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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES TRAN DUONG QUOC HOA BUILDING E-COURSEWARE TO SUPPORT INTERACTIVE TEACHING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL Major: Theory and history of education Code: 14 01 02 ABSTRACT OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN EDUCATION Ha Noi - 2018 The thesis has been completed at: The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences Supervisors: Assoc Prof Dr Dao Thai Lai The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences Assoc Prof Dr Tran Thi Thai Ha The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences Reviewer 1: Reviewer 2: Reviewer 3: The thesis will be defended before the Board of Institutive Level meeting at The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences, N0 101 Tran Hung Dao, Ha Noi At on The thesis is available at: - The Vietnam National Library - The Library of Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences INTRODUCTION Rationale of study 1.1 The application of interactive teaching in the teaching process is being studied in a systematic way and gained considerable achievements There may be mentioned to some of studies done by T.A.Ilina, P.P Alexis, Iu.K.Babanski, Jean Marc Denomme and Madelein Roy, Dang Thanh Hung, Vu Le Hoa, Ta Quang Tuan, etc However, researches on this subject in primary education are still limited and have not yielded much concrete results 1.2 With interactive teaching, the application of information and communication technology has many advantages, many countries around the world are interested in research and implementation This is also an indispensable trend in teaching today 1.3 In fact, teaching in primary schools shows that the number and frequency of researches and teaching aids are not consistent with the level of interest, level of bolster and frequency of use by teachers and students 1.4 E-courseware has many benefits for both teachers and students in teaching The research to build e-courseware supporting teaching in general and teaching in primary schools in particular is really necessary, contributing to improving the quality of teaching for this level At present, studies on e-courseware that support teaching in primary school, especially interactive teaching, are relatively new and have not been properly addressed Therefore, we chose the topic “Building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school” with the desire about contributing to improve the quality of teaching and learning in primary school Research purposes Determine the scientific basis for the building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school, and at the same time building an e-courseware system that supports interactive teaching for some contents in the primary curriculum Object and subject of study 3.1 Object of study Teaching process is supported by e-courseware in primary school 3.2 Subject of study Activities, relationships, interaction between teacher, student and teaching environment using e-courseware in primary school The structure and content of e-courseware that uses to support interactive teaching in primary school Scientific hypothesis If e-courseware that uses to support interactive teaching in primary school is structured systematically, incorporating pedagogical criteria and technology criteria, pedagogical ideas and e-courseware ideas, accordancing with the characteristics of interactive teaching in primary school, and having forms of use reasonably, will contribute to improve the learning results and promote the positive, the initiative of students in interactive teaching process Tasks of study 5.1 Determining theoretical and practical basis for building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school 5.2 Proposing the structure of e-courseware system that uses to support interactive teaching in primary school 5.3 Forming and developing method of constructing e-courseware that uses to support interactive teaching in primary school 5.4 Building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in some of the contents of Mathematics, Science and History (Grade 4, 5) 5.5 Proposing some forms for using e-courseware effectively in primary school 5.6 Using pedagogical experiment to verify scientific hypothesis and assess practicality and feasibility of e-courseware in supporting interactive teaching in primary school Scope of study 6.1 Scope in content of study The thesis focuses on the building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in some of the contents of Mathematics, Science and History at grade 4, 6.2 Scope in sites of study Situation surveys were conducted at two universities and seventeen primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai province, Binh Duong province, Ba Ria - Vung Tau province, Tay Ninh province, Thanh Hoa province Experimental studies were carried out at a number of primary schools in Dong Nai province Research methods 7.1 Theoretical research method 7.2 Practical research method: Survey method; Interview method; Observation method; Experimental method of pedagogy 7.3 Methods of mathematical statistics Theoretical points to defend 8.1 E-courseware is one of the means to help optimize organization of interactive activities and enhance the effectiveness and feasibility of interactive teaching solution in primary school 8.2 Building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school must meet teaching needs of teachers, aiming to create effective practical applications and should be implemented in a logical, at the same time, ensure the fundamentals of an e-courseware that is used to support teaching and learning for primary level 8.3 Exploiting the support of e-courseware system for interactive teaching in primary schools will enhance student's activity and improving instructional effectiveness Contribution of the thesis - Reorganizing and clarifying characteristics of interactive teaching in primary school, principles of interactive teaching in primary school and orientations to organize interactive teaching effectively for primary student Thereout, the thesis clarifies the interactive teaching with the supporting of e-courseware in primary school, by pointing out: (i) The basic components of e-courseware used in interactive teaching; (ii) ascendant and ability of e-courseware in interactive teaching; (iii) supporting levels of e-courseware and prospects for applying technology 4.0 in designing e-courseware; (iv) factors influence to the use of ecourseware in interactive teaching - Clarifying the situation of exploitation and use e-courseware of primary teachers, concurrently thesis identify the elements and desired contents of primary teachers about ecourseware supporting interactive teaching which provides the basis for building the srelevant and highly applicable e-courseware - Proposing the structure of e-courseware system, the principles and procedures for building e-courseware in accordance with characteristics of teaching in primary school, aiming to create high practical effect and meet the demand of teaching in primary school - Building EcPit system (e-courseware system support interactive teaching in Mathematics, Science, History at grades and 5) to support interactive teaching effectively, meet the teaching needs of teachers and the learning needs of students in primary school - Proposing some forms for using e-courseware effectively in primary school Thereout, the thesis also proposes some orientations for distributing and developing data to ensure the maintenance and development of e-courseware system which use to support interactive teaching in primary school CHAPTER THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS OF BUILDING E-COURSEWARE THAT USE TO SUPPORT INTERACTIVE TEACHING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL 1.1 Overview of researches related to the thesis topic 1.1.1 Researches on interactive teaching and interactive teaching in primary school Researches on interactive teaching are mainly conducted in two ways: (1) Study theoretical issues of interactive teaching; (2) Study to apply interactive teaching for concrete objects The basic theoretical issues of interactive teaching have been mentioned in a number of studies by Bruce Joyce & Marsha Weil (1986), Moore MG (1989), Wagner ED (1994), Jean Marc Denomme & Madeleine Roy Thurmond Veronica & Wambach Karen (2004), Phan Trong Ngo (2005), Dang Thanh Hung (2005), Thai Duy Tuyen (2008), Pho Duc Hoa (2011), Nguyen Van Cuong, Nguyen Cam Thanh (2015), Teddy Mantoro et al (2015) Theoretical studies on interactive teaching have created the basis for a wide range of applied research on various objects Featured by authors: Smith F et al (2004), Nguyen Thi Bich Hanh (2006), Vu Le Hoa (2008), Veselinovska S.S et al., Ta Quang Tuan (2010), Taha Rajab (2013), Do Thi Hong Minh (2015), Nguyen Cam Thanh (2015) At the primary level, researches applied interactive learning also had interested by some authors: Dragos Viorel (2011) with the thesis “Interactive teaching and learning in primary school (Applications in the curricular area of Mathematics and Sciences)” or Janet Moyles et al (2003) with the thesis “Interactive teaching in the primary school: Digging deeper into meanings” Study on primary students in Vietnam, Nguyen Thi Thanh Hang (2010) with the thesis “Organize teaching with interactive pedagogical perspectives in primary school” affirmed the ability to apply interactive pedagogical perspectives in primary school, and proposed three sets of measures with 11 concrete measures to organize interactive teaching for primary students However: (1) As the author emphasizes environmental factor, the measures focus primarily on improving the role of the environment for learners Measures that impact to learner and teacher have not been addressed properly; (2) With 11 concrete measures of this study, if using information technology supports, the implementation process will be optimized and teaching will be more effective However, this problem is not entirely mentioned by the author; (3) It is necessary to point out characteristics as well as principles of interactive teaching organization when implementing pedagogical effects on primary students However, this issue has not been clarified in the author’s study 1.1.2 Researches on building e-courseware to use for teaching in primary school At the primary level, researches on applying information technology and methodological innovation in teaching are considered by many authors It may be mentioned some studies done by Chris Campbell (2006), Dao Thai Lai (2007) ), Ivan Webb (2007), Le Thi Hong Chi (2014), Slameto (2014) In which, research on building ecourseware to apply for teaching various subjects is one of the research directions which has increasing frequency together with the development of technology In the world, there are many researches on building e-courseware for primary level, can say about: (1) JumpStart (Knowledge Adventure); (2) MathFacts in a Flash (Wisconsin Rapids); (3) Gcompris (GNU Project); (4) Science Bug These coursewares still have national peculiarities, it’s still difficult and limited to apply for primary students in Vietnam In Vietnam, researches on the building e-courseware and teaching aids have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers, such as Nguyen Sy Duc (2002), Thai Van Thanh (1999), Nguyen Hoai Anh 2008), Nguyen Thi Tuong Vi (2011) In general, studies have indicated the importance of building and using courseware in teaching Concurrently, they have created many coursewares to support teaching and learning effectively However, we found that: - Theoretical issues on e-courseware and building e-courseware to support teaching for primary students did not clarify and mention fully in these studies - The practical applicability of studies is not high, because: (1) Studies have not assessed needs of primary teachers accurately; (2) Scope of the studies are limited to a number of topics and single contents, studying on e-courseware that is created systematically and integrated many contents to support teachers and students is rarely mentioned; (3) Options for expanding e-courseware's data from studies are not addressed satisfactorily; (4) The sustainability of research results (with direct receptors) is still very limited - Existing e-coursewares are very limited in supporting interactive activities that happen between student and other objects (teachers, classmates, environment) 1.2 Interactive teaching in primary school 1.2.1 A number of basic issues on interactive teaching 1.2.1.1 Interaction in teaching Interaction in teaching is the mutual interactions that have stimulant, controllable and organized properties These mutual interactions create adjusted responses between involved subjects in teaching process (teacher, learner, environment) to perform teaching function 1.2.1.2 Interactive teaching In the scope of thesis, we consider that: interactive teaching is a learner-centered teaching in which diverse interactive activities take place in a well-organized teaching environment, requiring positive and high self-reliance of learners, the role of teacher is to organize learning environment, support and counsel for learners 1.2.1.3 Teacher – learner – environment interaction in interactive teaching a Teacher – learner interaction It is a frequent and mainstream interaction in teaching Interactive teaching aims to create the shift about taking initiative agent in teaching (from teacher to the learner) b Learner – learner interaction It is the process of communication in order to exchange information, ideas, opinions and feelings between learners for the good performance in study tasks c Teacher, learner – environment interaction Interaction between learner and environment is most manifested through interaction with teaching situations which are conveyed by teacher through the supportting conditions and means Interaction between teacher and environment is demonstrated through designing, organizing, controlling and adjusting the teaching environment done by teacher 1.2.2 Characteristics of primary students (1) Perception: General and less detailed; (2) Attention: Intentional attention is weak; If contents are not lively, primary students gradually reduce attention to lesson; (3) Memory: Unintentional memory predominates, children remember easily what they find strange, attractive, interesting or when they experience and explore by themselves; (4) Fantasy: Simple, scattered, less organized; (5) Thinking: Particularly iconic 1.2.3 Learning and teaching activities in interactive teaching in primary school 1.2.3.1 Learning activities Logic of learning activities include: (1) Forming motivation and excitement for learning; (2) Performing learning actions in self-conscious and positive; (3) Sharing and improving knowledge; (4) Consolidating and expanding knowledge 1.2.3.2 Teaching activities Logic of teaching activities include: (1) Forming motivation, excitement and orienting learning activities; (2) Organizing learning activities; Helping students work actively and proactively to achieve learning goals; (3) Cooperating and supporting students in improving their knowledge; (4) Examining, evaluating and helping students expand their knowledge 1.2.4 Characteristics of interactive teaching in primary school - Interaction in interactive teaching is both method and goal of teaching - All interactions in teaching must come from students and directed to students - Emphasizing the knowledge, experience, needs and excitement of primary students - Interactive teaching in primary school focuses on building teaching environment - Teaching methods must promote the activeness, initiative and creativity for students The main activity of the students is working as a team and working independently - The teaching environment that can support teaching and learning activities effectively is multimedia environment 1.2.5 Principles of organizing interactive teaching in primary school (1) Ensuring proactiveness, positivity, creation of students; (2) Ensuring effectiveness in organizing interactive activities; (3) Ensuring appropriateness in organizing pedagogical impacts; (4) Ensuring for maximizing conditions that support students to participate activities positively; (5) Ensuring flexibility, dynamics, creativity of teacher in organizing interactive activities; (6) Ensuring friendliness and effervescence of teaching environment 1.2.6 The process of organizing interactive teaching in primary school - Step 1: Transferring cognitive problems and orientations, necessary supports; stimulating cognitive needs, excitement for students - Step 2: Organizing activities to solve cognitive problems - Step 3: Cooperating and supporting students in improving their knowledge - Step 4: Organizing activities to reinforce and expand knowledge for students - Step 5: Guiding students to study outside classroom 1.2.7 Orientations of interactive teaching in primary school 1.2.7.1 Increasing attractiveness, interest, friendliness of the interactive environment - Increasing visibility for teaching contents Example: With lesson "Frog Reproduction" (Science 5), it is possible to extend the experience of students and help students improve their knowledge by using a short clip and a diagram of the frog reproductive cycle (It can be organized as follows: Students discuss in groups to present their knowledge about the frog reproductive cycle, then the teacher will organize activities to verify and correct the knowledge through clip and diagram) - Exploiting practical situations close to primary school age (containing cognitive tasks) Example: To help primary students apply the knowledge about fraction (calculations with fraction, fractional comparison), it is possible to use a situation: From home to school, Nam has three ways to go (see the picture): 1) With you, for the total distance to go is the shortest, how should Nam go? A Pass through post office B Pass through banyan tree C Pass through lake 2) Compared to the distance from home to the traffic light, distance from home to television tower is longer or shorter? How many kilometers? - Using interactive exercises Example: When learning about "Units of measure on volume" (Math 4), we can use an exercise about choosing same mass objects (with each option, students will receive feedbacks and tutorials included) - Using interactive learning games Example: When learning about "Vietnamese currency", we can use a interactive learning game "Shopping" with the rules: Students select a item they want to buy, then they select different denominations to pay right with the cost of item Group scores are calculated by the number of correct options (can organize in group or 4) 1.2.7.2 Increasing opportunities for students to participate interactive activities proactively, actively and creatively - Exploiting contents, practical situations associated with experience of primary students, helping them find opportunities to create new knowledge Example: When teaching students about "Perimeter of a circle" (Math 5), we can exploit experience of students to elicit cognitive needs with a practical situation as: Compare length of two strands below? Can you use a straight ruler to measure length of objects that are bent into a circle similar to rope 1? - Diversifying presentation and description of teaching contents Example: When teaching the "Fraction" (Math 4), to help students identify fractions in simple situations, in addition to accosting with situations such as Figure 1, students should be accost with other similar situations, such as: Find a fraction that represents the number of brushes in a pen cup (Figure 2), find a fraction that show represents the number of white pieces on the chess board (Figure 3), find a fraction that represents the total number of dots seen against the total number of dots on all sides of the three dice (Figure 4) - Increasing group collaboration activities Example: When teaching lesson "Seedlings grow from seeds" (Science 5), we can organize group discussions to arrange pictures and talk about development of a seed from sowing to flowering and creating fruit (in group and in front of class) - Using exercises, games (include learning tasks) to support learning by student's abilities With this orientation, using IT will help to improve efficiency and feasibility of solutions that are applied for interactive teaching in primary school 1.2.7.3 Expanding the ability to organize interactive environment for teacher (1) Selecting and using teaching methods appropriately; (2) Selecting and using teaching facilities appropriately 1.3 E-courseware and designing e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school 1.3.1 A number of basic issues on e-courseware 1.3.1.1 The concept on e-courseware In the scope of thesis, e-courseware is considered as a form of integrated teaching materials that is designed, constructed, used with the aid of computers or digital devices and it can be used to create a new learning value in teaching and learning activities 1.3.1.2 Types of e-coursewares used in teaching (1) Review in contained contents: static e-courseware and multimedia e-courseware; (2) Review in function: e-courseware for teacher, e-courseware for student, e-courseware for both teacher and student; (3) Review in ability of intervening to e-courseware: closed ecourseware, open e-courseware; (4) Review in ability of interacting with e-courseware: static e-courseware and dynamic e-courseware 1.3.1.3 Characteristics of e-courseware - The information system of document has been synthesized in the form of hyperlinks, images (static or dynamic), video, diagrams, charts - Assist in creating and maintaining an interactive and communicative environment - Always providing feedback and guidance that is relevant to specific activities of user - Always having a clear and accurate navigation system 1.3.1.4 The basic structure of e-courseware Including: (1) Database, (2) Hyperlink, (3) ICT environment 1.3.2 The components of e-courseware used in interactive teaching in primary school (1) Oriented contents, (2) Resources, (3) Interactive guides, (4) Interactive and communicative environment, (5) Self-assessment questions, (6) Exercises response directly, (7) Notice and discussion area 1.3.3 Ascendants and ability of e-courseware in interactive teaching in primary school 1.3.3.1 Ascendants of e-courseware in interactive teaching in primary school In interactive teaching in primary school, e-courseware has ascendants as: (1) Encouraging interaction, experience; (2) Flexible feedback and navigation; (3) Increasing attention; (4) Enhancing knowledge retention; (5) Promoting learning motivation 1.3.3.2 Ability of e-courseware in interactive teaching in primary school - Supporting for forming intellectual action for primary students: The e-courseware can support to form a new intellectual action with steps by viewpoint of P.Ia Galperin (Orientating - Acting with objects - Acting with loud speech - Acting with whisper speech Acting with inside speech): + With step and step 2: The e-courseware can support to transfer situations as well as orientation contents, learning resources in 2D or 3D form (3D images, virtual reality simulations, objects printed by 3D technology ) + With step and step 4: The e-courseware in the 4.0 era can recognize speech (when students act with loud speech) or identify gestures, shapes (even thinkings) of students (in acting with whisper speech phase) This will be the development way of ecourseware in the near future In existing teaching conditions, the e-courseware will provide synthetic and conceptual functions for students through information systems (feedback or guides) and guiding - controlling from teacher + With step 5: Information and learning resources in 2D or 3D form will contribute to accelerate moving inside process of new concept (new intellectual action) quickly - Supporting for organizing cognitive activities for primary students by creating and maintaining a positive interactive environment - Supporting for learning by the ability of each individual, self-study; simultaneously stimulating and maintaining excitement for primary students 1.3.4 The supporting levels of e-courseware in interactive teaching in primary school (i) Level 1: Passive interaction; (ii) Level 2: Limited interaction; (iii) Level 3: Complex interaction; (iv) Level 4: Active interaction 1.3.5 Limitations of e-courseware in interactive teaching in primary school (1) Not with any situation, e-courseware also provides highly effective supports; (2) Elements that attract attention can also disperse the focus of students; (3) Overload of information and time may be easy to happen; (4) If infrastructures, facilities, basic computer skills (teachers, students) are not guaranteed, it is impossible to use e-courseware for interactive teaching 1.3.6 Orientations to develop capacity and quality for students when designing and using e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school (1) Personalized learning, (2) Enhancing practical experience, (3) Diversifying choices, (4) Focusing group work, (5) Encouraging self-study, 6) Diversitying location and time for learning (Learning anywhere and anytime) 1.3.7 Pedagogic requests for e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school (1) Abundant in contents and functions; (2) Having high suitability (suitable in contents, suitable subjects, suitable technology); (3) Creating dynamic interactive space; (4) Providing high interoperability; (5) Ensuring the ability of satisfying expectations; (6) Providing flexible exploitation, suitable for each user; (7) Providing flexible combination 1.3.8 Technology 4.0 and prospects for applying technology 4.0 in designing ecourseware for interactive teaching in primary school The core of technology 4.0: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data E-courseware in the 4.0 era can be built with orientations: Virtualization; Real-time performance; Unlimited data 1.4 Using e-courseware for interactive teaching in primary school 1.4.1 Interaction in classroom environment with supporting of e-courseware Three basic interactive models in classroom environment with supporting of ecourseware: Whole class, group work, one - to - one 1.4.2 Forms for using e-courseware in interactive teaching in primary school E-courseware is usually used in three basic forms: (1) Teacher presents lesson with the supporting of e-courseware; (2) Students act and interact with e-courseware in guidance and control of teacher; (3) Students work independently with e-courseware 1.4.3 Factors influence to the use of e-courseware in interactive teaching The use of e-courseware in interactive teaching is influenced by factors: (1) Performance Expectancy, (2) Effort Expectancy; (3) Social Influence; (4) Facilitating Conditions; (5) Habit; (6) Demographic Variables (Age, gender, experience, education) 1.5 The situation of using e-courseware and the needs about e-courseware supporting interactive teaching in primary school Surveys conducted on: (1) 460 primary teachers in: Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Binh Duong, Tay Ninh, Thanh Hoa; (2) 128 4th students from faculty of primary education at Ho Chi Minh City University of Education and Dong Nai University 1.5.1 The situation of exploitation and use e-courseware of primay teachers 1.5.1.1 The situation of e-coursewares a Kinds of e-coursewares used by primary teachers in teaching There are many kinds of e-coursewares that are being used by teachers in teaching at 11 CHAPTER BUILDING E-COURSEWARE TO SUPPORT INTERACTIVE TEACHING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL 2.1 The principles of building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school 2.1.1 Ensuring suitability Expressed through suitability with: Targets and contents of teaching, learners, users 2.1.2 Ensuring assistance E-courseware should provide the fullest support for teacher's activities in many respects; assuring ability for providing active tools and memory supports for students; aiming to maintain the positive interactive environment for operation process of students 2.1.3 Ensuring efficiency Selecting and arranging contents in e-courseware system must be made appropriately The contents must be geared toward providing high-level applicability, meeting interactive teaching needs of teachers and self-discovery, exploration, self-study needs of students 2.1.4 Ensuring adaptability E-courseware must ensure adaptability with: (1) Teaching methods; teaching conditions, teaching means and teaching equipment in primary school; (2) Different perceptions of primary students in each group, each class; (3) Different teaching needs, different teaching methods of each primary teacher 2.1.5 Ensuring reusability - Level 1: Reusing single media elements - Level 2: Reusing component coursewares 2.1.6 Ensuring maintenance and development + Maintaining popularity by choosing the right distribution method + Maintaining regard by providing useful updates regularly + E-courseware system should provide simple ways for extending and developing data, which can be done with common software tools 2.2 Proposing structure of e-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school 2.2.1 Structure of e-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school We propose the structure of e-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school as shown in Figure 2.1 2.2.2 Design layers based on the structure of e-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school 2.2.2.1 The first design layer: Designing single e-courseware There are design options: For forming knowledge; for consolidating and extending knowledge; for testing and assessing; for teaching a lesson; for teaching a content; for selfstudy a lesson; for self-study a content 2.2.2.2 The second design layer: Designing cluster of single e-courseware There are design options: Based on phases of lesson; based on some full lessons; based on some contents; for self-study some lessons; for self-study some contents 2.2.2.3 The third design layer: Designing component e-courseware system There are design options: Support teaching for teachers; support self-study for students 2.2.2.4 The fourth design layer: Designing e-courseware system (Single subject) Designing links component e-courseware systems (E-courseware support teaching; E-courseware support self-study, Assistant e-courseware) for a subject 2.2.2.5 The fifth design layer: Designing e-courseware system (Multi-subjects) Designing links single subject e-courseware systems which designed at the 4th layer 12 E-courseware system support interactive teaching (Multi-subjects) E-courseware system support interactive teaching (Single subject) E-courseware support teaching (for teachers) Cluster of single e-courseware (based on lessons) Cluster of single e-courseware (based on content) Single e-courseware Single e-courseware Single e-courseware (based on phases of lesson) (based on full lesson) (based on content) Note: : Constellation relationship : Data interaction relationship E-courseware support self-study (for students) Assistant e-courseware Kind of coursewares support teaching Static courseware Single e-courseware 1.a Single e-courseware 1.b Single e-courseware 1.c (for forming knowledge) (for consolidating and extending knowledge) (for testing and assessing) Dynamic courseware Cluster of e-courseware with dynamic interaction E-courseware with dynamic interaction (based on lessons) E-courseware with dynamic interaction (based on content) Figure 2.1 Structure of e-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school Cluster of e-courseware with static interaction Kind of coursewares for learning 13 2.3 The process of building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school 2.3.1 Building process Analyze Defining teaching targets Determining design purpose Determining key content Orientate Forming pedagogical ideas Forming design ideas Determining structure and initialize interface Design Compiling coursewares Designing e-courseware by software tools Refine Checking Editing and refining 2.3.2 Notes when applying the process For each design purpose, the building process will have its own unique features 2.3.3 Illustrations 2.3.3.1 Illustrating the process of building e-courseware to support teaching for teachers The thesis built e-courseware to support interactive teaching for a lesson (design option 1.4) Selected lesson is "Fraction" (Math 4) 2.3.3.2 Illustrating the process of building e-courseware to support self-study for students The thesis built e-courseware with dynamic interaction to support self-study for a content (design option 1.7) Selected content is array of topic about "Fraction" (Math 4) 14 2.4 Building e-courseware to support interactive teaching for subjects in primary school 2.4.1 Structure of e-courseware system The thesis built multi-subjects e-courseware system (with subjects that can interact with data + empty systems for other subjects) This e-courseware system is called EcPit (Ecourseware supporting interactive teaching for Primary school) Structure of EcPit system as shown in Figure 2.2 EcPit system Math E-courseware support teaching (GV) Science E-courseware support teaching (GV) History Others E-courseware support teaching (GV) Note: E-courseware support self-study (HS) E-courseware support self-study (HS) E-courseware support self-study (HS) System allow interaction with data Empty system Assistant e-courseware Assistant e-courseware Assistant e-courseware Hình 2.2 Structure of EcPit system The system assigns different access permission to each user If accessed object is a student: No need to login If accessed object is a teacher: Login must be done User name: Ecpit_TenMonHoc Login password: daytrebangtam (TenMonHoc is name of a subject, write without blank and accent (Exam: toan, khoahoc, lichsu)) 2.4.2 Functions of EcPit system used to support interactive teaching 2.4.2.1 Lecture (Accessed object: teacher) Providing lectures designed to support interactive teaching, including: designs based on phases of lesson, based on full lesson and based on content Each lecture will be designed in one or several different formats (Lectora, ActivInspire, Prezi, PowerPoint) All lectures are available for downloading to using or customizing 15 2.4.2.2 Practice (Accessed object: teacher and student) Providing exercises system that designed in accordance with each lesson help students consolidate knowledge and practice through solving real situation associated with contents of lesson These situations are expressed by questions designed in various forms 2.4.2.3 Testing (Accessed object: teacher and student) Offering: (1) Comprehensive tests for: a group of lessons, a content, a knowledge topic; (2) Questions or situations for: a group of lessons, a topic, a knowledge topic The function “Testing” allows teachers and students to receive instant feedbacks during the interaction process 2.4.2.4 Self-study (Accessed object: teacher and student) Containing contents support self-study for students, help them revising and consolidating knowledge with engaging exercises and games The contents are designed by programmed method, so each student will have opportunity to learn by own ability with other ways 2.4.2.5 Lesson (Access object: teacher and student) This is a assistant component It contains lessons which designed based on current curriculum This function allows students to review contents of lessons before undertaking learning tasks For teachers, this function supports planning lessons, designing electronic lectures or demonstrating information in classroom 16 2.4.2.6 Media (Access object: teacher) Providing single coursewares for designing teaching activities This function allows teachers to download coursewares for using in various purposes Students will also be able to access a part data in this component, namely "Entertainment" (includes educational games designed attractive and useful) 2.4.3 Methods for distributing and orientations for developing data of EcPit system 2.4.3.1 Methods for distributing EcPit system, single subject e-courseware systems and component e-courseware systems are uploaded at the website: https://hoclieudientu.wordpress.com All assistant e-coursewares (text, image, audio, video, simulation/flash, lecture, ) are uploaded at the website: http://violet.vn/hoclieudientu 2.4.3.2 Orientations for developing data of EcPit system The thesis uses website: http://violet.vn/hoclieudientu to receive e-coursewares which are contributed by teachers and other users After receiving e-coursewares, administrator will check suitability of data for integrating into EcPit system Once implementing, the new EcPit system will be updated at the website: https://hoclieudientu.wordpress.com 2.5 Using EcPit system to support interactive teaching in primary school 2.5.1 Orientations for using EcPit system to support interactive teaching (1) Creating an positive interactive environment; (2) Helping students work, communicate and express themselves; (3) Supporting self-study; (4) Creating an exciting, friendly and collaborative environment; (5) As a teaching media 2.5.2 Forms for using EcPit system to support interactive teaching 2.5.2.1 Form 1: Using EcPit system for teaching in class a Option 1: Teacher use data from funtion “Lecture” for teaching a content of lesson; organizing one or several steps in the teaching process for a lesson; teaching whole lesson (1) Teaching a content of lesson Example 1: With the lesson "Perimeter of circle" (Math 5), teacher can use EcPit system to deliver interactive situations and organize activities to solve them: + Teacher gives a situation of comparing in practice: compare the length of a rounded rope (1) and a straight rope (2); Also, find ways to measure length of the rope (in centimeters) + Giving assistants to students if they can not find any way to measure length of circle with tape measure and straight ruler Example 2: With lesson “Rubber” (Science 5), teacher can use EcPit system to help students verify their guesses and perceptions during operation process to discover learning contents: 17 (2) Organizing one or several steps in the teaching process for a lesson Example: With lesson “Division with fraction” (Math 4), teacher can use EcPit system to support forming knowledge: Step 1: Transferring interactive situations, stimulate the learning excitement and stimulate the curiosity of students, Step 2: Students solve assigned tasks to explore knowledge, Step 3: Forming new knowledge (3) Teaching whole lesson Example 1: The Lecture “Volume of rectangular box” (Math 5) is designed with activities: How to solve?, Discover, Acquire, Apply, Create These activities are arranged from top to bottom in the active menu bar At the page "Support" (belongs to activity "Explore"), there are icons (shape of number 1, number 2, number 3) corresponding to support provided by EcPit system Example 2: The Lecture “Conductors and insulators” (Science 4), at the page "Verify" of the activity “Discover”, there are icons (Three icons are the shape of spoons, one icon is the shape of iron rod, one icon is the shape of aluminum ruler) when clicking on these icons, the system will give feedback on the thermal conductivity of each object b Option 2: Teacher use data from funtion “Practice” “Testing” for helping students consolidate knowledge Example: After learning the lesson "Bach Dang victory led by Ngo Quyen" (History 4) through the forming-knowledge activity, Teachers can organize activities to consolidate knowledge for students by using "multiple-choice exercises" or "crossword exercises" (or both) c Option 3: Teacher use data from funtion “Self-study” for helping students revise knowledge - Activities of students: (1) Accessing the function "Self-study" (with accessed object is student); (2) Selecting contents to review according to the teacher's instructions; (3) Selfstudying with the units of knowledge (can suggest the support from teacher during the operation); (4) Informing to teacher upon completion 18 - Activities of teacher: (1) Accessing the function "Self-study" (with accessed object is teacher or student); (2) Instructing students to select revised contents; (3) Observing and supporting (if necessary) 2.5.2.2 Form 1: Student use EcPit system to self-study a Option 1: Student self-study with EcPit system (No support from teacher or parents) Student take the following steps: (1) Accessing EcPit system and selecting subject; (2) Selecting accessed object as a student; (3) Selecting content by clicking on corresponding function in main page; (4) Self-studying with contents provided by EcPit system b Option 2: Student self-study with EcPit system (With support from parents) With this plan, student can self-study with EcPit system in one of two ways: (1) Student access EcPit system (login as a student) and self-study with provided contents (same option 1) Parents are on hand to support (about information and guidance) and make the self-study process become faster and more reliable (2) Parents access EcPit system (login as a teacher) and assign self-study tasks for student At that point, student can interact with some other functions of EcPit system In this way, through parents' guidances, student can some activities that took place in class again In addition, for some reasons that make student can not learn a lesson in class, parents can help their children occupy necessary knowledge at home by interacting with designs from EcPit system c Form 3: Using EcPit system for exploiting media Teacher can use EcPit system for exploiting kind of coursewares (download available media to customize and use for a variety of teaching purposes) CONCLUSIONS OF CHAPTER When building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school, there are six basic principles that must be followed, including: (1) Ensuring suitability (with targets, contents, learners, users), (2) Ensuring assistance, (3) Ensuring efficiency, (4) Ensuring adaptability, (5) Ensuring reusability, (6) Ensuring maintenance and development E-courseware support interactive teaching in primary school can be built into a unified system that can use for different subjects (called multi-subjects e-courseware system) This system contains single subject e-courseware systems Each single subject ecourseware system is structured by component systems: E-courseware support teaching for teachers, e-courseware support self-study for students and assistant e-courseware Building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school can be proceed with stages: Analyze - Orientate - Design - Refine This process can be used to build components of e-courseware that exist in the structure of e-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school or to build e-courseware system (single subject or multi-subjects); however, for each design purpose, the building process will have its own unique features EcPit system (E-courseware supporting interactive teaching for Primary school) that built on the proposed principles and processes (with subjects that can interact with data + empty systems for other subjects) can support effectively for interactive teaching process in primary school This system has main functions: Lecture, Practice, Testing, Self-study, Lesson, Media EcPit system can be used to: (1) Teaching in class, (2) Supporting self-study for students (with support or no support from teacher or parents), (3) Exploiting media 19 CHAPTER PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT 3.1 Overview of pedagogical experiment 3.1.1 Purpose of experiment The pedagogical experiment aimed to test and assess the scientific hypothesis of thesis Concretely: - Testing and assessing the practicality and feasibility of e-courseware system; - Testing and assessing the effectiveness of teaching when exploiting and using ecourseware to support interactive teaching in primary school 3.1.2 Content of experiment - Experiment on lessons in Mathematics and Science (Grade 4, 5) with the support of e-courseware system - Following the progress of a small student group (Grade 4) when they self-study with the e-courseware system (Case study) In addition, the thesis also use survey method on primary teachers and students majoring in primary education The purpose of the survey is to assist for testing and assessing the practicality and feasibility of e-courseware system (The survey is like a exploratory experiment) 3.1.3 Objects of experiment The experiment was conducted at primary schools in Dong Nai province (Trung Vuong Primary School, Duc Tri Primary School and Song May Primary School) 3.1.4 Assessment criteria and experimental scales 3.1.4.1 Assessment criteria (1) The level of receiving knowledge - skills of students; (2) The level of interaction between teacher - students - e-courseware in learning activities; (3) Active participation of students in learning activities; (4) Excitement and satisfaction of students in activities organized with the support of e-courseware 3.1.4.2 Assessment tools The testing, survey questionnaire, observation in class, interview 3.1.4.3 Data handling methods Quantitative and qualitative assessment 3.2 Experimental results 3.2.1 Results from surveying on primary teachers and students majoring in primary education 3.2.1.1 Comments on EcPit system (1) (1) The contents provided in EcPit system are rated to be appropriate to teaching for primary students and the contents are accurate, not wrong 100% of primary teachers and students majoring in primary education rated high on contents of the system (29% of them rated contents provided in EcPit system are very good and interesting) (2) 93.2% of primary teachers and students majoring in primary education rated types of data provided in EcPit system (image, audio, video, e-lectures, etc) are varied and useful (3) 80.9% of the respondents said that structuring and arranging contents in EcPit system is reasonable and scientific (4) 61.1% of the respondents said that the interface was designed accordingly Many primary teachers and students majoring in primary education said that the interface of EcPit system is very beautiful, suitable for a e-courseware to support teaching in primary school 20 (5) Most of primary teachers and students majoring in primary education (87.5%) said that operations to exploiting and using EcPit system is suitable with the ability and the current technological level of primary teachers and students (6) The permission to download data from the EcPit system to use for other teaching purposes is appreciated high, up to 40.7% of respondents strongly agree with this support (7) The EcPit system has met the performance expectancy factor 100% of primary teachers and students majoring in primary education said that designs of EcPit system met their desire for a e-courseware to support teaching in primary school They are very interested in exploiting contents of EcPit system, they are also eager to exploit and use it 3.2.1.2 Comments on the ability to support teaching of EcPit system Percentage (%) No 10 11 12 CONTENT It is possible to exploit and use contents of EcPit system for teaching directly in classroom The EcPit system can support both teaching (for teachers) and self-study (for students) The EcPit system can assist teachers in exploiting data for teaching designs or for reference purpose The EcPit system can assist in creating exciting learning situations that help students explore knowledge The EcPit system can help students work actively to discover knowledge The EcPit system allows students to approach and solve many practical situations that are associated with contents of lesson The EcPit system helps to train and improve selflearning ability for students The EcPit system enhances interaction between teacher and students; students with students; teacher, students with EcPit system The EcPit system gives students more excitement in their studies Contents provided in EcPit system meet the teaching needs of you Using EcPit system to support teaching in primary school is feasible Using the EcPit system will contribute to improving the quality of teaching Level Agree Level Level Disagree 68.5 22.8 8.6 74.7 19.1 6.2 83.3 7.4 9.3 77.2 22.8 0 67.9 15.4 16.7 90.7 9.3 0 79 8.6 12.3 75.9 21 3.1 85.8 11.1 3.1 69.1 30.9 0 72.8 19.1 60.5 34 5.6 (Level 1, level 2, level correspond to the ability of support, the ability of meet in each survey content or the level of consent are: high (good), medium, low (weak)) 3.2.2 Results from the first round experiment Experiment on lessons in Mathematics (Grade 4, 5) and Science (Grade 5) at Trung Vuong Primary School (Dong Nai) Quantitative and qualitative assessment results from the first round experiment showed that: - The learning outcomes of the experimental group (TN) is higher and more reliable than the control group (ĐC) - The e-courseware system affirms its superiority and effectiveness in supporting interactive teaching for primary students 21 3.2.3 Results from the second round experiment Experiment on lessons in Mathematics (Grade 4, 5) and Science (Grade 4, 5) at three schools participating in the experiment Some results from the second round experiment: Bảng 3.1 Statistical quantities on Math test scores (Grade 4, 5) of experimental group and control group after the second round experiment Class TN4 ĐC4 TN7 ĐC7 TN10 ĐC10 TN6 ĐC6 TN9 ĐC9 TN12 ĐC12 N 40 39 44 43 40 41 35 36 38 36 43 43 x 7.53 6.33 7.3 6.09 7.05 6.02 7.91 7.68 6.83 7.3 6.6 s2 2.05 2.28 1.98 2.51 2.1 2.82 2.02 1.89 2.28 2.2 1.84 2.01 s 1.43 1.51 1.41 1.58 1.45 1.68 1.42 1.37 1.51 1.48 1.36 1.42 Cv 18.99 23.85 19.32 25.94 20.57 27.91 17.95 19.57 19.66 21.67 18.63 21.52 t t F F 3.62 1.66 1.11 1.69 3.76 1.66 1.27 1.69 2.96 1.66 1.34 1.69 2.74 1.67 1.07 1.74 2.44 1.67 1.04 1.74 2.34 1.66 1.09 1.69 Bảng 3.2 Statistical quantities on Science test scores (Grade 4, 5) of experimental group and control group after the second round experiment Class TN5 ĐC5 TN8 ĐC8 TN11 ĐC11 TN6 ĐC6 TN9 ĐC9 TN12 ĐC12 N 40 39 44 43 40 41 35 36 38 36 43 43 x 8.13 7.18 7.83 7.9 6.97 7.94 6.72 7.66 6.61 7.35 6.51 s2 1.64 1.89 2.05 2.29 1.78 2.39 2.53 3.58 2.34 3.22 2.61 3.26 s 1.28 1.37 1.43 1.51 1.33 1.55 1.59 1.89 1.53 1.79 1.62 1.81 Cv 15.74 19.08 18.26 21.57 16.84 22.24 20.03 28.13 19.97 27.08 22.04 27.8 t t F F 3.16 1.66 1.15 1.69 2.58 1.66 1.12 1.69 2.86 1.66 1.34 1.69 2.94 1.67 1.42 1.74 2.7 1.67 1.38 1.74 2.27 1.66 1.25 1.69 Bảng 3.3 Assessments of teachers on classes of the second round experiment No Comparative content Compared to normal classes, in experimental classes: The positivity of students in class Ability to self-explore knowledge Active participation of students in solving learning tasks Interactivity between students with their classmates and teacher The vitality of classroom The effect of lesson Level (%) Very high 100 83.3 High Low 16.7 0 Very low 0 100 0 75 25 0 91.7 58.3 8.3 41.7 0 0 Quantitative and qualitative assessment results of the second round experiment confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of using e-courseware system to support interactive teaching for some subjects in primary school 22 3.2.4 Results from case study The case study was carried out on experimental students and control student, in which experimental students undertook a self-study task (Using ExPert system to review the knowledge of fractions) Results from case study are summarized in the table below: Bảng 3.4 Results from case study Student (HS) TN ĐC HS-01 HS-02 HS-03 HS-04 HS-05 Before experiment Level of Score awareness 7.5 2.5 7.5 After experiment Level of Score awareness 10 7.5 Results from case study show that the e-courseware system which supports interactive teaching in primary school contributes to enhancing self-study and making the learning activities of primary students more positive CONCLUSIONS OF CHAPTER In order to test and evaluate the practicality and feasibility of e-courseware system as well as to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of teaching when exploiting and using ecourseware to support interactive teaching in primary school, we conducted pedagogical experiment with contents: Survey on primary teachers and students majoring in primary education about e-courseware system; pedagogical experiment (2 rounds) on students of grades and 5; Tracking advancement of a group students (grade 4) when they self-study with e-courseware system Experimental results show that: - Designing e-courseware system to support interactive teaching in primary school meets the teaching needs of primary teachers, in particularly meeting performance expectancy of teachers on a technology application (factors that directly influence ecourseware intention and usage of teachers in interactive teaching) - Contents provided in e-courseware system designed by the thesis are perfectly suited to teaching for primary students, suited with learning objectives in primary school The structure of e-courseware system is science and logic, makes easy for primary teachers to explore and use - With current conditions in primary schools, it is possible to exploit e-courseware system to support interactive teaching for some subjects In addition, basically primary teachers and students have enough skills to exploit and use e-courseware system for interactive teaching in primary school - Teaching effectiveness is significantly enhanced when exploiting and using ecourseware to support interactive teaching in primary school In addition, the e-courseware system helps students become more excited and active in their studies, at the same time support effectively for self-discovery process on knowledge - The e-courseware system supports effectively for training and enhancing self-study of primary students Thus, results from pedagogical experiment have allowed to confirm the practicality, feasibility and teaching effectiveness of e-courseware system which use to support interactive teaching in primary school At the same time, experimental results also confirmed that exploiting supports of e-courseware system for interactive teaching in primary school is necessary and has theoretical meaning and practical meaning 23 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions 1.1 Applying interactive teaching in primary school should be based on the appropriateness with cognitive characteristics of primary students as well as specific characteristics of teaching-learning activities at this level 1.2 Using e-courseware in interactive teaching has many benefits for both teachers and students, because it not only helps to create an interactive environment but also promotes and coordinates teaching and learning activities, thereby helping primary students discover and gain knowledge, contributing to improving effectiveness of interactive teaching in primary school 1.3 The results from realistic studies show that teachers have a relatively well-defined perception about the nature of interactive teaching they are very supportive of using information technology in interactive teaching at primary schools Top five factors that primary teachers crave to accost in an e-courseware are: (1) Can assist teachers interact with students, students interact with other students in class, (2) Contain the variety of useful data, (3) Designed in accordance with the existing teaching contents, (4) Support both teaching and self-study, (5) Easy to get data from e-courseware 1.4 When building e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school, there are six basic principles that must be followed, including: (1) Ensuring suitability (with targets, contents, learners, users), (2) Ensuring assistance, (3) Ensuring efficiency, (4) Ensuring adaptability, (5) Ensuring reusability, (6) Ensuring maintenance and development Building e-courseware system can be proceed with stages: Analyze - Orientate - Design Refine 1.5 E-courseware support interactive teaching in primary school can be built into a unified system that can use for different subjects (called multi-subjects e-courseware system) This system contains single subject e-courseware systems Each single subject ecourseware system is structured by component systems: E-courseware support teaching for teachers, e-courseware support self-study for students and assistant e-courseware 1.6 Designing e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school should not be construed as designing a complete e-courseware system It must be understood that ecourseware system is composed by e-courseware system components, clusters of single ecoursewares, single e-coursewares Therefore, there will be many design levels, many different design layers which depend on design goals, design capabilities, design conditions of the specific designer In addition, when e-courseware to support interactive teaching in primary school, it is important to follow a logical and scientific process 1.7 E-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school (EcPit system) which is designed in accordance with structure and proposed process has confirmed practicality, feasibility and effectiveness of teaching through pedagogical experiment The e-courseware system is available at https://hoclieudientu.wordpress.com 1.8 E-courseware system support interactive teaching in primary school can be used to: (1) Teaching in class, (2) Supporting self-study for students (with support or no support from teacher or parents), (3) Exploiting media (to customize and use for other teaching purposes) As a means of teaching, e-courseware is generally used in three basic forms 24 (teacher presents lesson with support from e-courseware; student works and interacts with ecourseware directly under guidance and strict control from teacher; student works independently with e-courseware) It should be based on specific teaching conditions to choose the appropriate form (the goal is to maximize advantages of e-courseware in supporting for interactive teaching), should not emphasize absolutely any form Moreover, when choosing any form, it is important to pay attention to the decisive role of teacher in interactive teaching with e-courseware Recommendations 2.1 To primary schools Equipping modern means of teaching for classes Facilitating for teachers and students in accessing helpful e-coursewares which use to support interactive teaching; encouraging and supporting teachers to design suitable ecoursewares for teaching Facilitating for teachers in accessing modern technology and improving capacity to use information technology in teaching 2.2 To primary teachers Self-fostering and self-equipping theoretical basis about interactive teaching in primary school to apply in the teaching process, thereby contributing to improve teaching effectiveness Strengthening capacity to apply information technology in teaching and improving the computer skills in order to access and exploit e-coursewares easily Designing the suitable e-coursewares according to the process which proposed by the thesis to serve teaching, at the same time exchanging and sharing the self-designed ecoursewares with colleagues (contributing to the website http://violet.vn/hoclieudientu), contributing to create diffusion for other teachers, making them participate in the design with excitement Organizing interactive lessons with the support from e-courseware However, when organizing interactive teaching with the support from e-courseware, it is necessary to select the appropriate content and form, based on the specific teaching conditions of the class In addition, it is necessary to increase exchange and experience after each interactive lesson to be able to maximize the support from e-courseware system 2.3 To universities of education Universities of education should increase time for training skills involve organizing interactive teaching towards enhancing interaction between teacher - students - environment with the support of information technology in modules on teaching methodology, helping students have understanding and skills on interactive teaching in primary school after graduation Facilitating for students in accessing helpful e-coursewares which use to support interactive teaching At the same time, helping students have opportunity to design suitable e-coursewares which use for teaching in the future LIST OF PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF AUTHOR RELATED TO THE THESIS Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2014), A study of the educational software assisting students to review fraction (Grade 4) by programmed instruction method, Journal of Science – Ho Chi Minh city University of Education, No 59 (93), June 2014, p 97-108 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2014), Applying Lectora software in designing electrical document in teaching, Educational Equipment Magazine, No 112 – December 2014, p 40-42, 46 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2015), Using comer-based learning technique to teach the concept of fraction to primary students, Journal of Education, No 351 – February 2015, p 50-51, 62 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2015), Model of dialogue in teaching environments using electronic learning materials, Educational Equipment Magazine, Special Number – November 2015, p 10-12, 114 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2015), The role and forms of using e-courseware as a means of teaching, Journal of Education, No 372 – December 2015, p 20-22, 50 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2016), Needs of primary teachers about e-courseware supporting interactive teaching, Educational Equipment Magazine, No 129 – May 2016, p 3-5, 20 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2016), Proposing structure of e-courseware system supporting interactive teaching, Educational Equipment Magazine, No 133 – September 2016, p 1-4 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2016), Impact factors on using e-learning materials in teaching, Journal of Educational Science, No 134 – November 2016, p 55-58 Tran Duong Quoc Hoa (2017), Characteristics and principles of organizing interactive teaching in primary school, Educational Equipment Magazine, No 152 – September 2017 (Period 1), p 41 - 43, 47 ... application of information and communication technology has many advantages, many countries around the world are interested in research and implementation This is also an indispensable trend in... images (static or dynamic), video, diagrams, charts - Assist in creating and maintaining an interactive and communicative environment - Always providing feedback and guidance that is relevant to... mathematical statistics Theoretical points to defend 8.1 E-courseware is one of the means to help optimize organization of interactive activities and enhance the effectiveness and feasibility
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