of the Study 1.6 Research Methods 1.7 Structure of the Study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Vocabulary 2.1.1 Vocabulary Defined 2.1.2 Vocabulary Classified 2.1.3 Aspects of Learning Vocabulary 2.1.4 Vocabulary Tests Defined 13 2.2 Mind-mapping Technique 15 2.2.1 Mind-mapping Technique Defined 15 2.2.2 Mind-mapping Classified 17 2.3 Mind-mapping Technique in Teaching and Learning Vocabulary 21 2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Mind-mapping Technique 26 2.5 Previous Research 28 2.5.1 Previous Studies Carried out in Foreign Countries 28 2.5.2 Previous Studies Carried out in Vietnam 29 2.6 Chapter Summary 30 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 32 3.1 Research Setting 32 3.2 Participants 33 3.3 Data Collection Instruments 34 3.3.1 Vocabulary Tests 34 3.3.2 Questionnaires 35 iii 3.3.3 Interviews 36 3.4 Research Design 37 3.5 Research Procedures 40 3.5.1 Phase 40 3.5.2 Phase 40 3.5.3 Phase 41 3.5.4 Phase 42 3.6 Data Analysis 43 3.7 Chapter Summary 45 CHAPTER FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 46 4.1 Data Analysis from Questionnaires 46 4.2 Data Analysis from Tests 54 4.3 Data Analysis from Interviews 59 4.4 Chapter Summary 63 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 65 5.1 Recapitulation 65 5.2 Concluding Remarks 66 5.3 Implications 69 5.4 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies 70 5.4.1 Limitations 70 5.4.2 Suggestions for Further Studies 70 REFERENCES 72 APPENDIX 1: Questionnaires I APPENDIX 2: Semi-structured interview questions III APPENDIX 3: Answers for the interviews V APPENDIX 4: The students’ opinions about the teacher’s activities VIII APPENDIX 5: Positive attitude of students toward mind mapping technique X APPENDIX 6: The students’ positive evaluation on the effectiveness of the MM technique X APPENDIX 7: Pre-test XI iv APPENDIX 8: Post-test XIII APPENDIX 9: Post-test XV APPENDIX 10: Mean Score of Tests XVII APPENDIX 11: Ranges of Scores XVIII APPENDIX 1: Key to the Tests XIX APPENDIX 13: Textbook - Unit XX APPENDIX 14: Listening Tapescript XXX APPENDIX 15: Lesson Plan XXXI v ABSTRACT The principal objective of the present research is to investigate the 12th graders’ attitudes towards mind-mapping technique used in vocabulary teaching and evaluate the effectiveness of mind-mapping technique applied to vocabulary teaching To so, 90 students who are from two classes 12A2 and 12A8 took part in this study Pre-test, post-tests, a questionnaire and an interview are chosen as the data collection instruments to find out the effect of the intervention In this study, the writer as teacher and observer tried to apply Mind-mapping techniques to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery There are four phrases used in this study namely planning, action, observation and reflection (from phrase to phrase respectively) The results of pre-test and post-tests were used to know the effectiveness of Mind-mapping techniques on students’ vocabulary mastery It was indicated through improvement the mean score of each test The mean score of pre-test was 40.11, that of post-test I was 63 33 whereas the mean score of post-test II was 59.33 The findings of the study reveal that mind-mapping technique is one of the good ways to improve the students’ vocabulary in particular and English teaching and learning in general vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1: The students’ opinions about the teacher’s activities 47 Table 2: Positive attitudes of the students toward mind-mapping technique 48 Table 3: The students’ positive evaluation on the effectiveness of the mindmapping technique 50 Table 4: Mean score of tests 55 Table 5: Comparison of distribution of score range ………………………………58 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: An example of Mind-mapping 15 Figure 2: An example of a network tree 18 Figure 3: An example of an event chain 19 Figure 4: An example of a cycle concept map 20 Figure 5: An example of hayfork 21 Figure 6: An example of thorn fish 21 Figure 7: An example of cluster 21 Figure 8: An example of variation 21 Figure 9: A Mind-mapping about City 25 Figure 10: A Mind-mapping about Animals 26 Figure 11: Procedure of the research 43 Figure 12: It is interesting to learn English vocabulary with mind-mapping technique 49 Figure 13: Students’ opinions on pleasure when learning with mind-mapping technique 49 Figure 14: Students’ opinions on the creativity when learning with mindmapping technique 50 Figure 15: Students’ opinions on the statement “I find it easy to remember new words.” 52 Figure 16: Students’ opinions on the statement “The activities help retain vocabulary longer” 52 Figure 17: Students’ opinions on the statement “The activities help activate prior knowledge” 53 Figure 18: Mean score of the tests 57 Figure 19: Distribution in results of the three tests 58 Figure 20: Proportion of students find Mind-mapping techniques difficult 62 Figure 21: The desire to learn with mind mapping technique 63 viii object + recommendation [,rekəmen'dei∫n] (n) Vietnamese translation + jot down (v phr) ~ note down / write + stress [stres] (n + v) Vietnamese translation + employer [im'plɔiə] (n) ~ boss >< employee + enthusiasm [in'θju:ziæzm] Vietnamese translation + keenness (n) ~ eagerness - Follow steps of presenting vocabulary - Do as directed III WHILE-READING: 8’ 8’ Task 1: These words are from the passage Look back to the text and circle the best meanings A,B,C : * Keys: B a job that is available C a short written account of someone’s education and previous jobs A special interest B note down - Ask sts to Task individually - Check sts’ answers, ask others to comment - Feedback Task 2: Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F): - Give instructions, F T * Keys: T F F F T T - Ask Sts read silently - Ask sts to Task in pairs - Walk round to control Sts’ activity - Ask Sts to compare their answers with other pairs - Ask sts to give the way to correct the statements if the answer is False - Check sts’ answers, and comment XXXIII - Work individually - Students give their comments - Follow teacher’s instructions - Read silently - Do task (p.64) - Compare the answers with other pairs - Do as directed 15’ IV POST-READING: - Divide the class into groups - Listen to the teacher - Hand out colour pencils, and one sheet - Work in groups to create of A0 paper their Mind-map - Ask Sts to free their mind to create mind-map of their own by using the key word given (Explain that Sts can use ideas in / outside the passage.) - Walk round the class to observe the whole class - Hang papers with Mind- Ask Sts hang papers with Mind-maps maps on the board when on the board when the time is over the time is over - Listen to the teacher’s - Check Sts’ Mind-maps and give and their friends’ comments comments - Attachment 1’ V HOMEWORK: * Question : Which pieces of advice given in the passage you find most useful and least useful ? Why? - Each student draw a Mind-map of his / her own - Study teacher’s Mind- Show teacher’s Mind-map that had map and make been prepared beforehand on the comparisons projector’s screen in order for Sts to compare to theirs (See Attachment 1) - Assign homework - Listen to the - Ask Sts to use colour pencils to design - Take notes Mind-maps of their own - Be ready for Unit 6- B Speaking XXXIV ATTACHMENT 1: JOB INTERVIEW XXXV Period UNIT 6: FUTURE JOBS B: Speaking I Aim: To help Sts talk about jobs and their choices of jobs in the future II Objectives Educational aim: By the end of the lesson, students will be to give opinions about choices of jobs Knowledge: - General knowledge: Students know about future jobs - New words: Words related to future jobs Skills: Taking turns, giving opinions + Competence: self-study; problem-solving; communication, cooperation, using language + Attitude: Raise Sts’ awareness of the preparation for jobs in the future III Materials: - Teacher: Textbook, lesson plan, workbook, hand-outs, pictures, cassette, board and chalk, etc - Students: Textbooks, notebooks, workbooks, etc IV Anticipated problems: Sts may need help with discussion task, so T should be ready to help them V Procedure: XXXVI Time Content Warm- up: (Books closed) 4’ I Game: What’s my job? Sentences teacher read: Take two tablets a day after meal You will have a test next week Here’s your key Room 246 We have to bumper crop this year Please fasten your seatbelt before the plan takes off You’ve passed the red light Can I check your driving license? Our next destination is Phong Nha Cave It’s rather cold inside the cave so you should bring warm clothes What would you like to order? 8’ Teacher’s activities Students’ activities - Divide the class into groups - Read sentences that farmers, doctors, teachers… often say - Tell Sts to listen and guess the job by calling out its name - The first group to speak out the name of the job will get one point The group with more points wins the game - - Work in groups - Listen to the sentences read by the teacher and guess the job Answers: doctor teacher (hotel) receptionist farmer After the game, announce the winner air- hostess traffic warden / police tour guide waiter II New lesson: Task 1: Match a job in A with at least two descriptions in B Answers: a doctor: - take care of people’s health - help save people’s lives a farmer:- construct irrigation systems - apply new farming techniques a tourist - find good and safe hotels for guide customers - take people to places of interest a writer: - create imaginary characters and events - tell stories through pictures - Ask Sts to work in pairs to match a job in A with at least two descriptions in B - Go around the class to offer help if necessary - Call some Ss to answer in front of the class - Give feedback and correct answers XXXVII - Work in pairs to match a job in A with at least two descriptions in B - Some Sts answer in front of the class 12’ Model: - A: What does a doctor do? - Give the model to ask and answer - B: A doctor is the one who helps save people’s lives about jobs / A doctor is the one who takes care of people’s health - Ask Sts to work in pairs to ask and answer about jobs Suggested answers: *- What does a farmer do? - Call on some pairs of Sts to ask and - A farmer is the one who constructs irrigation systems answer in front of the class / A farmer is the one who applies new farming - Give feedback and correct answers techniques *- What does a tourist guide do? - A tourist guide is the one who takes people to places of interest / A tourist guide is the one who find good and safe hotels for customers *- What does a writer do? - A writer is the one who tells stories through pictures - Divide the class into groups / A writer is the one who creates imaginary characters - Hand out colour pencils, and one sheet and events of A0 paper Task 2: Make a Mind-map using the following key - Ask Sts to free their mind to create mind-map of their own by using the key word given word given (Explain that Sts can use ideas in / outside the lesson.) - Work in pairs to ask and answer about jobs - Some pairs ask and answer in front of the class - Listen to the teacher - Work in groups to create their Mind-map - Walk round the class to control Sts’ activities - Ask Sts hang papers with Mind-maps on the board when the time is over - Hang papers with Mind-maps on the board - Check Sts’ Mind-maps and give when the time is over XXXVIII comments - Show teacher’s Mind-map that had been prepared beforehand on the projector’s screen in order for Sts to compare to theirs (See Attachment 2) - Explain the meaning of some words that sts not know - Listen to the teacher’s comments - Study teacher’s Mindmap and make comparisons - Ask Sts to work in pairs to task - Tell Sts to use words / ideas in the mind-maps that have been created - Work in pairs to task - Give the model 8’ - Go around the class to offer help if necessary - Call on some pairs of Sts to act out in front of the class - Some pairs act out in front of the class - Give feedback 12’ Task 3: Discuss which of the jobs in column A you would/ wouldn’t like to Explain why/ why not The model: *- What would you like to be in the future? - I would like to work as a pilot - Why? - Because working as a pilot would be a challenging job I would have a chance to travel around the world and meet many interesting people *- What wouldn’t you like to be in the future? - I wouldn’t like to be an electrician - Put Ss to work in groups of or to talk about the job they dream to after they finish school - Work in groups of or - Go around the class to offer help if to talk about the job necessary they may after they XXXIX - Why? finish school - Because working as an electrician would be a dangerous job I may get electric shocked / I may be - Invite the groups’ ideas killed by electricity - Comment on what Sts have talked about - The leader of each group presents the Task 4: Talk about the job you dream todo after you group’s ideas finish school, using the following cues: - Where you will work - Who you will work with - The salary you may get paid - The working condition - summarize the main points Place where you will work People you work with Salary you will get paid Suggested answer: Working condition YOUR DREAM JOB ………… ………… ……… - assign homework “in no more than 80 words, write about the job you would like to work in the -Listen and take notes future you have just talked about.” XL 1’ I would like to work as a tourist guide It would be a challenging and fascinating job because I would have a chance to travel all over the world and meet many interesting people If I work for a foreign tourist company, I can get high salary, useful experiences and improve my English speaking and listening skills Also, I am a sociable and confident person and I can work hard for a long time so I want to work far way from home to know more about the world around me V Homework: (5’) - Summary the lesson by a mind-map - Prepare for the new lesson XLI ATTACHMENT XLII Period UNIT 6: HIGHER EDUCATION C: Listening I Aim: To help Ss know more about jobs, their choices of jobs in the future and help them understand some of the changes in the US job market II Objectives Educational aim: Students should know about future jobs and recent changes in job market Knowledge: - General knowledge: Students learn more about jobs - New words: Words related to future jobs and workforce Skills: - Filling in missing information - Deciding on True or False statements + Competence: self-study; problem-solving; communication, cooperation, using language + Attitude: Raise Ss’ awareness of jobs in the future III Materials: - Teacher: Textbook, lesson plan, workbook, hand-outs, pictures, cassette, board and chalk, etc - Students: Textbooks, notebooks, workbooks, etc IV Anticipated problems: Ss may need help with discussion task, so T should be ready to help them III Procedure: XLIII Content Teacher’s activities I Warm- up: Fill in the diagram with kinds of suitable jobs given in - Ask Sts to work in groups to the box fill in the diagram with kinds of Washing cars, teaching, taking care of sick people, suitable jobs given in the box making cake, producing cars or planes, accounting, engineering, banking, driving cars, selling, financing, - Go around the class and offers mining, electrical jobs, chemical jobs help if necessary - Call on some Sts to answer in front of the class - Give feedback and correct answers SERVICE JOBS: … JOBS MANUFACTURING JOBS: … …… …… Answers: Service jobs: washing cars, teaching, taking care of sick people, accounting, engineering, banking, driving cars, selling, financing Manufacturing jobs: producing cars or planes, making cake, mining, electrical jobs, chemical jobs Explaining: - Manufacturing jobs are jobs in which people make something or produce things - Service jobs are jobs in which workers provide services or something II Pre- listening: Asking and answering the question: Which is the most popular job in Vietnam? - Explain service manufacturing jobs jobs Students’ activities - Work in groups to find in the diagram with kinds of suitable jobs given in the box - some Sts answer in front of the class and - Listen carefully - Have Sts work in pairs to ask and answer the question - Work in pairs to ask and - Go around the class to offer answer the question help if necessary - Call some Sts to answer in front of the class - Some Sts answer in front of XLIV - Comment and feedback Vocabulary: - to predict (v) [pri'dikt]: dự đoán - shift(n) [∫ift]: thay đổi (vị trí, hình dạng, chất) - work force (n) [wə:k fɔ:s]: lực lượng lao động - manufacturing (n) sản xuất - retail (n) ['ri:teil]: bán lẻ the class - Listen carefully - Help Sts read words by word - ask Sts to repeat in chorus and - Repeat in chorus and individual and write them down individual and write them down - Ask Sts to read through the III While-listening: Task 1: Listen to the passage and fill in the missing words in the information in the boxes boxes - Play the CD player and let Sts Answers: to listen to the passage manufacturing - Play the CD player the second service time for Ss to fill in the missing transportation words in the boxes finance services Read through the information in the boxes - Listen attentively and fill in the missing words in the boxes - Let Sts read the statements for Task 2: Listen again and decide whether the statements are true or about or minutes false - Play the CD player again for Answers: Sts to listen - Read the statements for T - Call on some Sts to give the about or minutes 2.T answers - listen again T F (80 %) - Some Sts to give the F (nine out of every ten/ 90% workers will work in service - Have the others listen and make answers in front of the class jobs) correction if necessary - Give feedback XLV - Ask Sts to work in groups to summarize the passage using mind-maps - Go around the class and offers - Work in groups to help if necessary summarize the passage by - Call on the leader of each group using mind-maps to summarize the passage IV Post-listening: Summarize the passage - Comment, feedback - The leader of each group summarize the passage - Listen to the teacher - Listen and take notes - Assign homework - Attachment V Homework: - Draw a mind-map on future jobs by using ideas in and outside the lesson - Prepare the new lesson - Writing XLVI ATTACHMENT XLVII ... in vocabulary teaching assessed by the 12th graders at My Hao High School? - What is the effectiveness of mind-mapping technique on the 12th graders’ English vocabulary outcome at My Hao High School? ... DECLARATION BY AUTHOR I, the undersigned, hereby certify that the thesis entitled Using Mindmapping Technique to Improve the 12th Graders’ English Vocabulary at My Hao High School is the result... Scope of the Study The focus of the study is using mind-mapping technique to improve the 12th graders’ English vocabulary at My Hao high school Hence, the study could not cover all aspects in vocabulary
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