English grammar for the utterly confused (utterly confused series)

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This book is designed to help all students master the basics of English grammar that they need to succeed in their studies. Best of all, when students understand the under-pinnings of our language, learning will be fun- as it should be. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners Want to learn more? We hope you enjoy this McGraw-Hill eBook! If you d like and websites, please click her e. DOI Page 6x9 11/12/02 10:11 AM Page 1 more information about this book, its author, or related books , English Grammar for the Utterly Confused 9682 Rozakis_fm_f.qxd 5/9/03 3:20 PM Page i This page intentionally left blank. English Grammar for the Utterly Confused Laurie Rozakis, Ph.D. McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto 9682 Rozakis_fm_f.qxd 5/9/03 3:20 PM Page iii Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-143097-0 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-139922-4 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occur- rence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS”. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WAR- RANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no cir- cumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, conse- quential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatso- ever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071430970 ebook_copyright 7x9.qxd 7/23/03 11:02 AM Page 1 To Robert from Farmingdale .always and forever. 9682 Rozakis_fm_f.qxd 5/9/03 3:20 PM Page v This page intentionally left blank. I would like to thank Barbara Gilson, the editorial director of Schaum. Barbara, you are a dear friend, and it is always a treat working with you. Thank you also to all the hard-working people at McGraw-Hill who take my manu- scripts and turn them into books. They are Andrew Littell, Maureen B. Walker, and Maureen Harper. You make me look so good! And grateful acknowledgement to the wonderful staff of the Farmingdale Public Library. From reference to circulation, youth services to technical processing, you always manage to get me the material I need. Your experience, expertise, and kindness are much appreciated. Finally, my thanks to my children, Charles and Samantha, and their friends. When “book writing” gets tough, I can always count on the kids for a much- needed break! vvv vii vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv Acknowledgments 9682 Rozakis_fm_f.qxd 5/9/03 3:20 PM Page vii This page intentionally left blank. [...]... meaning from the noun it stands for The noun is called the antecedent Although Seattle is damp, it is my favorite city antecedent pronoun There are different kinds of pronouns Most of them have antecedents, but a few do not ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR THE UTTERLY CONFUSED 10 Quick Tip The word antecedent comes from a Latin word meaning “to go before.” However, the noun does not have to appear before the pronoun... to describe how words are put together to create meaning The parts of speech are arranged in alphabetical order for easy reference In later chapters, you will learn how to correct errors caused by misusing these parts of speech v v v 3 Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR THE UTTERLY CONFUSED 4 Get Started English is a very flexible language... had an unbelievably huge appetite for chips adv adj 3 Use an adverb to describe another adverb They sang so clearly adv adv Quick Tip Conjunctive adverbs are used to connect other words and to link ideas and paragraphs accordingly again also besides consequently finally for example furthermore however indeed moreover on the other hand otherwise nevertheless then therefore Parts of Speech 7 Conjunctions... interjections are not linked grammatically to other words in the sentence, they are set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or an exclamation mark For example: G Oh! What a shock you gave me with that gorilla suit G Wow! That’s not a gorilla suit! ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR THE UTTERLY CONFUSED 8 Nouns A noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing Nouns come in these varieties: common nouns, proper... in which you need improvement Option 3 G Use the book as a study guide right before and after major tests Read and reread the chapters you need the most G Complete the exercises that directly match the types of tests you are taking now or plan to take in the immediate future v v v xvii This page intentionally left blank English Grammar for the Utterly Confused This page intentionally left blank PART... person who fixed the machine after Jasper washed his sneakers Singular Plural Singular or Plural another anyone each everyone everybody everything much nobody nothing other someone anybody anything either little neither no one one somebody something both few many others several all any more most none some ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR THE UTTERLY CONFUSED 12 7 Interrogative pronouns ask a question They are: what,... v v v v v v I have the world’s nicest students They are polite, earnest, and sweet They are fun to talk to and a delight to teach Unfortunately, many of them are ill-prepared for college They are not ready for the onslaught of work and do not know how to write Many have not been taught grammar, usage, or mechanics After interviewing students across the country—including many at the nation’s top schools—I... transitive, ask yourself “Who?” or “What?” after the verb If you can find an answer in the sentence, the verb is transitive Linking Verbs Linking verbs join the subject and the predicate They do not show action Instead, they help the words at the end of the sentence name or describe the subject As you read earlier in this Parts of Speech 13 chapter, the most common linking verbs include: be, feel,... book: Option 1 G Read through the book from the beginning to the end as you would any book G Complete all the exercises at the end of each chapter to assess your progress This gives you even more practice with grammar Option 2 G Pick and choose the chapters you wish to read, or read them in any order you like G Skim the exercises to find the ones that help you learn more about the areas in which you need... are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs Adverbs answer the questions: When? Where? How? or To what extent? When? left yesterday begin now Where? fell below move up How? happily sang danced badly To what extent? partly finished eat completely ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR THE UTTERLY CONFUSED 6 Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective For example: Adjective Quick Careful Accurate . 11/12/02 10:11 AM Page 1 more information about this book, its author, or related books , English Grammar for the Utterly Confused 9682 Rozakis_fm_f.qxd. 5/9/03 3:20 PM Page i This page intentionally left blank. English Grammar for the Utterly Confused Laurie Rozakis, Ph.D. McGraw-Hill New York Chicago
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